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  • 1.
    Lundman, Berit
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Norberg, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Åland University of Applied Science, Finland.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Self-Transcendence Scale among very old people2015In: Journal of Nursing Measurement, ISSN 1061-3749, E-ISSN 1945-7049, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 96-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study tested the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Self-Transcendence Scale (STS).

    METHODS: Cohen's weighted kappa, agreement, absolute reliability, relative reliability, and internal consistency were calculated, and the underlying structure of the STS was established by exploratory factor analysis. There were 2 samples available: 1 including 194 people aged 85-103 years and a convenience sample of 60 people aged 21-69 years.

    RESULTS: Weighted kappa values ranged from .40 to .89. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the original STS was .763, and the least significant change between repeated tests was 6.25 points.

    CONCLUSION: The revised STS was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties, and 2 of the 4 underlying dimensions in Reed's self-transcendence theory were supported.

  • 2.
    Norberg, Astrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Palliative Research Centre, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Norberg, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Department of Nursing Education, Åland University of Applied Science, Mariehamn, Åland, Finland.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Self-transcendence (ST) among very old people: its associations to social and medical factors and development over five years2015In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 247-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to describe the associations between ST and psychological and physical wellbeing among oldest old people and to test the influence of negative life events on ST, and the predictive value of the self-transcendence scale (STS) for mortality.

    BACKGROUND: ST has been identified as a valuable resource for transcending psychological and physical suffering and has been related to psychological wellbeing and higher quality of life.

    DESIGN: The study design was correlational, prospective, and longitudinal.

    SETTINGS: The participants were recruited from a medium-sized town and from an adjacent rural area in northern Sweden.

    METHOD: The sample consisted of 190 participants (123 women and 67 men) who completed the STS. At a 5-year follow-up, 55 people (29.5%) were alive and able to complete the assessments again.

    RESULTS: ST was positively associated with psychological wellbeing, self-rated health, having someone to talk with and being able to go outdoors independently. Diagnoses of depression, dementia disease, and osteoporosis were associated with lower STS scores as were living in a residential care facility, and feeling lonely. There was a significant relationship between the index of negative life events and ST between baseline and follow-up. More negative life events were associated with a larger decline in STS scores over five years.

    CONCLUSION: ST is an important source for wellbeing among the oldest old, and the accumulation of negative life events might threaten the ability to transcend setbacks.

  • 3.
    Norberg, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Understanding spirituality and religiosity among very old people: measurements and experiences2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Spirituality is a multifaceted concept. In this thesis, spirituality is understood as an overarching term and a core of a person´s being. Religiosity is seen as one of many expressions of spirituality. Very old people are a vulnerable population, with an increased risk to be exposed to negative life events. Spirituality is suggested to have an impact on the possibility to adapt to life circumstances and manage age-related challenges.

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to assess psychometric properties of instruments and to gain understanding about associations and experiences in relation to spirituality and religiosity among very old people.

    Method: The thesis has been conducted in the population based Umeå 85+/GERDA study. Half of those aged 85, all 90 year old, and all aged 95 and older in Umeå, Västerbotten, northern Sweden and in Ostrobothnia in Western Finland were invited to participate (cf. Näsman et al, 2017). Questionnaires used to measure religiosity versus spirituality were the Religious Orientations Scale (SROS) and the Self-Transcendence Scale (STS). None of these has previously been validated among very old people in a Swedish context. Factors associated and correlating with STS score are presented. How very old people express and perceive spirituality is also studied. 

    Result: The participants in study I scored high on both subscales, indicating that they were religious in both an intrinsic and extrinsic manner. The SROS ability to distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic items was tested. The cluster analysis revealed three clusters interpreted as intrinsic, extrinsic-personal, and extrinsic-social religious orientation, with no cross-loadings. The revised version of STS, (study II) with 10 items, had satisfactory psycho­metric properties (α .83). A factor analysis resulted in a two-factor solution (α .78 & .73). Test-retest reliability and concurrent criterion validity were supported. In study III STS showed a positive association with psychological well-being, self-rated health, having someone to talk with, and being able to go outdoors indepen­dently. A negative association was found between STS and diagnosis of depression, dementia disease, osteoporosis, living in a geriatric care institution, and feeling lonely. An accumulation of negative life events was associated with a larger decline of STS score over five years. Findings in study IV showed that spirituality was perceived as a connectedness to God, and other people. Telling about spiritual experiences was described as un­common in conversation due to the private nature of the subject area and because of a fear of being considered as dubious. The findings also showed that experiences of spirituality were connected to a view of life where participants were transcending life’s circumstances, and experiencing mysteries.

    Conclusion: The results propose that the Swedish version of SROS and STS, aimed to measure religious orientation versus self-transcendence have satisfactory psychometric properties and are feasible to use among very old people. Furthermore, self-transcendence was positively and significantly, associated and correlated, to a number of factors known to enhance well-being. Spirituality was understood as including religiosity, a belief in God, connectedness to other people and conviction about a spiritual reality. The very old expressed a desire to share personal beliefs and experiences of spirituality, but they found it difficult due to a fear of not being taken serious. Hence spiritual needs can be unnoticed within the health care context, health care professionals need knowledge in order to recognize expressions of spirituality, and skills to support patients in a need of spiritual care. 

     

  • 4.
    Norberg, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Eriksson, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Ersta Sköndal University College , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Åland University of Applied Sciences , Åland , Finland.
    Intrinsic and Extrinsic Religious Orientation Among the Very Old2012In: Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, ISSN 1552-8030, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 314-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to test a shortened version of the Swedish Religious Orientation Scale's (SROS) appropriateness, feasibility, and ability to distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation among very old people. The participants (n = 43) were Lutheran believers aged ≥85 years. They scored high on both the intrinsic and extrinsic sub-scales and a cluster analysis revealed three clusters of items, one measuring intrinsic religious orientation and two measuring extrinsic religious orientation. The shortened version of the SROS appears appropriate for distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation among very old people.

  • 5.
    Norberg, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Something wonderful and incomprehensible: Expressions and experiences of spirituality among very old people2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to illuminate very old people’s experiences and expressions of spirituality and is a part of the Umeå 85+/Gerontological Regional Database (GERDA). The participants (n = 12) had declared an interest in spirituality, were 86–99 years of age, and were interviewed in their own homes. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed that spirituality was experienced as being in communion, transcending life’s circumstances, and living in a spiritual reality. Spirituality was expressed as an inner sense of communion with God and with other people, and as a spiritual reality. The participants expressed a desire to talk about spiritual experiences and personal beliefs but regarded spirituality as an uncommon topic. Nurses and other professionals need to be aware of spiritual needs and prepared to give spiritual care.

  • 6.
    Norberg, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Spirituality as it is perceived and expressed by the very old peopleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 6 of 6
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