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  • 1.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. The OLIN studies, Luleå, Sweden..
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. The OLIN studies, Luleå, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hagenbjörk, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. The OLIN studies, Luleå, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. The OLIN studies, Luleå, Sweden.
    Early life swimming pool exposure and asthma onset in children: a case-control study2018In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 17, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Trichloramine exposure in indoor swimming pools has been suggested to cause asthma in children. We aimed to investigate the risk of asthma onset among children in relation to individual trichloramine exposure.

    METHODS: A longitudinal nested case-control study of 337 children with asthma (cases) and 633 controls aged 16-17 years was performed within a population-based cohort from The Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies (OLIN). Year of asthma onset and exposure time at different ages were obtained in telephone interviews. Trichloramine concentrations in the pool buildings were measured. Skin prick test results for inhalant allergens were available from previous examinations of the cohort. The risk for asthma was analyzed in relation to the cumulative trichloramine exposure before onset of asthma.

    RESULTS: Swimming pool exposure in early life was associated with a significantly higher risk of pre-school asthma onset. A dose-response relationship between swimming pool exposure and asthma was indicated in children with asthma onset at 1 year of age. Children who were both sensitized and exposed had a particularly high risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: Early life exposure to chlorinated swimming pool environments was associated with pre-school asthma onset.

  • 2. Cyrys, Josef
    et al.
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Ampe, Christophe
    Armengaud, Alexandre
    Beelen, Rob
    Bellander, Tom
    Beregszaszi, Timea
    Birk, Matthias
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Cirach, Marta
    de Hoogh, Kees
    De Nazelle, Audrey
    de Vocht, Frank
    Declercq, Christophe
    Dėdelė, Audrius
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Eriksen, Kirsten
    Galassi, Claudia
    Gra˛ulevičienėo, Regina
    Grivas, Georgios
    Gruzieva, Olena
    Hagenbjörk Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Iakovides, Minas
    Ineichen, Alex
    Krämer, Ursula
    Lanki, Timo
    Lozano, Patricia
    Madsena, Christian
    Meliefste, Kees
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Mölter, Anna
    Mosler, Gioia
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Nonnemachera, Michael
    Oldenwening, Marieke
    Peters, Annette
    Ponteta, Sabrina
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Quassa, Ulrich
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Ranzia, Andrea
    Sugiri, Dorothee
    Stephanou, Euripides G.
    Taimisto, Pekka
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Vaskövi, Éva
    Villania, Simona
    Wang, Meng
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas: Results from the ESCAPE study2012In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 62, p. 374-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe.

    In all study areas NO2 and NOx were measured using standardized methods between October 2008 and April 2011. On average, 41 sites were selected per study area, including regional and urban background as well as street sites. The measurements were conducted in three different seasons, using Ogawa badges. Average concentrations for each site were calculated after adjustment for temporal variation using data obtained from a routine monitor background site.

    Substantial spatial variability was found in NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within study areas; 40% of the overall NO2 variance was attributable to the variability between study areas and 60% to variability within study areas. The corresponding values for NOx were 30% and 70%. The within-area spatial variability was mostly determined by differences between street and urban background concentrations. The street/urban background concentration ratio for NO2 varied between 1.09 and 3.16 across areas. The highest median concentrations were observed in Southern Europe, the lowest in Northern Europe.

    In conclusion, we found significant contrasts in annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations between and especially within 36 study areas across Europe. Epidemiological long-term studies should therefore consider different approaches for better characterization of the intra-urban contrasts, either by increasing of the number of monitors or by modelling.

