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  • 1. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Veprauskaite, Elena
    Managing policy lapse risk in Sweden's life insurance market between 1915 and 19472020In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 222-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the challenges that Swedish life insurers faced in managing the lapse risk of policies written on the lives of the industrial urban working class between 1915 and 1947. We observe that with the threat of State socialisation of insurance in the 1930s, industrial life insurers modified their business practices to better control policy lapses. Using firm-level data, we also analyse the effect of socio-economic changes, such as rising real wages, interest rate fluctuations and unemployment on life insurance policy lapses. Our results support contemporary tests of the emergency fund and interest rate explanations for the voluntary premature termination of life insurance policies.

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  • 2.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Life insurance and income growth: the case of Sweden 1830-19502010In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 203-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we provide an analysis of the life insurance market in Sweden from the early 19th century to the mid 20th century. We consider determinants put forward in the financial history literature to explain the growth of life insurance. The paper shows that income elasticity of demand gives a fairly good approximation of the development in the twentieth century, while the development of risk and insurance innovation among other things need to be taken into account to explain the growth of life insurance in nineteenth century. The price of life insurance, measured as the overhead-to-premium-income-ratio, remained fairly constant during the second half of the 19th century, while the risk, as indicated in terms of crude mortality rates and its volatility did decline.  This probably improved the return on life-insurance savings and further helped the entry of new firms. The average premium size was reduced to enable the diffusion of life insurance to workers.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Household risk strategies during a pandemic – experiences from the 1918 influenza pandemic2023In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 36-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2020, The COVID-19 crisis has put great pressure on the economy worldwide. Only time can tell whether the COVID-19 crisis will have permanent effects on corporate and household behaviour and how it will affect society at large. This article examines historical experiences of how households managed the financial consequences of rising mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic. We find that the previous pandemic led to an immediate and major increase in primarily small-sum industrial life insurance policies designed for blue-collar workers. The increase in new policies did not, however, have a lasting effect. By the time the pandemic had faded, the number of policies had dropped to below pre-pandemic conditions. This historical experience underlines the fact that there are limits to the extent to which even a major shock, such as a pandemic, can lead to behavioural change among households as currently being predicted in relation to COVID-19.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Household risk strategies during a pandemic: Experiences from the 1918 influenza pandemic2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The corona crisis has during the year 2020 put large pressure on the economy. Only time can tell whether the corona crisis will have permanent effects on corporate and household behaviour and how it will affect society at large. This article examines historical experiences of how households managed the financial consequences of the rising mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic. We find that the pandemic led to an immediate and major increase in primarily industrial life insurance policies on small sums designed for blue-collar workers. The increase in new policies did however not have a lasting effect. When the pandemic had faded over, the number of policies had dropped to bellow pre-pandemic conditions. This historical experience underlines that there are limits to the extent to which even a major shock, such as a pandemic, can lead to the kinds of behavioural change on which recent policies have been predicated.

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  • 5.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hushållens riskstrategier under en pandemi – erfarenheter från spanska sjukan2020In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 73-78Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi befinner oss i en pandemi som befaras få stora konsekvenser för samhällsekonomin. I denna artikel undersöker vi historiska erfarenheter av hur hushåll hanterade finansiella risker orsakade av influensa-epidemin spanska sjukan, 1918–20. Spanska sjukan ökade livförsäkringstagandet under de år som sjukdomen härjade, men fick inga bestående effekter på hushållens riskstrategier.  Erfarenheterna från spanska sjukan inger begränsade förhoppningar för den ökade invididualiseringen av krisansvaret vi sett under senare år, exempelvis har ansvaret för beredskapslager delvis lyfts över mot hushållen. För att vi ska vara rustade för nya pandemier krävs politisk konsensus kring att pandemiberedskap bör vara ett långsiktigt, samhälleligt åtagande. 

  • 6.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Sickness absence in compulsory and voluntary health insurance: the case of Sweden at the turn of the twentieth century2017In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 6-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn of the twentieth century, Swedish health insurance was organised according to the Western European models of both voluntary, `fraternal´ principles and compulsory, `factory scheme´ principles. In this paper, we trace the characteristics of both organisational forms, and compare the sickness absence by considering the role of risk selection and mitigation across a large panel of voluntary and compulsory health insurance societies operating in Sweden between 1900 and 1910. We find that voluntary societies used a wide set of rules and practices in order to select and monitor members in order to keep down the number of sick cases. Compulsory societies applied shorter waiting periods and offered more medical treatment, leading to more frequent but shorter sickness absences.

