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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Clashes between contending market regimes: a challenge for firms in converging industries2011In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 454-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework that describe three contending market regimes in converging industries, and to use this framework to study clashes between the different regimes and the implication they have on firms’ competitive strategies and on the interaction among competitors. More specifically, it is the challenges that develop when competitors simultaneously are acting in accordance with a competitive, a cooperative, and a co-opetitive market regime that are elaborated upon.

    Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory study of the interaction between firms within the IT and Telecom industry is conducted using a case study approach with in-depth interviews with 30 informants within the industry together with secondary data.

    Findings – The paper brings forward clashes between different market regimes in converging industries and six propositions are formulated.  The study furthermore shows how firms respond differently to a demand-driven convergence, some act in accordance with a competitive regime and try to exclude others whereas others act in accordance with the co-opetitive regime and cooperate with competitors to develop new product offers.

  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Managing coopetition to create opportunities for small firms2014In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 401-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how coopetition enables Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) to create entrepreneurial opportunities in fast-paced industries. The purpose is to explore the managerial challenges that SMEs face when collaborating with large powerful competitors and examine how they balance the relationship to create and sustain business opportunities through coopetition. Based on three exploratory case studies in the IT and telecom industry, we develop a theoretical model suggesting that SME can manage the liabilities of smallness and newness; and sustain independence in and balance coopetitive relationships with large firms if they develop alliance portfolio managing capabilities. We find that the ability to build legitimacy, to enhance agility and to create role flexibility plays an important role in balancing and navigating among different coopetitive relationships, thereby creating and sustaining opportunities.

  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Näsholm, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Alliance portfolio management capability of SMEs: strategies for dealing with larger partners2015In: Strategic alliances for SME development / [ed] T. K. Das, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2015, p. 1-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Näsholm, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    A systematic review of coopetition: levels and effects on different levels2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the field of coopetition has grown the multi-level nature of the phenomena have not been systematically addressed. The purpose of this systematic review is to organize extant research by distinguishing between level of coopetition and the effects of coopetition. Through a search of two databases, 99 articles were identified addressing coopetition, or collaboration and competition. The articles were classified by the method used, the level of coopetition addressed and on what level the effects were described. Within the different combinations of level and effect a content analysis was made of the articles. We suggest that additional clarification of the concept is needed to consolidate the field and give direction for future research. 