  • 3.
    Hagenbjörk, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Kvävedioxid- och kväveoxidhalter i Umeå: sammanställning av mätningar gjorda med diffusionsprovtagare mellan november 2009 och december 20162017Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Hagenbjörk, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Kvävedioxid- och kväveoxidhalter i Umeå: Sammanställning av mätningar gjorda med diffusionsprovtagare mellan november 2009 och december 20182019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mätning av kvävedioxid (NO2) och kväveoxider (NOx) har utförts med diffusionsprovtagare vid två tillfällen (sommartid respektive vintertid) på 41 platser i Umeå tätort under 2018. Två veckomätningar har gjorts varje år på dessa platser sedan 2009 och totalt nitton mätningar har utförts på samma sätt över åren. Mätplatsernas geografiska läge kan ha varierat något över tid, provtagare har ibland plockats ned av förbipasserande varför alla mätplatser inte har maximalt antal mätningar. Det finns 25 mätplatser där mätningar har gjorts vid alla sjutton tillfällen.De högsta halterna har uppmätts på trafikerade platser under vinterhalvåret p.g.a. större utsläpp och stillastående luft, s.k. inversion. Vid mätningarna 2018 uppmättes de högsta halterna NO2 både sommartid och vintertid vid en husfasad belägen på Västra Esplanaden, centralt i Umeå (22 μg/m3 respektive 54 μg/m3). NOx-halten sommartid var högst vid samma mätpunkt på Västra Esplanaden (54 μg/m3) medan halten vid vintermätningen var högst vid mätvagnen vid Västra Esplanaden (158 μg/m3).

  • 5.
    Hagenbjörk, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Kväveoxid-och kvävedioxidhalter i Umeå: sammanställning av mätningar gjorda med diffusionsprovtagare mellan november 2009 och december 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mätning av kvävedioxid (NO2) och kväveoxider (NOx) har utförts med diffusionsprovtagare vid två tillfällen (sommartid respektive vintertid) på 41 platser i Umeå tätort under 2017. Två veckomätningar har gjorts varje år på dessa platser sedan 2009 och totalt sjutton mätningar har utförts på samma sätt över åren. Mätplatsernas geografiska läge kan ha varierat något över tid, provtagare har ibland plockats ned av förbipasserande varför alla mätplatser inte har maximalt antal mätningar. Det finns 25 mätplatser där mätningar har gjorts vid alla sjutton tillfällen.

    De högsta halterna har uppmätts på trafikerade platser under vinterhalvåret p.g.a. större utsläpp och stillastående luft, s.k. inversion. Vid mätningarna 2017 uppmättes de högsta halterna NO2 både sommartid och vintertid vid en husfasad belägen på Västra Esplanaden, centralt i Umeå (21 μg/m3 respektive 51 μg/m3). NOx-halten vintertid var högst vid samma mätpunkt på Västra Esplanaden (134 μg/m3) medan halten vid sommarmätningen var högst vid Östra Kyrkogatan, mittemot simhallen Navet (56 μg/m3).

  • 6.
    Hagenbjörk, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Malmqvist, E
    Mattisson, K
    Sommar, Nilsson J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    The spatial variation of O3, NO, NO2 and NOx and the relation between them in two Swedish cities2017In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 189, no 4, article id 161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ozone and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are air pollutants with known associations to adverse health effects on humans. Few studies have simultaneously measured ozone and nitrogen oxides with high spatial resolution. The main aim of this paper was to assess the levels and variation of ground-level ozone, NO2 and NO x in two Swedish cities. An additional aim was to describe the levels of these pollutants within and between three different types of measurement sites (regional background, urban background and traffic sites) and within and between different measurement periods of the year. Three weekly sampling campaigns of NO x and ozone were conducted simultaneously at 20 sites in two Swedish regions using Ogawa badges. Ozone was measured at 20 additional sites in each area. The median ozone concentration for all measurements was statistically significantly higher in Malmö (67 μg/m(3)) compared to Umeå (56 μg/m(3)), and in both cities, ozone levels were highest in April. Measurement period was a more important factor for describing the variation in ozone concentrations than the type of measurement site. The levels of NO2 and NO x were statistically significantly higher in the Malmö area (8.1 and 12 μg/m(3)) compared to the Umeå area (4.5 and 8.9 μg/m(3)). The levels were generally highest at the sites categorized as traffic, while the variability between different seasons was sparse.

