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  • 1.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Meier, H.E. Markus
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Eilola, Kari
    Legrand, Catherine
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Suppl 3, p. S345-S356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effectson the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2–4 Cwarming and 50–80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100.Precipitation may increase *30 % in the north, causingincreased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter(AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity.Coupled physical–biogeochemical models indicate that, inthe south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing codrecruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release,thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north,heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, whilephytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophiclevels in the food web may increase energy losses andconsequently reduce fish production. Future managementof the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climatechange on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as wellas the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load.Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassingboth autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g.,bacterial) processes.

  • 2.
    Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Agosta, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hansson, Katarina
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Newton, Seth
    Nygren, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Atmospheric pathways of chlorinated pesticides and natural bromoanisoles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. Suppl 3, no 44, p. 472-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-range atmospheric transport is a major pathway for delivering persistent organic pollutants to the oceans. Atmospheric deposition and volatilization of chlorinated pesticides and algae-produced bromoanisoles (BAs) were estimated for Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea, based on air and water concentrations measured in 2011-2012. Pesticide fluxes were estimated using monthly air and water temperatures and assuming 4 months ice cover when no exchange occurs. Fluxes were predicted to increase by about 50 % under a 2069-2099 prediction scenario of higher temperatures and no ice. Total atmospheric loadings to Bothnian Bay and its catchment were derived from air-sea gas exchange and "bulk'' (precipitation ? dry particle) deposition, resulting in net gains of 53 and 46 kg year(-1) for endosulfans and hexachlorocyclohexanes, respectively, and net loss of 10 kg year(-1) for chlordanes. Volatilization of BAs releases bromine to the atmosphere and may limit their residence time in Bothnian Bay. This initial study provides baseline information for future investigations of climate change on biogeochemical cycles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment.

  • 3.
    Bidleman, Terry F.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Agosta, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Liljelind, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hegmans, Alyse
    Jantunen, Liisa M.
    Nygren, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Poole, Justen
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sea-air exchange of bromoanisoles and methoxylated bromodiphenylethers in the Northern Baltic2016In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 112, no 1-2, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halogenated natural products in biota of the Baltic Sea include bromoanisoles (BAs) and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs). We identified biogenic 6-MeO-BDE47 and 2'-MeO-BDE68 in Baltic water and air for the first time using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. Partial pressures in air were related to temperature by: log p/Pa=m/T(K)+b. We determined Henry's law constants (HLCs) of 2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DiBA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TriBA) from 5 to 30°C and revised our assessment of gas exchange in the northern Baltic. The new water/air fugacity ratios (FRs) were lower, but still indicated net volatilization in May-June for 2,4-DiBA and May - September for 2,4,6-TriBA. The net flux (negative) of BAs from Bothnian Bay (38,000km2) between May - September was revised from -1319 to -532kg. FRs of MeO-BDEs were >1, suggesting volatilization, although this is tentative due to uncertainties in their HLCs and binding to dissolved organic carbon.

  • 4.
    Bidleman, Terry F.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Agosta, Kathleen
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Nygren, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Air-water exchange of brominated anisoles in the northern baltic sea2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 11, p. 6124-6132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bromophenols produced by marine algae undergo O-methylation to form bromoanisoles (BAs), which are exchanged between water and air. BAs were determined in surface water of the northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Bothnia, consisting of Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea) during 2011-2013 and on a transect of the entire Baltic in September 2013. The abundance decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TBA) > 2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DBA) ≫ 2,6-dibromoanisole (2,6-DBA). Concentrations of 2,4-DBA and 2,4,6-TBA in September were higher in the southern than in the northern Baltic and correlated well with the higher salinity in the south. This suggests south-to-north advection and dilution with fresh riverine water enroute, and/or lower production in the north. The abundance in air over the northern Baltic also decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-TBA > 2,4-DBA. However, 2,6-DBA was estimated as a lower limit due to breakthrough from polyurethane foam traps used for sampling. Water/air fugacity ratios ranged from 3.4 to 7.6 for 2,4-DBA and from 18 to 94 for 2,4,6-TBA, indicating net volatilization. Flux estimates using the two-film model suggested that volatilization removes 980-1360 kg of total BAs from Bothnian Bay (38000 km(2)) between May and September. The release of bromine from outgassing of BAs could be up to 4-6% of bromine fluxes from previously reported volatilization of bromomethanes and bromochloromethanes.

