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  • 1. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Veprauskaite, Elena
    Managing policy lapse risk in Sweden’s life insurance market between 1915 and 19472018Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the challenges that Swedish life insurers faced in managing the lapse risk of policies written on the lives of the industrial urban working class between 1915 and 1947. We observe that with the threat of State socialisation of insurance in the 1930s, industrial life insurers modified their business practices to better control policy lapses. Using firm-level data, we also analyse the effect of socio-economic changes, such as rising real wages, interest rate fluctuations and unemployment on life insurance policy lapses. Our results support contemporary tests of the emergency fund and interest rate explanations for the voluntary premature termination of life insurance policies.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Life insurance and income growth: the case of Sweden 1830-19502010Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 203-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we provide an analysis of the life insurance market in Sweden from the early 19th century to the mid 20th century. We consider determinants put forward in the financial history literature to explain the growth of life insurance. The paper shows that income elasticity of demand gives a fairly good approximation of the development in the twentieth century, while the development of risk and insurance innovation among other things need to be taken into account to explain the growth of life insurance in nineteenth century. The price of life insurance, measured as the overhead-to-premium-income-ratio, remained fairly constant during the second half of the 19th century, while the risk, as indicated in terms of crude mortality rates and its volatility did decline.  This probably improved the return on life-insurance savings and further helped the entry of new firms. The average premium size was reduced to enable the diffusion of life insurance to workers.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Sickness absence in compulsory and voluntary health insurance: the case of Sweden at the turn of the twentieth century2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 65, nr 1, s. 6-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn of the twentieth century, Swedish health insurance was organised according to the Western European models of both voluntary, `fraternal´ principles and compulsory, `factory scheme´ principles. In this paper, we trace the characteristics of both organisational forms, and compare the sickness absence by considering the role of risk selection and mitigation across a large panel of voluntary and compulsory health insurance societies operating in Sweden between 1900 and 1910. We find that voluntary societies used a wide set of rules and practices in order to select and monitor members in order to keep down the number of sick cases. Compulsory societies applied shorter waiting periods and offered more medical treatment, leading to more frequent but shorter sickness absences.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Exclusion of women and organizational characteristics: Swedish mutual health insurance 1901-19102019Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 61, nr 8, s. 1352-1378Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual societies have been recognised for their ability to mitigate information asymmetry. Although successful in reducing sickness claims, the exclusion of women was common. Health insurance societies argued the exclusion was a means to reduce adverse selection and moral hazard since women were regarded as higher risk. In this paper, we explore differences in organisational characteristics between societies that excluded and societies that did not exclude women as members between 1901 to 1910. Based on panel data, the study shows that societies that excluded women were less successful in keeping down sickness claims, in relation to benefits, than gendermixed societies

  • 5.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    The compulsory public pension and the demand for life insurance: the case of Sweden, 1884–191412015Inngår i: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 244-263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We employ cost-of-living surveys, business archives, and firm data to examine the impact of the compulsory pension on the demand for life insurance in Sweden from 1884 to 1914—a period that covers the implementation of the first public compulsory old-age pension reform and the take-off of industry life insurance. As predicted on the basis of the contemporary literature on crowding-out effects, we find that the compulsory pension reduced the demand for life insurance. Our panel-data analysis of lapse rates on insurance policies shows a significant crowding-out effect of pension payments. We conclude that the introduction of the general compulsory pension had a crowding-out effect on households’ holdings of insurance policies.

  • 6.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Business collaboration as a prerequisite for learning and innovation?: A study of structural fund projects2009Inngår i: Learning through ongoing evaluation / [ed] Svensson, Lennart et.al., Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1, s. 217-230Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Näringslivssamverkan som förutsättning för lärande och innovation? En studie av strukturfondsprojekt2009Inngår i: Lärande utvärdering genom följeforskning / [ed] Svensson, Lennart et al, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1:1, s. 209-221Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Harvard Business School.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Sober business: shared value creation between the insurance industry and the temperance movement2019Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 322-342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the Swedish insurance company Ansvar established and expended an international business from the 1930s to the 1990s with the motives to insure total abstainers while battling against alcohol abuse in society. Anvar represented a for-profit business that aimed at addressing social issues. The case provides a historical example of how shared value was created between the company and the temperance movement for the joint goal of improving society through temperance. The article argues that the company’s decline was due to changing values, where alcohol was no longer seen as a threat to society.

  • 9.
    Berguist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Lärande i fokus? Näringslivssamverkan och kunskapsspridning i initieringsfasen av strukturfondsprojekt2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Beneficiaries or policyholders?: The role of women in Swedish life insurance 1900-19502014Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, ISSN 0007-6791, Vol. 56, nr 8, s. 1335-1360Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, women were depicted as dependents and beneficiaries and men as breadwinners and policyholders in Swedish life insurance sales promotions. Furthermore, life insurance was assumed to be a middle-class concern. The notion of the life insurance policyholder as ‘middle class’ and ‘male’ was first contested with the introduction of industrial life insurance, i.e. life insurance for the working classes and also, to a large extent, the rural population in Sweden. The industrial life insurance business contributed to the growth of a large proportion of female life insurance policyholders from the rural and working classes. This article illuminates the contrast between ideological representations of women as the opponents of life insurance in sales promotions and the real actions and roles of women in business history.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Finansiell verksamhet som ett socialt projekt – Livförsäkringsrörelsen och de gifta kvinnorna under det sena 1800-talet2008Inngår i: Historisk tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, nr 2, s. 153-176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Industrial life insurance and the cost of dying: The role of endowment and whole life insurance in Anglo-Saxon and European countries during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries2010Inngår i: The development of international insurance / [ed] Robin Pearson, London: Pickering & Chatto, 2010, 1, s. 117-132Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Life after death: The diffusion of Swedish life insurance - Dynamics of financial and social modernization 1830-19502011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the diffusion process of Swedish life insurance during the period c. 1830-1950, with the specific aim to understand financial modernization and social mobilization as reflected in the diffusion of life insurance to less well-to-do classes and women. In contrast to British and American experiences, the results of this thesis show that the rural classes played an important role in the diffusion of Swedish life insurance.

    The thesis shows that demand-side factors such as income and urbanisation cannot fully explain this diffusion of life insurance, and why additionally, non-quantitative factors need to be addressed. It is shown how cultural preferences assist in understanding the development of industrial life insurance in different countries. It is also stressed that women, in their capacity as policyholders, beneficiaries of life policies, as dependents, and their limited property rights, constituted the conditions under which the life insurance industry had to adjust and operate.

    In sum, female policyholders, cultural representations of women and legal constraints on women, constituted an important subset of the 'rules of the game' for the life insurance industry. Important results of the thesis are that female policyholders constituted a large part of the policyholders in the largest industrial life insurance company already in the early twentieth century. It is furthermore shown that life insurance representatives were members in organizations of the women's movement and that they acted for married women's property rights in parliament. It is also argued that different notions of 'a good death', as reflected in funeral practices, contributed to different developments of private and public insurance in Sweden and the United States. By widening the concept of 'business' and recognizing the cultural and social contexts under which the industry operated, this thesis highlights the interaction between business and social change. 

  • 14.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Dödens pris: den industriella livförsäkringen och begravningsindustrin under det sena 1800-talet och tidiga 1900-talet2014Inngår i: Å selge liv og død: kommersielle strategier og kulturuttrykk i markedsføring av død og dødsfrykt / [ed] May-Britt Ohman Nielsen, Tammerfors: University Press of Eastern Finland , 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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