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  • 1. Allard, Christina
    et al.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Hjortfors, Lis-Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Ledman, Anna-Lill
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Johansson Lönn, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Norlin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Reimerson, Elsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sehlin MacNeil, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Stoor, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Storm Mienna, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Svonni, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Össbo, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Rasbiologiskt språkbruk i statens rättsprocess mot sameby2015In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Statens hantering av forskningsresultat i rättsprocessen med Girjas sameby utgör ett hot mot Sverige som rättsstat och kunskapsnation. Åratal av svensk och internationell forskning underkänns och man använder ett språkbruk som skulle kunna vara hämtat från rasbiologins tid. Nu måste staten ta sitt ansvar och börja agera som en demokratisk rättsstat, skriver 59 forskare.

  • 2. Duit, Andreas
    et al.
    Galaz, Victor
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Fragmenterad förvirring eller kreativ arena?: från hierarkisk till förhandlad styrning i svensk naturvårdspolitik2009In: Samhällsstyrning i förändring / [ed] Jon Pierre och Göran Sundström, Liber Förlag , 2009, p. 125-148Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Duit, Andreas
    et al.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Dealing With a Wicked Problem?: A Dark Tale of Carnivore Management in Sweden 2007-20112018In: Administration & Society, ISSN 0095-3997, E-ISSN 1552-3039, Vol. 50, no 8, p. 1072-1096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we investigate whether increased participation offers a way of addressing wicked policy problems. We utilize a natural policy experiment in the form of a 2010 reform of Swedish wildlife management policy aiming to solve longstanding conflicts over predators through increased stakeholder participation in regional Wildlife Management Boards. Using a panel study design containing quantitative and qualitative data, we estimate pre- and post-reform levels of three wickedness-reducing mechanisms: legitimacy, deliberation, and conflict intensity. Despite a substantial increase in participation, we find no evidence of reduced wickedness after the reform.

  • 4.
    Ledman, Anna-Lill
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sandström, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sehlin Macneil, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Åsa, Össbo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Lantto, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Vänd på perspektiven Umeå20142013In: Västerbottens Kuriren, ISSN 1104-0246Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Can technology bring on a revolution? A study of transformation in the governing system of reindeer husbandry in Sweden.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Challenging Adaptability: Analysing the Governance of Reindeer Husbandry in Sweden2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We live in a complex, interconnected and constantly changing world. Human driven global climate change is now a local reality that reinforces the inherent need for adaptability in human systems. Adaptability, the capacity to adapt to disturbance and change and navigate system transformation, can be understood as a function of socio-political interactions. The capacity of governing systems to deal with novel challenges through novel forms of interaction is a key issue in the governance literature, but which is only beginning to be explored. We therefore know little of how global change will impact the local level and how institutions and governing systems will respond.

    The need for adaptability is likely to be more pronounced for tightly coupled human-environmental systems. Indigenous and natural resource dependent communities in general, and in the Northern hemisphere in particular, are among the most exposed to ongoing and projected climate change. In Sweden, reindeer husbandry is an Indigenous Sami livelihood and extensive land-use practice highly exposed to weather conditions and increasing competition over land and resources. Whereas herders struggle to deal with the challenges that now confront them, the practice is also known as resilient and sustainable, having withstood large-scale social, ecological and economic change before.

    The aim with this thesis is to explore adaptability from a governancetheoretical perspective in the case of Sami reindeer husbandry in Sweden. The thesis thereby contributes to the emerging literatures on governance and adaptability and addresses empirically identified needs.

    Theoretically, the thesis draws on Kooiman’s interactive governance framework, which offers a multidimensional approach to governance analysis where structural aspects are addressed through modes (self-, coand hierarchical governing) and intentional aspects through governing elements (images, instruments and action). While conceptually encompassing, the framework has rarely been employed in empirical analyses. In advancing an operationalisation of the framework based on governing orders (operational, institutional and meta-order), the thesis thereby makes a theoretical contribution.