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  • 7.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Harris, Bernard
    Social Work and Social Policy, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Did statutory insurance improve the welfare of Swedish workers?: The statutory workplace accident insurance act of 19162022In: Labor history, ISSN 0023-656X, E-ISSN 1469-9702, Vol. 63, p. 210-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare researchers have regarded statutory accident insurance in 1916 as a starting point for the exceptional expansion of the Swedish welfare state. However, rather less attention has been paid to the roles played by mutual insurance societies and employer compensation schemes in offering voluntary welfare protection. We argue that voluntary welfare protection was an integral part of the early-twentieth century welfare system and played a crucial role in protecting workers in the case of sickness and accident. We also examine the limitations of these arrangements and explore the ways in which the design of the statutory scheme ensured that there was a continuing role for voluntary provision after the new Act came into operation. We also explore the impact of the scheme on wage levels, and show how its introduction eroded the wage premiums which had previously been earned by workers in high-risk industries.

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  • 8.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Harris, Bernard
    Social Work and Social Policy, University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Morbidity among working class men and women in early twentieth century Sweden2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates gendered morbidity patterns by employing micro data derived from sickness records and membership ledgers on working class men and women in the early 20th century Sweden. We find that the main reason for gendered morbidity differences - that woman faced fewer, but longer sickness episodes than men – reflects gendered productive and reproductive activities. Men suffered from the large number of work-place accidents as workers in the production sector, while women faced major risks due to pregnancy, childbearing and related sickness. Women also suffered more from for diseases of the blood, diseases of the digestive & metabolic system and diseases the genitourinary than men. Both men and women faced shorter, but longer, sickness episodes in urban areas attributed to the underlying differences in morbidity causes during the epidemiological transition.

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  • 9.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Lilljegren, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Adverse selection in mutual benefit societies: an longitudinal approach2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual benefit societies evolved as the major provider for illness, accident and burialinsurance in the late 19 th and early 20 th century in the Western world. One of themajor problems facing the insurers was the risk for adverse selection; that unhealthyindividuals had more incentive then healthy to insure when priced for the averagerisk. By empirically examine if the longevity among insured in mutual benefit societieswas different from uninsured, we seek to identify the presence of adverse section. Wefind no compelling evidence that unhealthy individuals was more likely to insure, orreasons to believe that adverse selection was behind the decline of mutual benefitsocieties in the twentieth century.

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  • 10.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lilljegren, Josef
    Faculty of Economics and Business, Groningen University, the Netherland.
    Pre-welfare state provision and adverse selection: enrolment in a Swedish nationwide health insurance society2023In: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 74-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual benefit societies evolved as the major provider for sickness, accident and life insurance in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries on both sides of the Atlantic. One of the major problems facing insurers was the risk of adverse selection, i.e. that unhealthy individuals had more incentives than healthy individuals to insure when priced for the average risk. By empirically examining whether longevity among insured individuals in a nationwide mutual health society was different from a matched sample of uninsured individuals, we seek to identify the presence of adverse selection. We find no compelling evidence showing that unhealthy individuals were more likely to insure, or reasons to believe that problems related to adverse selection would have been a major reason for government intervention in the health insurance market in Sweden.

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  • 11.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Nystedt, Paul
    Dept. of Economics, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University.
    Workplace accidents and workers solidarity: mutual health insurance in early twentieth-century Sweden2022In: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 203-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the industrialization period, the rate of workplace-related accidents increased. Because of the lack of public insurance, mutual health insurance societies became the main providers of workplace accident insurance among workers. Due to large differences in accident risk, health insurance societies were potentially exposed to the risk of adverse selection, since they employed equal pricing for all members regardless of risk profile. This article investigates the impact of workplace accident risk on health insurance selection and outcomes. We employ household budget surveys encompassing urban workers in Sweden during the early twentieth century. We find evidence for a redistribution from low- to high-risk-exposed workers, as workplace accident risk had a significant and positive impact on receiving health insurance benefits, also when controlling for a variety of factors. Workers exposed to greater risks in the workplace were more likely to have health insurance but did not pay higher premiums. The redistribution from low- to high-risk-exposed workers was largely accepted and viewed as an act of solidarity between workers. Given that health insurance societies were aware of this redistribution, we argue for the presence of informed, rather than adverse, selection.

