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  • 1.
    Andersen, Peter M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Kuzma-Kozakiewicz, Magdalena
    Keller, Jürgen
    Aho-Oezhan, Helena E. A.
    Ciecwierska, Katarzyna
    Szejko, Natalia
    Vázquez, Cynthia
    Böhm, Sarah
    Badura-Lotter, Gisela
    Meyer, Thomas
    Petri, Susanne
    Linse, Katharina
    Hermann, Andreas
    Semb, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Professionell utveckling.
    Stenberg, Erica
    Nackberg, Simona
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Professionell utveckling.
    Dorst, Johannes
    Uttner, Ingo
    Häggström, Ann-Cristin
    Ludolph, Albert C.
    Lulé, Dorothée
    Therapeutic decisions in ALS patients: cross-cultural differences and clinical implications2018Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, ISSN 0340-5354, E-ISSN 1432-1459, Vol. 265, nr 7, s. 1600-1606Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Quantitative analysis of decision-making on therapeutic options in different sociocultural context in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    Methods: ALS patients (n = 244) were consecutively recruited in Germany (n = 83), Poland (n = 83), and Sweden (n = 78) in a prospective cross-cultural study (www.NEEDSinALS.com). They were interviewed on preferences for therapeutic techniques including invasive (IV) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV), as well as percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and on hypothetical termination of these using quantitative questions. Using standardized questionnaires, religiousness, personal values, quality of life, and depressiveness were assessed.

    Results: NIV was most frequently used in Germany and PEG in Sweden. Swedish patients were most liberal on initiation and termination of PEG, NIV and IV. Polish patients were mostly undecided and were least likely to consider discontinuing supportive management. Current use was partly associated with age, gender and state of physical function; also, financial support explained some variance. Future preferences on therapeutic options from the patient’s perspective were also closely associated with cultural factors. The more oriented towards traditional and conservative values, the less likely patients were to decide for invasive therapeutic devices (IV, PEG), the least likely to have ideations to discontinue any device and the more likely to have an undecided attitude.

    Conclusions: Current use of therapeutic options is determined by medical condition in analogy to clinical guidelines. For future considerations, other factors such as cultural background are crucial, yielding hurdles to be regarded in the implementation of advanced directives in a multicultural environment.

  • 2.
    Hultin, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Semb, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Professionell utveckling.
    Tano, Krister
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Molander, Emil
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Morén, Gabriella
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Design of a program for complementary education of International Medical Graduates in Sweden – to include Swedish or not2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundberg, MattiasUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.Nordin, MariaUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.Sandström, AgnetaSemb, OlofUmeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Professionell utveckling.Westerberg, KristinaUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Psykologi för vårdprofessioner2018Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Semb, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Distress after criminal victimization: quantitative and qualitative aspects in a two-year perspective2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores distress and reactions after crime by a previously unknown perpetrator in a two-year perspective. Distress was investigated at eight months and two years, using quantitative and qualitative methods. The specific aims of the thesis were (I) to explore the level of distress and the role of risk factors for post-traumatic and general symptoms eight months post crime, (II) to examine the natural course of adjustment at a two-year follow-up in female and male victims of interpersonal violence, III) to investigate the relationship between shame, guilt, and distress among 35 victims of a single severe violent crime, and (IV) to use qualitative analysis to describe individual post-crime trajectories. The following questionnaires were used: Symptom Check List 90 (Derogatis & Cleary, 1977), Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (Mollica et al., 1992), the Test for Self-Conscious Affect (Tagney et al., 1989). Data were also obtained via semi-structured interviews, including the use of visual analog scales for subjective mental health measures. The participants in paper I were male and female Swedish adult victims of reported interpersonal violence eight months earlier. Participants were between 18 and 66 years of age (n=41). At follow-up (Paper II) the sample size had decreased (n=35). In paper III, adult victims (aged 18-64) of reported interpersonal violence were assessed within two weeks of reported crime (n=35). In paper IV a subsample of 11 adult crime victims were drawn from among the participants from papers I and II.