    Designed as a qualitative case study, the thesis explores how reindeer husbandry is governed and how governing has changed over time (institutional and meta-order); how the governing system restricts or facilitates adaptation and transformation (operational order); and how a governance-theoretical perspective can contribute to our understanding of adaptability. Methods include document analysis, focus groups, interviews and participatory observation. Studies focussing the operational order have been conducted in collaboration with Vilhelmina North reindeer herding community in Västerbotten county, Sweden.

    The results show that only marginal change has occurred over time and state actors still dominate governing interactions. The governing system is riddled with inconsistencies among governing elements and particularly problematic is the lack of coherence between different meta-order images and between different actors. This gives rise to divergent and conflicting views as to ‘what’ the system of reindeer husbandry is and explains some of the observed governing inaction and limited problem-solving capacity of the governing system. Herders are currently highly restricted in their opportunities for adaptation and transformation and the governing system therefore acts restricting rather than facilitating on adaptability. By adopting a governance-theoretical approach, adaptability as a system quality has been decomposed and challenged and the important role of governing images and power in determining adaptability has been highlighted. It has called attention to questions such as who is forced to adapt, how images and governing interactions are constructed, and how different socio-political actors can exercise influence over the governing system and interactions taking place therein.

    The thesis calls for more critical and empirical research on adaptability and argues that future studies need to situate and balance adaptability against other fundamental values and rights. In the case of reindeer husbandry, efforts are needed to create a better internal fit between governing elements as well as between involved socio-political actors. This could enable more equal governing interactions with other land-users and thereby contribute to mitigating conflicts as well as increasing adaptability.

  • 7.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Examining limits and barriers to climate change adaptation in an Indigenous reindeer herding community2013In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 328-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on recognized gaps in adaptation research the article begins by identifying the need to empirically investigate the‘governance of adaptation’. Drawing on Kooiman’s interactive governance framework, the study examines through collaborative methodology how adaptation agency and the space for adaptation is constructed and restricted in the case ofan Indigenous reindeer herding community in Sweden. Findings demonstrate that climate change and variability iscurrently a matter of concern. The greatest problem, however, is the diminishing space for adaptation due to accumulated pressure of predation and competing land-uses in combination with herders’ lack of direct and indirect power to influence the actors and institutional factors currently limiting adaptation options. This study carries relevance not only for reindeer herding communities in Sweden, but also for the general adaptation literature in demonstrating that limits and barriers to adaptation can be essentially political; requiring the making of hard choices and hence active governmental intervention.It also shows that marginalized groups, even in contexts where adaptive capacity is considered high, are likely to remain highly vulnerable with restricted adaptation opportunities unless deliberate structural and institutional transformation are initiated.

  • 8.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Exploring adaptability through learning layers and learning loops2010In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 529-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptability in social-ecological systems results from individual and collective action, and multi-level interactions. It can be understood in a dual sense as a system's ability to adapt to disturbance and change, and to navigate system transformation. Inherent in this conception, as found in resilience thinking, are the concepts of learning and governance. Without learning, or unlearning, neither adaptation nor transformation is possible, and without governance we neither collectively act on nor institutionally embed learning experiences. This paper provides an attempt at synthesising and structuring this conceptual mapping and understanding of adaptability by adding insights from governance theory and using learning layers and learning loops as bridging concepts. As the overview demonstrates, the resilience-learning-governance interface provides some fruitful insights for the conceptual and theoretical understanding of adaptability, adaptation and transformation in resilience theory. Whereas resilience answers to why the adaptation-transformation distinction is important in the first place, learning provides the necessary link between the individual and system level, while governance brings further insights into the different potential mechanisms available for institutionally implementing adaptation and transformation. This exploration points to the need to develop a framework for understanding adaptability that: (1) identifies social-ecological systems in terms of structure, process and outcome, and particularly self-reinforcing feedbacks; (2) adds an institutional framework including formal and informal decision-making arenas; (3) explicitly addresses norms, values and ideas; (4) emphasises power, negotiation and facilitation; and (5) emphasises the importance of deliberate learning and transformation strategies.