  • 5. Björlenius, Berndt
    et al.
    Ripszám, Mátyás
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Pharmaceutical residues are widespread in Baltic Sea coastal and offshore waters: Screening for pharmaceuticals and modelling of environmental concentrations of carbamazepine2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 633, p. 1496-1509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of pharmaceuticals worldwide coupled with modest removal efficiencies of sewage treatment plants have resulted in the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems globally. In this study, we investigated the environmental concentrations of a selection of 93 pharmaceuticals in 43 locations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. The Baltic Sea is vulnerable to anthropogenic activities due to a long turnover time and a sensitive ecosystem in the brackish water. Thirty-nine of 93 pharmaceuticals were detected in at least one sample, with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 80 ng/L. One of the pharmaceuticals investigated, the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine, was widespread in coastal and offshore seawaters (present in 37 of 43 samples). In order to predict concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, a mass balance-based grey box model was set up and the persistent, widely used carbamazepine was selected as the model substance. The model was based on hydrological and meteorological sub-basin characteristics, removal data from smaller watersheds and wastewater treatment plants, and statistics relating to population, consumption and excretion rate of carbamazepine in humans. The grey box model predicted average environmental concentrations of carbamazepine in sub-basins with no significant difference from the measured concentrations, amounting to 0.57–3.2 ng/L depending on sub-basin location. In the Baltic Sea, the removal rate of carbamazepine in seawater was estimated to be 6.2 10−9 s−1 based on a calculated half-life time of 3.5 years at 10 °C, which demonstrates the long response time of the environment to measures phasing out persistent or slowly degradable substances such as carbamazepine. Sampling, analysis and grey box modelling were all valuable in describing the presence and removal of carbamazepine in the Baltic Sea.

  • 6.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bioavailability of organic contaminants in a changing climate2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of predicted future climate change was investigated with special emphasis on the association of organic contaminants with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Baltic Sea.

    An automated method was developed for the measurements of DOC - water distribution constants at realistic DOC concentrations in brackish water. The method proved to be valid for 30 organic contaminants with different structural elements in the 5 – 100 mg car bon/L DOC concentration range. There were limitations of this method. Firstly, its applicability is limited towards contaminants with lower affinity to DOC. Secondly, at higher (>100 mg carbon/L) DOC concentrations the sorption of contaminants was underest imated.

    Afterwards, water samples were collected from 15 points within the Baltic Sea in a north - south gradient t o examine the spatial differences in DOC characteristics and sorption properties . The DOC samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Results from both techniques indicated that the aromatic nature of the DOC pool increased towards the northern Baltic Sea. This was expected as the freshwater inflow has high significance in controlling the hydrograp hic conditions in the Bothnian Bay. Sorption of organic contaminants was subsequently measured in the same samples. The results showed decreased sorption from north to south for hydrophobic contaminants such as chlorinated benzenes but for contaminants lik e tributyl - phosphate no spatial tendencies were observed. The data generated was used to determine molecular descriptors of DOC using linear free energy relationships. The results indicated a higher significance of hy drogen bond donor/acceptor functional g roups of the DOC in the south.

    Changes in contaminant distribution were simulated in model pelagic ecosystems at possible endpoints predicted by future climate change scenarios. Separate and combined effects of temperature a nd DOC were studied in mesocosms. The results indicated interesting tendencies. Increased temperature resulted in increased losses in the amounts of organic contaminants. Increased DOC levels promoted sedimentation and sorption of contaminants to particulate matter and biota. Hi gher amounts of contaminants were retained. The combined effects of the two factors led to and overall decrease in dissolved amounts. Higher losses or increased sedimentation and sorption to particles were also observed depending on contaminant properties.