  • 7.
    Hagenbjörk Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Jämförande mätning av ozon utomhus med Ogawa diffusionsprovtagare och referensmetoden UV-fotometri2012Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hagenbjörk Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Utvärdering av Ogawa diffusionsprovtagare för mätning av NO2 och NOx i inomhusmiljö, samt jämförelse mellan två diffusionsprovtagare för mätning av NO22012Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Validation of diffusive samplers for nitrogen oxides and applications in various environments2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to validate diffusive samplers for measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The Willems badge was validated for NO2 measurements both in laboratory tests and in field tests (Paper I-II). The sampling rate was 40.0 mL/min for ambient air concentrations and 46.0 mL/min for higher concentrations. No effects of different factors on sampling rate were found except for a reduced sampling rate at low wind velocity. The results of the laboratory validation were confirmed in field tests in ambient air and with personal sampling. The correlation between diffusive samplers and the reference monitor was good for ambient measurements. In conclusion, the Willems badge performs well at wind velocities down to 0.3 m/s, and this makes it suitable for personal sampling but less suitable for measurements in indoor air where the wind velocity is lower. Paper III reports about the field validation of the Ogawa diffusive samplers. Absolute humidity and temperature were found to have the strongest effect on sampling rate with lower uptake rates at low absolute humidity or temperature. The sampling rates above 0 °C were 8.6 mL/min for NO2 and 9.9 mL/min for NOx. NO2 and NOx concentrations that were determined using the manufacturer’s protocol were either underestimated or overestimated. The agreement between concentrations measured by the Ogawa sampler and the reference monitor was improved when field-determined sampling rates were used to calculate concentrations. Paper IV is based on a study with the aim of assessing the exposure of the Swedish general population to NO2 and some carcinogenic substances. The surveys were performed in one of five Swedish cities every year. In each survey, personal measurements of NO2 and some carcinogenic substances were conducted on 40 randomly selected individuals. In the study presented in this thesis, the NO2 part of the study is in focus and results were available for eight surveys conducted across the five cities. The estimated arithmetic mean concentration for the general Swedish population was 14.1 μg/m3. The exposure level for NO2 was higher for smokers compared with non-smokers, and the NO2 exposure levels were higher for people who had gas stoves at home or who were exposed at their workplace. The exposure was lower for those who had oil heating in their houses.

  • 10.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lindahl, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Karlsson, Doris
    Validation of a diffusive sampler for NO21999In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 1, p. 349-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diffusive sampler for NO2, Willems badge, was validated in laboratory experiments and field tests. The collecting reagent for NO2 in the sampler is triethanolamine, and the analysis is based on a modified colorimetric method, the

    Saltzman method. The analysis was performed by a flow injection analysis (FIA) technique. The sampling rate for the sampler was determined to be 40.0 ml min−1. There was no effect of NO2 concentration or relative humidity on sampling rate, and the influence of sampling time was found to be small. The detection limit was 4 mg m−3 for a 24 h

    sample. The capacity is high enough to allow sampling of 150 mg m−3 for 7 days, which is twice the recommended Swedish short-term (24 h) guideline value as a 98-percentile over 6 months. In field tests, the sampler performedwell, even at wind speeds higher than 2 m s−1, and at low temperatures. The overall uncertainty of the method was 24%. The sensitivity and capacity of the method also make it suitable for personal sampling for 2–8 h in working environments.

  • 11.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. National Institute for Working Life, Programme for Chemical Exposure Assessment, Umeå.
    Lindahl, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. National Institute for Working Life, Programme for Chemical Exposure Assessment, Umeå.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. National Institute for Working Life, Programme for Chemical Exposure Assessment, Umeå.
    Karlsson, Doris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Validation of the Willems badge diffusive sampler for nitrogen dioxide determinations in occupational environments2002In: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 127, no 1, p. 163-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Willems badge, a diffusive sampler for nitrogen dioxide, has previously been validated for ambient air measurements. This paper describes the laboratory and field validation of the Willems badge for personal sampling under working environment conditions. The mean sampling rate in the laboratory tests was 46 ml min(-1), with an RSD of 12%. No statistically significant effects on sampling rate of the sampling time, concentration of NO2 or relative humidity were found. A slightly decreased sampling rate was observed at low wind velocity. This was also confirmed during static sampling, which makes the sampler less appropriate for static sampling indoors. No back diffusion was observed. Storage of the samplers for two weeks before or after exposure did not affect the sampling rate. Our analysis is based on a modified colorimetric method, performed by FIA (flow injection analysis). This technique was compared to ion chromatography analysis. The use of ion chromatography lowered the detection limit from 11 to 2 microg m(-3) for an 8 h sample, and furthermore enabled the detection of other anions. In conclusion, the diffusive sampler was found to perform well for personal measurements in industrial environments.