  • 9.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Exploring adaptability through learning layers and learning loops2011In: Resilience in social-ecological systems: the role of learning and education / [ed] Marianne E. Krasny, Cecilia Lundholm and Ryan Plummer, London: Routledge, 2011, p. 63-77Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptability in social–ecological systems results from individual and collective action, and multi-level interactions. It can be understood in a dual sense as a system’s ability to adapt to disturbance and change, and to navigate system transformation. Inherent in this conception, as found in resilience thinking, are the concepts of learning and governance. Without learning, or unlearning, neither adaptation nor transformation is possible, and without governance we neither collectively act on nor institutionally embed learning experiences. This paper provides an attempt at synthesising and structuring this conceptual mapping and understanding of adaptability by adding insights from governance theory and using learning layers and learning loops as bridging concepts. As the overview demonstrates, the resilience–learning–governance interface provides some fruitful insights for the conceptual and theoretical understanding of adaptability,adaptation and transformation in resilience theory. Whereas resilience answers to why the adaptation–transformation distinction is important in the first place,learning provides the necessary link between the individual and system level, while governance brings further insights into the different potential mechanisms available for institutionally implementing adaptation and transformation. This exploration points to the need to develop a framework for understanding adaptability that: (1) identifies social–ecological systems in terms of structure, process and outcome, and particularly self-reinforcing feedbacks; (2) adds an institutional framework including formal and informal decision-making arenas;(3) explicitly addresses norms, values and ideas; (4) emphasises power, negotiation and facilitation; and (5) emphasises the importance of deliberate learning and transformation strategies.

  • 10.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Locking in and locking out: a critical analysis of the governance of reindeer husbandry in Sweden2016In: Critical Policy Studies, ISSN 1946-0171, E-ISSN 1946-018X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 426-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on an interactive governance framework, this article provides a critical analysis of the governing system (GS) of Sami reindeer husbandry in Sweden, an indigenous natural resource-based livelihood. Situated against a historical contextualization, and focusing on the relationship between governing images, instruments and action, the study explores how reindeer husbandry is currently governed and how governing has changed over time. In contrast to well-established narratives of increased participation and indigenous peoples' right to self-determination, this study demonstrates that the governing of Sami reindeer husbandry remains mainly hierarchical and is characterized by inconsistencies. The GS's elements are poorly fitted internally, there are large differences in understanding between key actors and, over time, only marginal change - in governing structures and meta-images - has occurred. Thus, reindeer husbandry actors appear to be locked out of essential governing functions and locked into a system that is proving hard to change.

  • 11.
    Löf, Annette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Andersson, Tore
    Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Horstkotte, Tim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ledman, Anna-Lill
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sehlin Macneil, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Össbo, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Okunskap om samisk kultur grogrund för strukturell diskriminering2013In: Västerbottens-Kuriren, ISSN 1104-0246Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Löf, Annette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Carriere, Naomi
    University of Saskatchewan.
    Learning from our Elders: Aboriginal perspectives on climate change and reindeer/caribou habitat in the circumboreal forest2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Executive Summary

