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  • 1.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD)2014In: The Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology / [ed] Claire Smith, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2014, p. 7076-7085Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental archaeology encompasses a wide range of scientific methods for analyzing the results of past human activities, environments, climates and perhaps most importantly, the relationships between these. Many of these methods are referred to as proxy analyses, denoting the illumination of the past as interpreted through the evidence of fossil organisms or properties. These lines of evidence, or proxy data sources, are assumed to reflect past conditions by way of their dependence on them. For example, crops will only grow within a specific climate range; organic waste will lead to increased soil phosphate levels and burning increases magnetic susceptibility. Whilst it is easier to store, manage and analyze the data produced by these methods individually, there is much to be gained from multi-proxy integration at the raw data level. Despite this methodological diversity, the common factors of space, time and context allow us to compare and integrate the results of analyses. This is, however, easier said than done, and without efficient data handling systems the data rapidly become unmanageable. SEAD represents one solution to this problem, and forms a node in an international web of open access paleoenvironmental and archaeological databases which are driving archaeological science into new realms of more complex, multi-site, multi-proxy analyses and meta-analyses. This article sets out to describe the system, the scientific implications of which are covered in Buckland et al. 2010.

  • 2.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database: Progress Report Spring 20142014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview of the progress and results of the VR:KFI infrastructure projects 2007-7494 and (825-)2010-5976. It should be considered as a status report in an on-going long-term research infrastructure development project.

  • 3.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Viklund, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Svensson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Buckland, Paul
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Institute of Geography, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Uppsala Municipal Council, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Integrating human dimensions of Arctic palaeoenvironmental science: SEAD – the strategic environmental archaeology database2011In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 345-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental change has a human dimension, and has had so for at least the last 10 000 years. The prehistoric impact of people on the Arctic landscape has occasionally left visible traces, such as house and field structures. More often than not, however, the only evidence available is at the microscopic or geochemical level, such as fossil insect and seed assemblages or changes in the physical and chemical properties of soils and sediments. These records are the subject of SEAD, a multidisciplinary database and software project currently underway at Umeå University, Sweden, which aims to create an online database and set of tools for investigating these traces, as part of an international research infrastructure for palaeoecology and environmental archaeology.

  • 4.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Sjölander, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    ICT Services and System Development (ITS), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD)2018In: Encyclopedia of global archaeology / [ed] Smith, C., Cham: Springer, 2018, 2Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental archaeology encompasses a wide range of scientific methods for analyzing the results of past human activities, environments, climates, and perhaps, most importantly, the relationships between these. Many of these methods are referred to as proxy analyses, denoting the illumination of the past as interpreted indirectly through the evidence of fossil organisms or properties. These lines of evidence, or proxy data sources, are assumed to reflect past conditions by way of their dependence on them. For example, a species of beetle may only survive within a specific climate range, and thus its presence in samples indicates this climate at the time of deposition; organic waste deposited around a farmstead will raise soil phosphate levels above those of the surrounding land; and the presence of cereal grains in postholes suggests their local cultivation or import, usage, or storage.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    That voice sounds familiar: factors in speaker recognition2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans have the ability to recognize other humans by voice alone. This is important both socially and for the robustness of speech perception. This Thesis contains a set of eight studies that investigates how different factors impact on speaker recognition and how these factors can help explain how listeners perceive and evaluate speaker identity. The first study is a review paper overviewing emotion decoding and encoding research. The second study compares the relative importance of the emotional tone in the voice and the emotional content of the message. A mismatch between these was shown to impact upon decoding speed. The third study investigates the factor dialect in speaker recognition and shows, using a bidialectal speaker as the target voice to control all other variables, that the dominance of dialect cannot be overcome. The fourth paper investigates if imitated stage dialects are as perceptually dominant as natural dialects. It was found that a professional actor could disguise his voice successfully by imitating a dialect, yet that a listener's proficiency in a language or accent can reduce susceptibility to a dialect imitation. Papers five to seven focus on automatic techniques for speaker separation. Paper five shows that a method developed for Australian English diphthongs produced comparable results with a Swedish glide + vowel transition. The sixth and seventh papers investigate a speaker separation technique developed for American English. It was found that the technique could be used to separate Swedish speakers and that it is robust against professional imitations. Paper eight investigates how age and hearing impact upon earwitness reliability. This study shows that a senior citizen with corrected hearing can be as reliable an earwitness as a younger adult with no hearing problem, but suggests that a witness' general cognitive skill deterioration needs to be considered when assessing a senior citizen's earwitness evidence. On the basis of the studies a model of speaker recognition is presented, based on the face recognition model by V. Bruce and Young (1986; British Journal of Psychology, 77, pp. 305 - 327) and the voice recognition model by Belin, Fecteau and Bédard (2004; TRENDS in Cognitive Science, 8, pp. 129 - 134). The merged and modified model handles both familiar and unfamiliar voices. The findings presented in this Thesis, in particular the findings of the individual papers in Part II, have implications for criminal cases in which speaker recognition forms a part. The findings feed directly into the growing body of forensic phonetic and forensic linguistic research.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Erik J
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Cepeda, Luis F
    Rodman, Robert D
    McAllister, David F
    Bitzer, Donald
    Arroway, Pam
    Cross-language speaker identification using spectral moments2004In: Proceedings of the XVIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference FONETIK 2004, Stockholm University, 2004, p. 76-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Czigler, Peter E.
    Skagerstrand, Åsa
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Effects of age and age-related hearing loss on speaker recognition, or can senior citizens be reliable earwitnessesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Rodman, Robert D.
    Dept. of Computer Science, NCSU, USA.
    Hubal, Robert C.
    Technology Assisted Learning Ctr., RTI International, USA.
    Emotions in speech: juristic implications2007In: Speaker Classification: Volume I, Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on the detection of emotion in speech and the impact that using technology to automate emotion detection would have within the legal system. The current states of the art for studies of perception and acoustics are described, and a number of implications for legal contexts are provided. We discuss, inter alia, assessment of emotion in others, witness credibility, forensic investigation, and training of law enforcement officers.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Schaeffler, Felix
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Acoustic impact on decoding of semantic emotions2007In: Speaker classification II: selected projects / [ed] Christian Müller, Berlin: Springer , 2007, p. 57-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the interaction between the emotion indicated by the content of an utternance and the emotion indicated by the acoustic of an utterance, and considers whether a speaker can hide their emotional state by acting an emotion even though being semantically honest. Three female and two male speakers of Swedish were recorded saying the sentences “Jag har vunnit en miljon pa° lotto” (I have won a million on the lottery), “Det finns böcker i bokhyllan” (There are books on the bookshelf) and “Min mamma har just dött” (my mother just died) as if they were happy, neutral (indifferent), angry or sad. Thirty-nine experimental participants (19 female and 20 male) heard 60 randomly selected stimuli randomly coupled with the question “Do you consider this speaker to be emotionally X?”, where X could be angry, happy, neutral or sad. They were asked to respond yes or no; the listeners’ responses and reaction times were collected. The results show that semantic cues to emotion play little role in the decoding process. Only when there are few specific acoustic cues to an emotion do semantic cues come into play. However, longer reaction times for the stimuli containing mismatched acoustic and semantic cues indicate that the semantic cues to emotion are processed even if they impact little on the perceived emotion.