  • 5.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Försörjningskedjans dynamik: en studie av småföretag i överlappande nätverk2009Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna licentiatuppsats är skapa förståelse för hur små företag positionerat i överlappningen mellan olika nätverksstrukturer kan balansera och dra nytta att sin position. Studien behandlar två typer av nätverksstrukturer, dels den hierarkiska försörjningskedjan, dels det strategiska, multilaterala nätverket. Studien har delats upp i två delsyften och ett huvudsyfte. Det första delsyftet är att är att skapa förståelse för styrning och samordning och de kravbilder som småföretaget ställs inför i försörjningskedjan. Det andra delsyftet är att skapa en förståelse för styrning och samordning och de kravbilder som småföretaget ställs inför i det strategiska multilaterala nätverket. Genom att arbeta mot dessa två delsyften ligger de till grund för att nå det huvudsakliga syftet, att skapa en förståelse för hur små företag positionerat i överlappande nätverk balanserar och drar nytta av de kravbilder som de båda nätverken ställer.Studien har ett explorativt syfte och det empiriska arbetet består av två fallstudier som utgår från småföretag som befinner sig i en överlappande position. De båda fallföretagen skiljer sig åt i sin affärsinriktning och sättet att skapa ett mervärde där det första fallföretaget har en relativt enkel teknologi och dess värdeskapande ligger i att de kan producera kostnadseffektivt. Företaget har inga egna produkter eller produktutveckling, en stor del av verksamheten är att fungera som legotillverkare åt andra företag. Det andra fallföretaget är ett högteknologiskt företag som äger sina produkter och en stor del av verksamheten koncentreras till produktutveckling. Dess affärsinriktning är framförallt produktutvckling och ett innovativt agerande. Studien bidrar till forskningsområdet om försörjningskedjor och småföretag. Genom att för det första belysa och skapa förståelse för beroendeförhållanden mellan olika nätverk och visa på hur försörjningskedjan är inbäddad i omkringliggande nätverksstrukturer som i vissa situationer stöttar och förstärker och i andra situationer försvagar varandra bidrar denna studie till forskningsområdet. Genom att för det andra belysa och skapa förståelse för hur småföretag agerar för att balansera och drar nytta av att vara del av dels försörjningskedjor och dels andra multilaterala samarbeten bidrar denna studie till såväl forskningsområdet om försörjningskedjor och forskningsområdet om småföretag.Fallstudierna visar på olika strukturella och relationella förutsättningar som påverkar småföretagens möjlighet att balansera och dra nytta av sin position. Studien visar på såväl spänningar i form av rollkonflikter och konkurrens i överlappningen som trögheter i form av en överinbäddning och starkt socialt kapital i de studerade nätverken. Studien skapar en förståelse för hur dessa spänningar och trögheter kan vara stärkande såväl som tärande för nätverkens konkurrenskraft och påverkar företagets möjlighet att balansera och dra nytta av sin position i överlappande nätverk.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Interaction in dynamic networks: role-playing and its implication on innovation2011In: IMP Journal Seminar 2011, Uppsala University, 30 mars-1 april: Special Issue: Innovation in Business Networks: - Downstream and upstream interactions. Consequences for innovation, Oslo: Norwegian School of Management , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Interaction in dynamic networks: Role-playing and its implications for innovation2012In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 17-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to explore how firms play different roles within their upstream and downstream interactions and to discuss the implications firms role-playing has for innovation. A case study reveal how firms in the converging IT and telecommunication industries are challenged to manage increasingly temporal and co-opetitive interactions within their long-term relationships. The paper contributes by shedding lights on how firms balance between long-term relationships and short-term interactions, to cooperate and compete simultaneously where a partner in one interaction can be a competitor in another, and how firms’ relational role-playing (with the dimensions of role-flexibility, role-ambiguity and role-tension) can have implications for innovation. A conceptual model is proposed that links long-term relations, short-term interaction and actors’ role-playing and its implications for innovation in networks. An innovation network model is further proposed to depict interactions in dynamic innovation network and as a tool of how to manage different and contradicting roles in upstream and downstream relationships.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Management of multiple roles and positions in co-opetitive network relations2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Supply chain strategies and new emerging business models: Challenges for firms in converging industries2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The balancing act: Cooperating with competitors2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coopetition, the strategy by which companies cooperate and compete simultaneously in their business relationships, has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners the last decade. Despite the recognized importance for firms to develop strategies to manage coopetitive relationships, the ways in which firms cope with strategic dilemmas in coopetition has not been sufficiently researched.  Firms engaging in coopetition may encounter contradictions, paradoxes and tensions that need to be managed in order for the business relationships to be beneficial.

    This doctoral thesis consists of five individual but related studies with the overarching aim to advance the understanding of firms’ capabilities to balance strategic dilemmas in coopetition. The thesis addresses three research questions.  How do firms balance interaction, roles and expectation in coopetition? How do firms balance power and dependency through portfolios of relationship in coopetition? How do firms balance temporalities in coopetition?

    All five research papers explore different aspects of the ways in which companies balance contradicting logics of interactions in coopetition, and how firms manage tensions in the interactions, which is critical for the coopetitive relationships to evolve and be beneficial. Three of the papers examine firms’ capability to adhere to and balance different roles and expectations in coopetition. Firms need to be flexible in their role-playing behavior to act as customers, partners, supplier and competitors in a relationship. These roles come with conflicting role expectations. Firms’ role-playing capability is related to the mindset that is needed in their role performance.