    The northernmost regions in the world are projected to suffer the most severe consequences of climate change. Natural resource-based communities and Indigenous peoples have been identified as particularly susceptible and research efforts are increasingly directed at exploring the potential consequences of climate change on the livelihoods of Indigenous peoples. Using Indigenous (IK) or Traditional knowledge (TK) as a ―canary‖ or early warning for climate change as well as a complement to ‗western scientific knowledge‘ or to supplement the lack of observational and diachronic data is also gaining increasing popularity. However, whereas interest in IK /TK has grown exponentially over the last two decades, research has tended to neglect taking a critical perspective on learning processes and knowledge transfer mechanisms. Research has treated IK/TK more as an artifact handed down through generations or as information to be automatically appropriated when spending time on the land.With rapid changes in their environments, Indigenous peoples and communities with close connection to the land will face the most severe challenges. How a changing climate is viewed by the people and how they adapt, will be learned, in part, through trial and error. These newly-learned experiences will be understood, transmitted, communicated and translated in their first language. New terminology in that first language may evolve to help identify and explain climate change phenomena. New practices will have to be developed to help people cope with these changes. The connections between climate change, livelihood, and survival are thus highly significant culturally in addition to those identified through statistics and numerical trends.Against this backdrop, in view of the complexity and severity of potential climate change ahead, we recognise the need for in-depth studies, unveiling people‘s own conceptions and understandings of their livelihood situations and possibilities to adapt to climate change (cf. Keskitalo 2008). We also recognize an empirical need to strengthen our understanding of those residing and acting within forested ecosystems in the Circumboreal North.

    By exploring two Indigenous communities, one reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) herding community in northern Sweden and a woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) hunting community in Saskatchewan, Canada, this research project aims at partly addressing this knowledge gap. These communities are linked by the key species of reindeer/caribou (culturally and ecologically) and shared climatic challenges. Each locality is also embedded within a model forest and the two regions have become partners in order to share learning and practice with each other. To date, they have initiated cultural collaborations and exchanges among elders and youth and have committed to conducting research and other activities that support mutual learning.The purpose of this study has been to link understandings of species distributions of reindeer/caribou based on Indigenous observations of climate change and habitat conditions to herders‘ and hunters‘ adaptive strategies in two model forest regions: Prince Albert (Canada) and Vilhelmina (Sweden) Model Forests. As we conducted the research, it became clear that it is also important to consider how these changes link to learning processes and how learning is layered within these communities. For example, which different knowledge transfer mechanisms are activated? Which are the most important learning arenas? And can different types of learning and adaptive decision-making (such as ad hoc, contextual, 'on the spot‘ decision-making; thumb-rules; and more value-based, normative understandings) also be linked to different mechanisms 

    and arenas? By exploring these dimensions, the research explicitly addressed the relationship between individual and collective learning about climate change in the two model forest regions. In summary, the research attempted to give voice to northern Indigenous residents and their descriptions of a rapidly changing world, particularly in terms of climate change, and present an analysis of the challenges and opportunities to securing the flow of Indigenous knowledge by exploring inhibitors and opportunities to learning in a climate change context.Our study shows that changing weather patterns is a major concern of Indigenous residents in the circumboreal forest region. In Sweden climate testimonies concern a range of observed environmental changes; extreme weather events, long-term cycles and shorter-term cycles in weather patterns and vegetation. Whereas these observations cannot be directly seen as consequences of global climate change, they are strikingly similar to effects as projected by for instance the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).In the Prince Albert Model Forest, climate testimonies concern changes in weather patterns, extreme weather events, and shifting climatic conditions. The testimonies suggest observational changes such as limitations in vegetation growth, loss of species, new migratory species, impacts on insect cycles, fatalities in small fur-bearing animals, changes to fish migrations (possibly interfering with spawn), and loss of amphibians.

    Drawing on the accumulation of experiences and observations stored within these two cases of Northern Indigenous communities we argue that these serve well as canaries of potential climate change. Furthermore, as exemplified in the Swedish case, not only may Northern Indigenous communities function as valuable qualitative and local information sources, they may further act as active stewards of combating negative effects of climate change in how they adjust land use activities over large areas.The study also shows that the current observed changes in weather patterns as well as contemporary social structures (e.g. ―westernized‖ forms of education) pose serious threats to Indigenous Knowledge practices; partly in content and partly in the reduction of opportunities to transfer that knowledge across members of a community, including to future generations.In order to understand impacts of climate change on reindeer and woodland caribou populations and the adaptive capacity of Indigenous people, we relied on observational and qualitative methods and suggested some differences and similarities across the two regions. Comparisons relate to climate and climate change, increasing anthropogenic and industrial activities, impacts of local and regional governance, and long and short term changes in culture (see Section 4). We note that northern Indigenous communities are not standing passively, they are proactive and it is in their nature to be stewards of the land. The study shows that they have adopted a range of strategies and approaches in dealing with impacts associated with climate change, drawing on a combination of tradition, previous experiences and modern technology. Climate change may not be the greatest threat in the regions at this point; however, the implications of climate change compound other issues such as increased competition from other land users and losses associated with the imposition of western cultural values.