  • 12.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Andersson, Eva M
    Johannesson, Sandra
    Bellander, Tom
    Merritt, Anne-Sophie
    Tinnerberg, Håkan
    Westberg, Håkan
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sallsten, Gerd
    Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities2014In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 437-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental levels of airborne carcinogenic and related substances are comparatively better known than individual exposure and its determinants. We report on a personal monitoring program involving five Swedish urban populations. The aim of the program was to investigate personal exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The measurements were performed among 40 inhabitants during seven consecutive days, in one urban area each year, during 2000-2008. The estimated population exposure levels were 1.95 μg/m(3) for benzene, 0.56 μg/m(3) for 1,3-butadiene, 19.4 μg/m(3) for formaldehyde, and 14.1 μg/m(3) for NO2. Statistical analysis using a mixed-effects model revealed that time spent in traffic and time outdoors contributed to benzene and 1,3- butadiene exposure. For benzene, refueling a car was an additional determinant influencing the exposure level. Smoking or environmental tobacco smoke were significant determinants of exposure to NO2, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. Those with a gas stove had higher NO2 exposure. Living in a single-family house increased the exposure to formaldehyde significantly. In a variance component model, the between-subject variance dominated for 1,3-butadiene and formaldehyde, whereas the between-city variance dominated for NO2. For benzene, the between-subject and between-cities variances were similar.

  • 13.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Field validation of the Ogawa diffusive sampler for NO(2) and NO(x) in a cold climate2010In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1315-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A small-scale field trial in Umeå, Sweden with Ogawa samplers and a chemiluminescence instrument indicated that the NO(2) concentration was underestimated with respect to the reference monitor, if calculated according to the manufacturer's Ogawa sampling protocol. By co-locating Ogawa samplers and reference monitors at six sites in two Swedish cities, uptake rates were determined for NO(2) and NO(x) better applicable to the Swedish conditions and climate. The concentrations of NO(2) and NO(x) calculated according to the instruction manual of the sampler and using the field-determined uptake rates were compared with values derived from chemiluminescence monitors for each week over which samples were taken. When calculated according to the manufacturer's suggested protocol, the Ogawa sampler underestimated the NO(2) concentrations by 9.1% on average for all samples (N = 53), with respect to the reference monitor. In contrast, NO(x) concentrations were overestimated by a mean value of 15% for all samples (N = 45). By using the field determined uptake rates for the calculation of NO(2) and NO(x) a better estimation of the concentrations was obtained. The ratio between concentrations determined with the Ogawa samplers and chemiluminescence monitors was then 1.02 for all measurements of NO(2) and 1.00 for NO(x). Precision, expressed as the mean coefficient of variation, was 6.4% for six, 6-replicate measurements of NO(2) and 3.7% for five, 6-replicate measurements of NO(x).

  • 14.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustavsson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Kväeveoxid- och kvävedioxidhalter i Umeå: Sammanställning av mätningar gjorda med diffusionsprovtagare mellan november 2009 och december 20192020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Två veckomätningar (sommartid respektive vintertid) av kvävedioxid (NO2) och kväveoxider (NOx) har under 2019 utförts med diffusionsprovtagare på 41 platser i Umeå. Två veckomätningar har gjorts varje år på dessa platser sedan 2009 och totalt 21 mätningar har utförts på samma sätt över åren. Mätplatsernas geografiska läge kan ha varierat något över tid, provtagare har ibland plockats ned av förbipasserande, och det ha uppstått andra tekniska fel, varför alla mätplatser inte har maximalt antal mätningar. Det finns 23 respektive 24 mätplatser där mätningar har gjorts vid alla 21 tillfällen för NO2 respektive NOx.

    De högsta halterna har uppmätts på trafikerade platser under vinterhalvåret p.g.a. större utsläpp och stillastående luft, s.k. inversion. Vid mätningarna 2019 uppmättes de högsta halterna NO2 både sommartid och vintertid vid en husfasad belägen på Västra Esplanaden, centralt i Umeå (19 μg/m3 respektive 64 μg/m3). NOx-halten vintertid var högst vid samma mätpunkt på Västra Esplanaden (151 μg/m3) medan halten vid sommarmätningen var högst vid Östra Kyrkogatan, mittemot Navet (51 μg/m3).