  • 10. Eriksson, Erik J
    et al.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    An investigation of the effectiveness of a Swedish glide plus vowel segment for speaker discrimination2008In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPEECH LANGUAGE AND THE LAW, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 51-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Eriksson, Erik J
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Controlling Plagiarism: A study of Lecturer Attitudes2008In: Student Plagiarism in an online world: Problems and solutions / [ed] Tim S. Roberts, Hershey, PA, USA: Information Science Reference, 2008, p. 23-36Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Eriksson, Erik J
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Dialect recognition in a noisy environment: preliminary data2007In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2007: Speech, Music and Hearing, Quarterly Progress and Status Report, TMH-QPSR, Volume 50, 2007, p. 101-104Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to identify the dialect spoken by an individual by voice alone has beenwidely investigated for many languages. The studies suggest a large degree of individualvariation in dialect recognition ability and that factors such as perceptualdistance and competence in the language interact with this variation. Trained listenershave also been shown to be unstable in their judgements of dialect. In the studypresented here naïve listeners attending a trade fair in Umeå were asked to selectbetween eight given dialects when identifying two dialects. The test environment wasnoisey. The level of the background noise changed with the flow of people and activitiesassociated with the trade fair. The noisy environment did not appear to affectthe listeners responses.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Erik J
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Sullivan, Kirk PH
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Zetterholm, Elisabeth
    Linneus University.
    Czigler, Peter E
    Örebro University.
    Green, James
    Otago University.
    Skagerstrand, Åsa
    Örebro University.
    van Doorn, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Detection of imitated voices: who are reliable earwitnesses?2010In: International Journal of Speech Language and The Law, ISSN 1748-8885, E-ISSN 1748-8893, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 25-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors affecting an individual’s ability to identify people aurally are of forensic importance.This paper investigates how topic, dialect, gender, age, and hearing statusaffect detection of an imitated voice. Two imitations of the same person, but ondifferent topics, were used as familiarization voices. One topic was associated withthis person, and the other was not. Using discrimination sensitivity (d-prime) it wasfound that topic had a significant impact on d’, as did age (but only when the topicwas not associated with the imitated person). Dialect, gender and hearing statuswere not significant. The older group of listeners was less convinced by the imitationsand in particular the one not associated with the person being imitated. These resultsimply that the validity of earwitness evidence is negatively affected by age and topic.

  • 14. Farrús, Mireia
    et al.
    Eriksson, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Hernando, Javier
    Dialect imitations in speaker recognition2007In: Proceedings of the 2nd European IAFL conference on Forensic Linguistics / Language and the Law / [ed] Turell, M. Teresa; Spassova, Maria; Cicres, Jordi, Barcelona: Institut Universitari de Lingüística Aplicada. Universitat Pompeu Fabra; Documenta Universitaria , 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15. Rodman, Robert D
    et al.
    Eriksson, Erik J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics. Lingvistik.
    Hubal, Robert
    Deducing emotions from speech: forensic implications2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Sjöström, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Eriksson, Erik J
    Zetterholm, Elisabeth
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    A bidialectal experiment on voice Identification2008In: Working Papers,: Department of Linguistics and Phonetics, Lund University, Sweden, Vol. 53, p. 145-158Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 16 of 16
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