    Paper I showed that women reported more distress than men. Prior trauma, adverse childhood, female sex, previous psychiatric history, and unemployment were all associated with more distress. Peritraumatic reactions (especially secondary emotions following cognitive appraisals after the event) predicted the three core PTSD symptoms and comorbid conditions, together with female sex and psychiatric history. Paper II confirmed most of the risk factors at eight months and that, in general, no further recovery took place between eight months and two years. Paper III showed that shame-proneness and event-related shame were highly intercorrelated and related to higher symptoms levels, while the guilt measures were unrelated to each other as well as to symptoms. Paper IV explored narratives of victimization; the results suggest that individual differences within the same trajectories of recovery should be expected.

  • 5.
    Semb, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Fransson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Henningsson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Experiences of victimization after severe violent crime: a qualitative approach to different trajectories of recoveryManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Semb, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Fransson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Henningsson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Treatment Acceptability among Crime Victims2011Ingår i: The Open Psychology Journal, ISSN 1874-3501, Vol. 4, s. 6-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Crime victims receive relevant treatment too seldom and there is uncertainty as to whether those who need the treatment the most are among those who get it. Fifty-two consecutive adult crime victims were offered 10 sessions of psychotherapy within two weeks after an experienced trauma of criminal victimization. Twenty-six accepted and 26 declined the offer. The aim of the study was to explore some of the differences between these two groups. The results show that the therapy group presented a higher incidence of acute stress disorder, more negative scorings regarding immediate reactions (to the crime), more subjective ratings of physical and psychological health (GAF, according to DSM IV), and more psychiatric and trauma-related symptoms as compared to the non-therapy group. A conclusion was that those who needed treatment the most also accepted it. Traumatized people may, due to avoidant strategies, withdraw from potential treatment. Conversely, the therapy group scored higher on the coping style escape-avoidance.

  • 7.
    Semb, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Henningsson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fransson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Trauma-related symptoms after violent crime: the role of risk factors before, during and eight months after victimization2009Ingår i: The Open Psychology Journal, ISSN 1874-3501/09, Vol. 2, s. 77-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of current suffering and the role of peritraumatic emotions and other risk factors for development of post-traumatic and general symptoms eight months post crime. Questionnaires assessing trauma-specific symptoms (HTQ) and general psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90) was used along with a semistructured interview covering subjective reactions of 41 civilian victims of interpersonal crime. Victims proved to still be suffering, in varying degrees, from post-traumatic symptoms and other psychological distress. Females reported more trauma-specific symptoms and other comorbid conditions than males. Prior trauma, adverse childhood, being female, previous psychiatric history, and unemployment were all associated with more distress. Peritraumatic reactions (especially secondary emotions following cognitive appraisals after the event) predicted the three core PTSD symptoms and comorbid conditions. Apart from the PTSD symptoms, an assessment of background factors, general psychiatric symptoms, peritraumatic emotions and their cognitive associated scripts in the initial post-trauma period could be helpful in identifying victims who are at risk of developing trauma symptoms.

  • 8.
    Semb, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Professionell utveckling.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Sven-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Professionell utveckling.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development as well as "studies as usual": a thematic analysis of medical students' reflective writing2014Ingår i: Advances in Medical Education and Practice, ISSN 1179-7258, E-ISSN 1179-7258, Vol. 5, s. 491-498Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflective writing in medical training has been shown to be most effective when combined with some form of personal meeting or dialog. During a course in medical psychology for medical students, reflective texts were followed up by an individual personal talk with a teacher from the course. Thematic analysis of the texts revealed four separate sub-themes: 1) the course has enabled me and the class to develop, which is good albeit arduous; 2) understanding myself is a resource in understanding people as well as knowing psychology; 3) the course provided me with new, purely intellectual skills as well as eye-openers; and 4) the receiving teacher is an integral part of my reflective writing. The main theme, capturing the students' writing process, concluded that students perceive the course as "Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development" as well as "studies as usual". Ethical, psychological, and pedagogical aspects are discussed in the paper.