  • 13.
    Löf, Annette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Duit, Andreas
    Department of Political Science, Stockholm University.
    Acceptans genom medbestämmande?: En analys av regional rovdjursförvaltning 2007-20112012In: Mål för rovdjuren: Slutbetänkade av rovdjursutredningen / [ed] SOU 2012:22, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2012, p. 223-253Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2007/2008 genomförde vi intervjuer med tjänstemän och representanter för naturvårds- och jaktintresset i de regionalarovdjursgrupperna (RRG) i 11 län, till övervägande del belägna i det mellansvenska området. Under våren 2011 genomfördes en uppföljande studie i vilken tjänstemän samt naturvårds- och jaktintressets delegater i de nyligen inrättade viltförvaltningsdelegationerna (VFD) intervjuades enligt i stort sett samma frågemall. 2011 års studie kompletterades med en e-enkät till samtliga delegater i viltförvaltningsdelegationerna i de 11 län som ursprungligen ingått i studien. Med reservation för att relativt kort tid förflutit sedan 2010 års reform ger detta underlag goda möjligheteratt jämföra de regionala rovdjursgrupperna med de viltförvaltningsdelegationer som inrättades i deras ställe, och kan på så sätt användas för att dra slutsatser om reformens effekter.

    Enkätundersökningen möjliggör dessutom vissa generaliseringar angående förhållandena inom viltförvaltningsdelegationerna, även om urvalet av län är begränsat. Utifrån detta material har vi av rovdjursutredningen (M 2010:02) ombetts 1) analysera huruvida syftet med viltförvaltningsdelegationerna har uppnåtts samt 2) utvärdera styrkor och svagheter med den nuvarande institutionella konstruktionen. Vi har därtill ombetts diskutera eventuella alternativa institutionella lösningar för rovdjursförvaltningen om syftet ej skulle anses uppnått. Vi tolkar inrättandet av viltförvaltningsdelegationer som ett led i en strävan att öka acceptansen för rovdjuren genom att stärka rovdjurspolitikens legitimitet på lokal nivå. Enligt propositionen”En ny rovdjursförvaltning” (Prop. 2008/09:210) kan huvudsyftet med viltförvaltningsdelegationerna därför sägas vara att åstadkomma en utökad regionalisering av ansvar samt möjliggöra lokaltinflytande genom deltagande i och inflytande över förvaltningen. I relation till dessa målsättningar visar vår undersökning att:

    • Jämfört med de regionala rovdjursgrupperna finns inga markanta förbättringar vad gäller den sammanlagda graden av upplevd legitimitet, men heller inga försämringar. Det finns däremot vissa tecken på kvalitativa skiftningar i legitimitetsgrunden. Inom VFD tycks legitimiteten ha ökat för rovdjurspolitikeni allmänhet, men däremot har implementeringen av VFD-reformen lett till besvikelse över delegationernas begränsade mandat och därmed också till en legitimitetsförlust för rovdjurspolitikens regionala organisering samt för centrala förvaltningsorgan inom detta område.
    • Det finns tecken på att VFD-reformen medfört en professionalisering av den regionala vilt- och rovdjursförvaltningen, dels i bemärkelsen att intresserepresentanter i högre grad äntidigare uppfattar sig själva som myndighetsutövare, dels i att delegater i större utsträckning än tidigare har en etablerad anknytning till de intresseorganisationer de representerar.
    • Jämfört med de regionala rovdjursgrupperna erbjuder VFD sämre möjligheter till dialog och deliberation mellan olika intressen i rovdjursfrågan, vilket delvis kan ha sin grund i den ökande professionaliseringen. Därtill tycks respondenterna uppfatta intensiteten i rovdjurskonflikten som högre än vid det tidigare mättillfället. Denna ökning i upplevd konfliktintensitet kan dock ha andra orsaker än VFD-reformen.
    • Sammanfattningsvis tycks de problem med VFD-reformen som ges uttryck för i studien till stor del stå att finna i dess implementering snarare än i den institutionella konstruktionen som sådan. Sammantaget innebär dessa resultat att genomförandet av VFD-reformen hittills inte har uppnått målsättningen om ökad acceptans genom utökat deltagande, men att det trots allt finns tecken på gynnsamma tendenser som skulle kunna uppfylla målsättningarna på längre sikt. Mot bakgrund av dessa resultat föreslår vi därför att rovdjursutredningenbeaktar följande justeringar av VFD-reformen:
    • Givet en spridd upplevelse av besvikelse bland många av VFDs medlemmar bör man vara försiktig med större reformer av rovdjursförvaltningen under den närmaste tiden. Reformutrymmet är helt enkelt begränsat, och drastiska omorganisationer riskerar att omintetgöra den legitimitet som trots allt återstår inom den regionala rovdjursförvaltningen.
    • Professionaliseringen är en positiv tendens som bör förstärkas inom VFD. Detta kan bäst uppnås genom att utöka VFDs ansvarsområde och beslutskompetens till att omfatta mer konkreta uppgifterinom t.ex. konfliktlösning, informationsinsatser, och förebyggandeåtgärder mot rovdjursangrepp inom länet.
    • Likaså bör den deliberativa funktionen hos VFD förstärkas, dådetta är den kanske viktigaste kvaliteten hos RRG som gåttförlorad genom 2010 års reform. Här är det viktigt att vid sidanav VFDs myndighetsfunktion också vidmakthålla dess funktionsom diskussionsforum.
    • Det finns skäl att se över representationsordningen inom VFD, särskilt vad avser politikerrepresentanter. Vad som upplevs som en skev intresserepresentation inom VFD undergräver möjligheterna till konstruktiv dialog och överenskommelser, och det är viktigt att vidta åtgärder mot detta så snart som möjligt.
    • Som policyområde präglas rovdjursförvaltningen av omfattande reglering som syftar till att upprätthålla rovdjurspopulationer. Däremot saknas nästan helt incitament för att tolerera rovdjursetablering inom ett förvaltningsområde. Utredningen bör därför överväga om det på längre sikt går att finna konstruktioner som utöver befintlig reglering också medför positiva konsekvenser för berörda grupper av att ha rovdjur inom förvaltningsområdet. Exempel på sådana konsekvenser kan vara extra medel till viltvård, skadeersättningar, eller föreningsverksamhet som kopplastill nyetablering av rovdjursbestånd. Sådana positiva konsekvenser av rovdjursetableringar kan antas ha en gynnsam inverkan på acceptansen för rovdjurspolitiken.
  • 14.
    Löf, Annette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Per
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Baer, Karin
    Vilhelmina norra sameby.
    Stinnerbom, Marita
    Vilhelmina norra sameby.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Renskötsel och klimatförändring: Risker, sårbarhet och anpassningsmöjligheter i Vilhelmina norra sameby2012Report (Other academic)
  • 15. Tennberg, Monica
    et al.
    Dale, Brigt
    Klyuchnikova, Elena
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Masloboev, Vladimir
    Scheepstra, Annette
    Kietaevaeinen, Asta
    Naskali, Päivi
    Rautio, Arja
    Local and regional perspectives on adaptation2017In: Adaptation actions for a changing Arctic: perspectives from the Barents area / [ed] Carolyn Symon, Oslo: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) , 2017, p. 47-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
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