  • 15.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustavsson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hälsorelaterad miljöövervakning. Cancerframkallande ämnen i tätortsluft: personlig exponering och bakgrundsmätningar i Umeå 20132014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen kartlägger allmänbefolkningens exponering via luften för vissa cancerframkallande ämnen (bensen, 1,3-butadien, formaldehyd) och kvävedioxid. Undersökningen genomfördes i centrala Umeå under hösten 2013, och inkluderade totalt 40 slumpvis utvalda personer i åldrarna 20-50 år.

    Mätningarna upprepades på 20 personer. Utöver de personburna mätningarna genomfördes även stationära mätningar på två platser utomhus, samt för partiklar även inomhus hos 20 deltagare. Deltagarfrekvensen var 66% och medelåldern var 35 år. Den personliga medianhalten för bensen och 1,3-butadien var 1,4 μg/m3 respektive 0,2 μg/m3 vilket är något lägre än halterna år 2001. Bensenhalten överskrider lågrisknivån (1,3 μg/m3), medan halten 1,3-butadien ligger i nedre kanten av lågriskintervallet. Det fanns en signifikant korrelation mellan den personliga exponeringen för bensen och 1,3-butadien (rs=0.50, p=<0.01). Medianhalten för formaldehyd var 12 μg/m3, och halterna var högre bland de som bodde i villa jämfört med lägenhet. Medianhalten kvävedioxid var 12 μg/m3. PM2.5 mättes utomhus i urban bakgrund samt hemma hos deltagare under två dygn. Medianvärdet för inomhusmätningarna av PM2.5 var högre än motsvarande halt vid mätningarna 2007 (1,9 μg/m3). PM2,5 filtren analyserades även på sitt innehåll av polycykliska kolväten och halterna inomhus var lägre jämfört med halterna utomhus, och var klart lägre än den fastställda lågrisknivån.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Dental Hygiene.
    Anderson-Weckert, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Dental Hygiene.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustavsson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    van Dijken, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Dental Hygiene.
    Ozone air levels adjacent to a dental ozone gas delivery system2007In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 324-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Ozone (O(3)) has been suggested as an anti-microbial treatment in dentistry, with an ozone gas delivery system introduced for the treatment of fissure and root caries. The aim of this study was to investigate the sealing capacity of the novel delivery system and its re-suction capacity during accidental displacement of the cup at different stages of ozone delivery. Material and methods. Ozone leakage was studied in vitro after application on a flat metal surface and on buccal and occlusal tooth surfaces. An ozone analyzer was used to measure ozone gas concentrations adjacent to the delivering cups when adapted to the target surfaces during and after 10-20 s application cycles. The measured levels were compared with the background concentrations in the room. Measurements were performed 1) after complete ozone application cycles, 2) within the cycle before the start of the suction period, and 3) after displacements of the cup during the cycles. Results. Ozone air values varied between 8 and 166 microg.m(-3) for the flat metal surface and between 0 and 108 microg.m(-3) for the tooth surfaces. Ozone leakage levels were 7.6 microg.m(-3) for the flat and 7.4 microg.m(-3) and 5.6 microg.m(-3) for the buccal and occlusal surfaces, respectively, and 5.2 microg.m(-3) and 9.8 microg.m(-3) for the premolar and molar surfaces, respectively. Cycles with displacement showed significantly higher leakage levels than continuous complete cycles (p=0.03). Conclusions. Ozone application cycles with displacements showed significantly higher leakage levels than continuous complete cycles. The largest ozone delivery cups showed the highest leakage values. A change in background levels was seen with similar change in adjacent ozone levels. The overall measured ozone leakage values were low after normally functioning delivery cycles and after repeated displacements. The delivery system can be considered safe.