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  • 12.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Exclusion of women and organizational characteristics: Swedish mutual health insurance 1901-19102019In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 1352-1378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual societies have been recognised for their ability to mitigate information asymmetry. Although successful in reducing sickness claims, the exclusion of women was common. Health insurance societies argued the exclusion was a means to reduce adverse selection and moral hazard since women were regarded as higher risk. In this paper, we explore differences in organisational characteristics between societies that excluded and societies that did not exclude women as members between 1901 to 1910. Based on panel data, the study shows that societies that excluded women were less successful in keeping down sickness claims, in relation to benefits, than gendermixed societies

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  • 13.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    The compulsory public pension and the demand for life insurance: the case of Sweden, 1884–191412015In: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 244-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We employ cost-of-living surveys, business archives, and firm data to examine the impact of the compulsory pension on the demand for life insurance in Sweden from 1884 to 1914—a period that covers the implementation of the first public compulsory old-age pension reform and the take-off of industry life insurance. As predicted on the basis of the contemporary literature on crowding-out effects, we find that the compulsory pension reduced the demand for life insurance. Our panel-data analysis of lapse rates on insurance policies shows a significant crowding-out effect of pension payments. We conclude that the introduction of the general compulsory pension had a crowding-out effect on households’ holdings of insurance policies.

  • 14.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Business collaboration as a prerequisite for learning and innovation?: A study of structural fund projects2009In: Learning through ongoing evaluation / [ed] Svensson, Lennart et.al., Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1, p. 217-230Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Näringslivssamverkan som förutsättning för lärande och innovation? En studie av strukturfondsprojekt2009In: Lärande utvärdering genom följeforskning / [ed] Svensson, Lennart et al, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1:1, p. 209-221Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Harvard Business School.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Sober business: shared value creation between the insurance industry and the temperance movement2019In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 322-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the Swedish insurance company Ansvar established and expended an international business from the 1930s to the 1990s with the motives to insure total abstainers while battling against alcohol abuse in society. Anvar represented a for-profit business that aimed at addressing social issues. The case provides a historical example of how shared value was created between the company and the temperance movement for the joint goal of improving society through temperance. The article argues that the company’s decline was due to changing values, where alcohol was no longer seen as a threat to society.

  • 17.
    Berguist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lärande i fokus? Näringslivssamverkan och kunskapsspridning i initieringsfasen av strukturfondsprojekt2008Report (Other academic)
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  • 18.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Beneficiaries or policyholders?: The role of women in Swedish life insurance 1900-19502014In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, ISSN 0007-6791, Vol. 56, no 8, p. 1335-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, women were depicted as dependents and beneficiaries and men as breadwinners and policyholders in Swedish life insurance sales promotions. Furthermore, life insurance was assumed to be a middle-class concern. The notion of the life insurance policyholder as ‘middle class’ and ‘male’ was first contested with the introduction of industrial life insurance, i.e. life insurance for the working classes and also, to a large extent, the rural population in Sweden. The industrial life insurance business contributed to the growth of a large proportion of female life insurance policyholders from the rural and working classes. This article illuminates the contrast between ideological representations of women as the opponents of life insurance in sales promotions and the real actions and roles of women in business history.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Finansiell verksamhet som ett socialt projekt – Livförsäkringsrörelsen och de gifta kvinnorna under det sena 1800-talet2008In: Historisk tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, no 2, p. 153-176Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Industrial life insurance and the cost of dying: The role of endowment and whole life insurance in Anglo-Saxon and European countries during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries2010In: The development of international insurance / [ed] Robin Pearson, London: Pickering & Chatto, 2010, 1, p. 117-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Life after death: The diffusion of Swedish life insurance - Dynamics of financial and social modernization 1830-19502011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the diffusion process of Swedish life insurance during the period c. 1830-1950, with the specific aim to understand financial modernization and social mobilization as reflected in the diffusion of life insurance to less well-to-do classes and women. In contrast to British and American experiences, the results of this thesis show that the rural classes played an important role in the diffusion of Swedish life insurance.

