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  • 1.
    Lundholm, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Schröder, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Nagaeva, Olga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Baranov, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Widmark, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Wikström, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Prostate Tumor-Derived Exosomes Down-Regulate NKG2D Expression on Natural Killer Cells and CD8(+) T Cells: Mechanism of Immune Evasion2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, p. e108925-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tumor-derived exosomes, which are nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin, have emerged as promoters of tumor immune evasion but their role in prostate cancer (PC) progression is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the ability of prostate tumor-derived exosomes to downregulate NKG2D expression on natural killer (NK) and CD8(+) T cells. NKG2D is an activating cytotoxicity receptor whose aberrant loss in cancer plays an important role in immune suppression. Using flow cytometry, we found that exosomes produced by human PC cells express ligands for NKG2D on their surface. The NKG2D ligand-expressing prostate tumor-derived exosomes selectively induced downregulation of NKG2D on NK and CD8(+) T cells in a dose-dependent manner, leading to impaired cytotoxic function in vitro. Consistent with these findings, patients with castration-resistant PC (CRPC) showed a significant decrease in surface NKG2D expression on circulating NK and CD8(+) T cells compared to healthy individuals. Tumor-derived exosomes are likely involved in this NKG2D downregulation, since incubation of healthy lymphocytes with exosomes isolated from serum or plasma of CRPC patients triggered downregulation of NKG2D expression in effector lymphocytes. These data suggest prostate tumor-derived exosomes as down-regulators of the NKG2D-mediated cytotoxic response in PC patients, thus promoting immune suppression and tumor escape.

  • 2.
    Tjon-Kon-Fat, Lee-Ann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Lundholm, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Schröder, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Wurdinger, Thomas
    Thellenberg-Karlsson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Widmark, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Wikström, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Nilsson, Rolf Jonas Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Platelets harbor prostate cancer biomarkers and the ability to predict therapeutic response to abiraterone in castration resistant patients2018In: The Prostate, ISSN 0270-4137, E-ISSN 1097-0045, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 48-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Novel therapies for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have been introduced in the clinic with possibilities for individualized treatment plans. Best practice of those expensive drugs requires predictive biomarker monitoring. This study used circulating biomarker analysis to follow cancer-derived transcripts implicated in therapy resistance.

    METHOD: The isolated platelet population of blood samples and digital-PCR were used to identify selected biomarker transcripts in patients with CRPC prior chemo- or androgen synthesis inhibiting therapy.

    RESULTS: Fifty patients received either docetaxel (n = 24) or abiraterone (n = 26) therapy, with therapy response rates of 54% and 48%, respectively. Transcripts for the PC-associated biomarkers kallikrein-related peptidase-2 and -3 (KLK2, KLK3), folate hydrolase 1 (FOLH1), and neuropeptide-Y (NPY) were uniquely present within the platelet fraction of cancer patients and not detected in healthy controls (n = 15). In the abiraterone treated cohort, the biomarkers provided information on therapy outcome, demonstrating an association between detectable biomarkers and short progression free survival (PFS) (FOLH1, P < 0.01; KLK3, P < 0.05; and NPY, P < 0.05). Patients with biomarker-negative platelets had the best outcome, while FOLH1 (P < 0.05) and NPY (P = 0.05) biomarkers provided independent predictive information in a multivariate analysis regarding PFS. KLK2 (P < 0.01), KLK3 (P < 0.001), and FOLH1 (P < 0.05) biomarkers were associated with short overall survival (OS). Combining three biomarkers in a panel (KLK3, FOLH1, and NPY) made it possible to separate long-term responders from short-term responders with 87% sensitivity and 82% specificity.

    CONCLUSION: Analyzing tumor-derived biomarkers in platelets of CRPC patients enabled prediction of the outcome after abiraterone therapy with higher accuracy than baseline serum PSA or PSA response.

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