  • 17.
    Liljelind, Ingrid E
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nilsson, Leif O
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Potential dermal exposure to methyl methacrylate among dental technicians; variability and determinants in a field study.2009In: Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM, ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 160-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is a commonly used chemical in dental work that can cause dermatitis. Nineteen dental technicians participated in a field study in which potential dermal exposure to MMA and exposure determinants, including glove use and MMA vapour in the breathing zone, were repeatedly monitored during three consecutive days. Using patches placed on various parts of their hands we observed that the fingers and palms of the dental technicians were exposed to MMA, and their forefingers were significantly more exposed than their ring fingers; this is based on pooled data for both left and right hands (p = 0.04). The exposure variability was greater between workers than within worker (i.e. day-to-day variability), but the between worker variability was to some extent explained by a model which included the tested determinants. Neither the amount of MMA vapours in the breathing zone nor glove use was consistently correlated with the dermal exposure. Thus, the effects of glove use and the distribution of exposure to MMA on the hands in working environments needs to be further investigated.

  • 18.
    Malmqvist, E.
    et al.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Mattisson, K.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Stroh, E.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Rylander, L.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Hoek, G.
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Tinnerberg, H.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Assessing ozone exposure for epidemiological studies in Malmö and Umeå, Sweden2014In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 94, p. 241-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ground level ozone [ozone] is considered a harmful air pollutant but there is a knowledge gap regarding its long term health effects. The main aim of this study is to develop local Land Use Regression [LUR] models that can be used to study long term health effects of ozone. The specific aim is to develop spatial LUR models for two Swedish cities, Umea and Malmo, as well as a temporal model for Malmo in order to assess ozone exposure for long term epidemiological studies. For the spatial model we measured ozone, using Ogawa passive samplers, as weekly averages at 40 sites in each study area, during three seasons. This data was then inserted in the LUR-model with data on traffic, land use, population density and altitude to develop explanatory models of ozone variation. To develop the temporal model for Malmo, hourly ozone data was aggregated into daily means for two measurement stations in Malmo and one in a rural area outside Malmo. Using regression analyses we inserted meteorological variables into different temporal models and the one that performed best for all three stations was chosen. For Malmo the LUR-model had an adjusted model R-2 of 0.40 and cross validation R-2 of 0.17. For Umea the model had an adjusted model R-2 of 0.67 and cross validation adjusted R-2 of 0.48. When restricting the model to only including measuring sites from urban areas, the Malmo model had adjusted model R-2 of 0.51 (cross validation adjusted R-2 0.33) and the Umea model had adjusted model R-2 of 0.81 (validation adjusted R-2 of 0.73). The temporal model had adjusted model R-2 0.54 and 0.61 for the two Malmo sites, the cross validation adjusted R-2 was 0.42. In conclusion, we can with moderate accuracy, at least for Umea, predict the spatial variability, and in Malmo the temporal variability in ozone variation. 

  • 19.
    Modig, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Jonsson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Olsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Modell för beräkning av bensen- och 1,3-butadienhalter i omgivningsluft utifrån geografisk information om bland annat biobränsleeldning och trafik2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Luftföroreningar är ett känt folkhälsoproblem i tätorter där trafiken oftast är den största enskilda emissionskällan. Det finns dock andra källor som lokalt kan ge upphov till höga luftföroreningshalter och en sådan är småskalig biobränsleeldning. För att begränsa hälsoeffekterna av luftföroreningar finns normvärden reglerade i lagstiftning, och övervakningen av dessa kan ske via mätningar eller olika typer av beräkningar.

    Syftet med projekt har varit att tillämpa en typ av statistisk beräkningsmodell, ”Land Use Regression (LUR)”, för att predicera halterna av luftföroreningarna bensen och 1,3-butadien i ett antal tätorter med hög andel småskalig biobränsleeldning i och omkring Umeå.

    Principen för en LUR-modell är att först förklara variationen i luftföroreningshalter mellan ett begränsat antal mätpunkter med skillnader i geografiska variabler, som t.ex. populationsdensitet och trafikflöde inom olika radier runt respektive mätplats. Sedan kan modellen användas för att beräkna halten i många fler punkter. I denna studie har bensen och 1,3-butadien mätts vid tre tillfällen på 39 olika mätpunkter. Geografisk information har samlats in för respektive mätpunkt, och innefattar bland annat trafikvariabler men även uppgifter om biobränsleeldning baserat på uppgifter från sotarregister. LUR-modellen har byggts upp i enlighet med den procedur som finns beskrivet inom ett stort europeiskt forskningsprojekt, ESCAPE.