    Moreover, the thesis investigates how Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) balance power and dependency through portfolios of relationships. These findings are reported in three of the research papers and cover both how SMEs balance asymmetric buyer-supplier relationships by building coopetitive relationships with SME competitors and how small firms build and reconfigure portfolios of relationships to balance their relationship with large competitors. The thesis uncovers how SME are able to sustain independence in and to balance asymmetric coopetitive relationships if they develop alliance portfolio managing capabilities; build legitimacy, enhance agility and create role flexibility. These capabilities are found to be critical for small firms in balancing and navigating among different coopetitive relationships, thereby creating and sustaining business opportunities.

    Finally, the thesis explores how companies balance temporalities in coopetition. Two of the research papers uncover firms’ capabilities to balance this dilemma. The studies uncover how firms encounter dilemmas to interact on a temporary basis while sustaining important long-term relations in coopetition and how increased temporary relationships combined with long-term relationships can create both dynamics and tensions and how these tensions need to be managed in order to be beneficial.

    To conclude, this thesis has comprehensively explored firms’ capabilities to balance strategic dilemmas in coopetition through five studies with different theoretical approaches and multiple cases of large and small firms in different industry settings, covering both more stable industries and dynamic and rapidly changing industries.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Marlene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Abrahamsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Competing with the use of business model innovation: an exploratory case study of the journey of born global firms2014In: Journal of Business Models, ISSN 2246-2465, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 33-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate how business models are used by born global firms to act upon new business opportunities and how they manage business model innovation over time to prosper and grow.

    Design/Methodology: The study is based on three exploratory case studies of born global firms in mobile communication, financial services and digital music distribution.   Findings: Three interrelated capabilities to manage business model innovation are articulated in the context of born global firms; sensing capabilities, entrepreneurial capabilities and relational capabilities and four propositions are formulated. We find that business model innovations are used as a tool by maturing born global firms to navigate the value chains and achieve international growth. We further propose that born global need the capabilities to balance different business model designs simultaneously and to manage its business model innovation in a timely manner.

    Originality: This article contributes to both the business model literature and research of international entrepreneurship. By putting business model research into the dynamic context of rapidly internationalizing born global firms, we contribute to the field of business model research with findings of how business models are used in the internationalization processes. Certain capabilities are needed to manage business model innovation for born global firms to dynamically use business models as a tool in the international growth overtime. 

  • 12.
    Johansson, Marlene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Business Administration.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Study on balancing cooperation and competition in coopetitive relationships through bridging and bondingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coopetitive relationships, with simultaneous cooperation and competition, are argued to be beneficial for the development of competitive advantage. To obtain and maintain such advantage over time the relationship however needs to be balanced. Through two longitudinal case studies we examine how bridging and bonding activities can facilitate and restrict the balancing of coopetitive relationships. Our findings illustrate changes in coopetitive relationships over time, focusing how these changes affect the coopetitive balance. We show how bridging and bonding possibilities arise in coopetitive relationships, how bridging and bonding are related and influence each other, and outline mechanisms in the different processes that facilitate and restrict firms’ ability to balance coopetitive relationships over time. The study offer implications for the literature on firms’ capabilities to manage coopetition as a strategy.

  • 13.
    Näsholm, Malin H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Coopetition for SMEs2018In: The Routledge companion to coopetition strategies / [ed] Anne-Sophie Fernandez, Paul Chiambaretto, Frédéric Le Roy, and Wojciech Czakon, Abingdon: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 390-397Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coopeting with other firms can be a necessary, but risky, strategy for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This chapter discusses specificities of small firms that make coopetition important for their growth and success, but also make them particularly vulnerable. Relationships with larger firms are especially challenging due to power asymmetry, and SMEs need to consider their entire portfolio of alliances to manage them. We explore capabilities needed by SMEs to cope with the challenges and define dimensions of alliance management and portfolio management capabilities. We also provide directions for further research.

  • 14.
    Renström, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Sleeping with the Enemy?: The Delicate Art of Managing Different Roles at Ericsson's Purchasing Unit2013In: Principles and Practice of Marketing / [ed] David Jobber and Fiona Ellis-Chadwick, Berkshire: McGraw-Hill, 2013, 7, p. 182-184Chapter in book (Other academic)
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