  • 7.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gallampois, CMJ
    Berglund, Å
    Larsson, H
    Andersson, A
    Haglund, P
    Effects of predicted climatic changes on fates of organic contaminants in brackish water mesocosmsIn: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Automated method for determination of dissolved organic carbon–water distribution constants of structurally diverse pollutants using pre-equilibrium solid-phase microextraction2015In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 266-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays a key role in determining the environmental fate of semivolatile organic environmental contaminants. The goal of the present study was to develop a method using commercially available hardware to rapidly characterize the sorption properties of DOC in water samples. The resulting method uses negligible-depletion direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Its performance was evaluated using Nordic reference fulvic acid and 40 priority environmental contaminants that cover a wide range of physicochemical properties. Two SPME fibers had to be used to cope with the span of properties, 1 coated with polydimethylsiloxane and 1 coated with polystyrene divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane, for nonpolar and semipolar contaminants, respectively. The measured DOC–water distribution constants showed reasonably good reproducibility (standard deviation ≤ 0.32) and good correlation (R2 = 0.80) with log octanol–water partition coefficients for nonpolar persistent organic pollutants. The sample pretreatment is limited to filtration, and the method is easy to adjust to different DOC concentrations. These experiments also utilized the latest SPME automation that largely decreases total cycle time (to 20 min or shorter) and increases sample throughput, which is advantageous in cases when many samples of DOC must be characterized or when the determinations must be performed quickly, for example, to avoid precipitation, aggregation, and other changes of DOC structure and properties. The data generated by this method are valuable as a basis for transport and fate modeling studies.

  • 9.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Figueira, João
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Veenaas, Cathrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Dissolved organic carbon quality and sorption of organic pollutants in the Baltic Sea in light of future climate change2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 1445-1452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional climate change scenarios predict increased temperature and precipitation in the northern Baltic Sea, leading to a greater runoff of fresh water and terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within the second part of the 21st century. As a result, the current north to south gradient in temperature and salinity is likely to be shifted further toward the south. To examine if such climate change effects would cause alterations in the environmental fate of organic pollutants, spatial variations of DOC quality and sorption behavior toward organic contaminants were examined using multiple analytical methods. The results showed declining contents of aromatic functional groups in DOC along a north to south gradient. Similarly, the sorption of a diverse set of organic contaminants to DOC also showed spatial differences. The sorption behavior of these contaminants was modeled using poly parameter linear energy relationships. The resulting molecular descriptors indicated clear differences in the sorption properties of DOC sampled in northern and southern parts of the Baltic Sea, which imply that more organic contaminants are sorbed to DOC in the northern part. The extent of this sorption process determines whether individual contaminants will partition to biota via direct uptake or through sorption to DOC, which serves as food source for bacteria-based food-webs.

  • 10.
    Ripszám, Mátyás
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gallampois, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Berglund, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Effects of predicted climatic changes on distribution of organic contaminants in brackish water mesocosms2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 517, no 1 June 2015, p. 10-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicted consequences of future climate change in the northern Baltic Sea include increases in sea surface temperatures and terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) runoff. These changes are expected to alter environmental distribution of anthropogenic organic contaminants (OCs). To assess likely shifts in their distributions, outdoor mesocosms were employed to mimic pelagic ecosystems at two temperatures and two DOC concentrations, current: 15 degrees C and 4 mg DOC L-1 and, within ranges of predicted increases, 18 degrees C and 6 mg DOC L-1, respectively. Selected organic contaminants were added to the mesocosms to monitor changes in their distribution induced by the treatments. OC partitioning to particulate matter and sedimentation were enhanced at the higher DOC concentration, at both temperatures, while higher losses and lower partitioning of OCs to DOC were observed at the higher temperature. No combined effects of higher temperature and DOC on partitioning were observed, possibly because of the balancing nature of these processes. Therefore, changes in OCs' fates may largely depend on whether they are most sensitive to temperature or DOC concentration rises. Bromoanilines, phenanthrene, biphenyl and naphthalene were sensitive to the rise in DOC concentration, whereas organophosphates, chlorobenzenes (PCBz) and polychlorinated biphenyls (POs) were more sensitive to temperature. Mitotane and diflufenican were sensitive to both temperature and DOC concentration rises individually, but not in combination. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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