    Rapporten visar att det är möjligt utifrån geografiska variabler att predicera halten bensen och 1,3-butadien i en given punkt med acceptabel precision. Resultaten visar också att befolkningstäthet tillsammans med småskalig biobränsleeldning och trafik är de variabler som gemensamt är viktigast för årsmedelhalten bensen och 1,3-butadien.

    Denna typ av modell är således tillämpbar för att kartlägga och predicera halter av bensen och 1,3-butadien i områden med småskalig biobränsleeldning. Modellen kan även användas för att studera betydelsen av nyetablering av småskalig biobränsleeldning för halten bensen och 1,3-butadien inom t.ex. ett bostadsområde.

  • 20.
    Modig, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sunesson, Anna-Lena
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sundgren, Margit
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Can NO(2) be used to indicate ambient and personal levels of benzene and 1,3-butadiene in air?2004In: J Environ Monit, ISSN 1464-0325, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 957-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Nordberg, Gunnar F
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundström, Nils-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lagerkvist, Birgitta J-Son
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Svensson, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Nilsson, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bernard, Alfred
    Dumont, Xavier
    Bertilsson, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lung function in volunteers before and after exposure to trichloramine in indoor pool environments and asthma in a cohort of pool workers2012In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 2, no 5, p. e000973-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Exposure to trichloramine (NCl(3)) in indoor swimming-pool environments is known to cause mucous membrane irritation, but if it gives rise to changes in lung function or asthma in adults is not known. (1) We determined lung function in volunteers before and after exposure to indoor pool environments. (2) We studied the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and asthma in a cohort of pool workers.

    DESIGN/METHODS/PARTICIPANTS: (1) We studied two groups of volunteers, 37 previously non-exposed healthy persons and 14 pool workers, who performed exercise for 2 h in an indoor pool environment. NCl(3) in air was measured during pool exposures and in 10 other pool environments. Filtered air exposures were used as controls. Lung function and biomarkers of pulmonary epithelial integrity were measured before and after exposure. (2) We mailed a questionnaire to 1741 persons who indicated in the Swedish census 1990 that they worked at indoor swimming-pools.

    RESULTS: (1) In previously non-exposed volunteers, statistically significant decreases in FEV(1) (forced expiratory volume) and FEV(%) (p=0.01 and 0.05, respectively) were found after exposure to pool air (0.23 mg/m(3) of NCl(3)). In pool workers, a statistically significant decrease in FEV(%) (p=0.003) was seen (but no significant change of FEV(1))(.) In the 10 other pool environments the median NCl(3) concentration was 0.18 mg/m(3). (2) Our nested case/control study in pool workers found an OR for asthma of 2.31 (95% CI 0.79 to 6.74) among those with the highest exposure. Exposure-related acute mucous membrane and respiratory symptoms were also found.

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in adults showing statistically significant decreases in lung function after exposure to NCl(3). An increased OR for asthma among highly exposed pool workers did not reach statistical significance, but the combined evidence supports the notion that current workroom exposures may contribute to asthma development. Further research on sensitive groups is warranted.

  • 22. Vihlborg, Per
    et al.
    Graff, Pål
    Hagenbjörk, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Hadrévi, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Serum Metabolites in Hand-Arm Vibration Exposed Workers2020In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate whether low molecular organic biomarkers could be identified in blood samples from vibration exposed workers using a metabolomics.

    Methods: The study population consisted of 38 metalworkers. All participants underwent a standardized medical examination. Blood samples were collected before and after work shift and analyzed with GC-TOFMS. Multivariate modeling (orthogonal partial least-squares analysis with discriminant analysis [OPLS-DA]) were used to verify differences in metabolic profiles.

    Results: Twenty-two study participants reported vascular symptoms judged as vibration-related. The metabolic profile from participants with vibration-induced white fingers (VWF) was distinctly separated from participants without VWF, both before and after vibration exposure.

    Conclusion: Metabolites that differed between the groups were identified both before and after exposure. Some of these metabolites might be indicators of health effects from exposure to vibrations. This is the first time that a metabolomic approach has been used in workers exposed to vibrations.

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