    The thesis shows that demand-side factors such as income and urbanisation cannot fully explain this diffusion of life insurance, and why additionally, non-quantitative factors need to be addressed. It is shown how cultural preferences assist in understanding the development of industrial life insurance in different countries. It is also stressed that women, in their capacity as policyholders, beneficiaries of life policies, as dependents, and their limited property rights, constituted the conditions under which the life insurance industry had to adjust and operate.

    In sum, female policyholders, cultural representations of women and legal constraints on women, constituted an important subset of the 'rules of the game' for the life insurance industry. Important results of the thesis are that female policyholders constituted a large part of the policyholders in the largest industrial life insurance company already in the early twentieth century. It is furthermore shown that life insurance representatives were members in organizations of the women's movement and that they acted for married women's property rights in parliament. It is also argued that different notions of 'a good death', as reflected in funeral practices, contributed to different developments of private and public insurance in Sweden and the United States. By widening the concept of 'business' and recognizing the cultural and social contexts under which the industry operated, this thesis highlights the interaction between business and social change. 

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  • 22.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Dödens pris: den industriella livförsäkringen och begravningsindustrin under det sena 1800-talet och tidiga 1900-talet2014In: Å selge liv og død: kommersielle strategier og kulturuttrykk i markedsføring av død og dødsfrykt / [ed] May-Britt Ohman Nielsen, Tammerfors: University Press of Eastern Finland , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Supply or demand?: Institutionalization of the mentally ill in the emerging Swedish welfare state, 1900–19592021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical studies on the institutionalization of the mentally ill have primarily relied on data on institutionalized patients rather than the population at risk. Consequently, the underlying factors of institutionalization are unclear. Using Swedish longitudinal microdata from 1900–1959 reporting mental disorders, we examine whether supply-side factors such as distance to institutions and number of asylum beds influenced the risk of institutionalization, in addition to demand-side factors such as access to family. Institutionalization risks were associated with the supply of beds and proximity to an asylum, but also dependent on families’ unmet demand for care of relatives. As the supply of mental care met this family-driven demand in the 1930s, the relative risk of institutionalization increased among those lacking family networks.

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  • 24.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Supply or demand? Institutionalization of the mentally ill in the emerging Swedish welfare state, 1900–592022In: History of Psychiatry, ISSN 0957-154X, E-ISSN 1740-2360, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 180-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical studies on the institutionalization of the mentally ill have primarily relied on data for institutionalized patients rather than the population at risk. Consequently, the underlying factors of institutionalization are unclear. Using Swedish longitudinal microdata from 1900–59 reporting mental disorders, we examine whether supply factors, such as distance to institutions and number of asylum beds, influenced the risk of institutionalization, in addition to demand factors such as access to family. Institutionalization risks were associated with the supply of beds and proximity to an asylum, but also dependent on families’ unmet demand for care of relatives. As the supply of mental care met this family-driven demand in the 1930s, the relative risk of institutionalization increased among those lacking family networks.

  • 25.
    Stanfors, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Economic History, Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Tobias
    Department of Economic History, Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Department of Economic History and International Relations, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Between voluntarism and compulsion: membership in mutual health insurance societies in Swedish manufacturing, c. 19002024In: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 244-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Membership in mutual health insurance societies spread among industrial workers in the late nineteenth century. We study determinants of such membership among male workers in Swedish manufacturing by using matched employer–employee data from three industries covering all workers (i.e. members and non-members, N > 12 000) and firms around 1900. We find remarkably high rates of membership overall, and especially among married workers. The association between marital status and health insurance suggests that selection into health insurance societies was ‘propitious’ rather than ‘adverse’. Many workers became members well before the age of 40 years, when their health began to deteriorate, and this coincided with the average age of first marriage for men, occurring in their late twenties. Being married and having membership was more marked in firms with voluntary membership and was important for the viability of the mix of voluntary and compulsory health insurance societies emerging in Nordic countries around 1900. Findings support the idea that health insurance can attract high levels of membership under voluntary schemes and suggest why it took so long before statutory health insurance covering sickness absence and workplace accidents was introduced in Sweden.

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