  • 9.
    Semb, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Strömsten, Lotta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Fransson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Henningsson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Psychological distress associated with interpersonal violence: a prospective two-year follow-up study of female and male crime victimsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Semb, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Strömsten, Lotta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Fransson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Henningsson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Distress after a single violent crime: how shame-proneness and event-related shame work together as risk factors for post-victimization symptoms2011Ingår i: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 109, nr 1, s. 3-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase understanding of post-victimization symptom development, the present study investigated the role of shame- and guilt-proneness and event-related shame and guilt as potential risk factors. 35 individuals (M age = 31.7 yr.; 48.5% women), recently victimized by a single event of severe violent crime, were assessed regarding shame- and guilt-proneness, event-related shame and guilt, and post-victimization symptoms. The mediating role of event-related shame was investigated with structural equation modeling (SEM), using bootstrapping. The guilt measures were unrelated to each other and to post-victimization symptoms. The shame measures were highly intercorrelated and were both positively correlated to more severe post-victimization symptom levels. Event-related shame as mediator between shame-proneness and post-victimization symptoms was demonstrated by prevalent significant indirect effects. Both shame measures are potent risk factors for distress after victimization, whereby part of the effect of shame-proneness on post-victimization symptoms is explained by event-related shame.

  • 11.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Andersson, Sven-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Semb, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Kaiser, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Reflekterande skrivande och personligt samtal i läkarutbildningen: Nya moment i psykologikurs bidrog till ökad självkännedom2013Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, nr 110, artikel-id CA4EArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Självkännedom är ett nationellt mål för läkarexamen. Hur självkännedom som mål ska läras ut och examineras är dock föga diskuterat.

    Här presenteras två nya moment inom kursen Medicinsk psykologi, vars syfte varit att stimulera självreflektion och självkännedom. Studenternas kursutvärderingar och lärarnas erfarenheter av dessa moment – veckobrev och personligt samtal – redovisas.

    Kursutvärderingarna med kommentarer stödjer uppfattningen att de nya momenten bidrar till ökad självkännedom.

    En gemensam erfarenhet hos lärarna har varit att den motivation, tillit och öppenhet som de flesta studenter visat i sina brev och i samtalen ger stimulans till och är en viktig utgångspunkt för ökad självreflektion och självkännedom.

    Det personliga samtalet har haft en viktig psykosocial funktion för många studenter. Personer i behov av stöd har kunnat fångas upp och vid behov har olika kontakter förmedlats.

  • 12.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap.
    Henningsson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fransson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Semb, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap.
    Strömsten, Lotta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap.
    Betydelse av tidig kontakt och behandling av våldsdrabbade brottsoffer: en prospektiv longitudinell studie2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    von Knorring, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Professionell utveckling.
    Semb, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Professionell utveckling.
    Martin, Fahlström
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Professionell utveckling.
    Lehti, Arja
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Professionell utveckling.
    "It is through body language and looks, but it is also a feeling"-a qualitative study on medical interns' experience of empathy2019Ingår i: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 19, artikel-id 333Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Empathy has long been recognized as a fundamental part of the professionalism of doctors and is considered to be both necessary and beneficial to doctor-patient relationships, although empathy is notoriously difficult to define and measure. Previous research on empathy has mostly consisted of quantitative studies measuring and evaluating empathy levels in students or medical residents. The aim of our qualitative study was to explore the lived experience of empathy among medical interns in Sweden.

    Method: We interviewed 16 medical interns, using semi-structured interviews. Content analysis was used to analyse the interviews.

    Results: The analysis led to the emergence of a main theme of empathy as being multifaceted and conflictual, consisting of descriptions (subthemes) of “being” and “doing”; of being uncontrollable and contextual; biased and situated and essential and conflictual. Since the components of empathy were also found to be interwoven, to provide a more holistic presentation of the results, we applied a socio-ecological model to the results inspired by Bronfenbrenner.

    Conclusions: We concluded that empathy is situated and contextual. By using the socioecological model empathy can be described as a systemic interaction between doctor and patient. Based on this we propose a more holistic approach to empathy in medical education to better prepare students for clinical practice.

1 - 13 av 13
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