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  • 1.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    The concept of accountability in education: Does the Swedish school system apply?2009In: Cadmo, ISSN 1122-5165, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Inzunza, Miguel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Measuring perspective taking among police recruits: A comparison of self-reported and objective measures2019In: Policing: an international Journal of Police Strategies and Managment, ISSN 1363-951X, E-ISSN 1758-695XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Perspective taking (PT), as part of the empathy concept, is an important ability in the police profession. It is important to understand how PT can be measured, but also whether it changes over time. The purpose of this paper is to compare the outcomes of three different measures of PT, and to see whether police students’ PT changes at different stages of their education.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Three measures, one self-reported and two objective tests, were administered to Swedish National Police recruits at three distinct stages of their police training. The outcomes of the measures were psychometrically analyzed, after which associations between measures and between-group differences were assessed.

    Findings

    The result showed that the measures provided results that were in line with what had been reported in earlier studies. There were no significant correlations between the total scores of the three measures, yet students who graded their abilities higher on the subjective instrument did perform better on one of the objective tests. The findings also showed that recruits in later parts of their training self-reported significantly lower PT values than recruits at the beginning of their training.

    Originality/value

    This study adds knowledge on the ability of different types of instruments to measure PT and how this construct may develop over time among police recruits.

  • 3.
    Lind Pantzare, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Using summative tests for formative purposes: an analysis of the added value of subscoresManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge tests, both standardized and teacher developed, are central in teachers’ daily work when forming decisions on student achievement. Although it is recommended that a test should be used only for its intended purpose, tests that were designed for summative purposes are nevertheless used for giving feedback or making formative decisions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether a summative test within the Swedish national test framework can provide meaningful information for formative use by testing its reliability on the subscore level. The study also aims to analyze whether a Swedish national test can be used for provide guidance for practitioners who wish to use the information on the subscore level for planning instruction as well as other formative purposes, as sometimes implied in the information to teachers.

  • 4.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Rolfsman, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Wedman, Jonathan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Det nya högskoleprovet: samband mellan provresultat och prestation i högskolan2014Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    (Re)innovations in university admission tests: Potential consequences for test development, admission decisions, and test-takers2009In: Innovation in assessment to meet changing needs, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the potential consequences of future changes to the Swedish Scholastic Assessment Test (SweSAT; based on the SAT), from a perspective of validity and efficiency. Since changes to the test will affect high-stakes decisions on student’s possibilities to access higher education, it is important to investigate how such changes will affect the admissions decisions: who will be admitted to higher education and who will not, which will lead to consequences to stakeholders on all levels. This paper presents a model for how a validation can be organised and some preliminary evidence of consequences that the changes will lead to.

  • 6.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Commentary - 'Accountability measures: The factory farm version of education'2017In: The Psychology of Education Review, ISSN 1463-9807, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 50-54Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Criterion-referenced measurement for educational evaluation and selection2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Sweden has adopted a criterion-referenced grading system, where the grade outcome is used for several purposes, but foremost for educational evaluation on student- and school levels as well as for selection to higher education. This thesis investigates the consequences of using criterion-referenced measurement for both educational evaluation and selection purposes. The thesis comprises an introduction and four papers that empirically investigate school grades and grading practices in Swedish upper secondary schools.

    The first paper investigates the effect of school competition on the school grades. The analysis focuses on how students in schools with and without competition are ranked, based on their grades and SweSAT scores. The results show that schools that are exposed to competition tend to grade their students higher than other schools. This effect is found to be related to the use of grades as quality indicators for the schools, which means that schools that compete for their students tend to be more lenient, hence inflating the grades. The second paper investigates grade averages over a six-year period, starting with the first cohort who graduated from upper secondary school with a GPA based on criterion-referenced grades. The results show that grades have increased every year since the new grading system was introduced, which cannot be explained by improved performances, selection effects or strategic course choices. The conclusion is that the increasing pressure for high grading has led to grade inflation over time. The third paper investigates if grading practices are related to school size. The study is based on a similar model as paper I, but with data from graduates over a six-year period, and with school size as the main focus. The results show small but significant size effects, suggesting that the smallest schools (<300 students) are higher grading than other schools, and that the largest schools (>1000 students) are lower grading than other schools. This is assumed to be an effect of varying assessment practices, in combination with external and internal pressure for high grading. The fourth and final paper investigates if grading practices differ among upper secondary programmes, and how the course compositions in the programmes affect how students are ranked in the process of selection to higher education. The results show that students in vocationally oriented programmes are higher graded than other students, and also favoured by their programmes’ course compositions, which have a positive effect on their competitive strength in the selection to higher education.

    In the introductory part of the thesis, these results are discussed from the perspective of a theoretical framework, with special attention to validity issues in a broad perspective. The conclusion is that the criterion-referenced grades, both in terms of being used for educational evaluation, and as an instrument for selection to higher education, are wanting both in reliability and in validity. This is related to the conflicting purposes of the instruments, in combination with few control mechanisms, which affects how grades are interpreted and used, hence leading to consequences for students, schools and society in general.

  • 8.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Datorbaserade prov: egenskaper, möjligheter och begränsningar2005Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Does school size affect teachers' grading practices?Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Education and assessment in Sweden2006In: Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, ISSN 0969-594X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 113-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education and assessment in Swedish schools have been affected by several reforms during the last two decades. The educational system has moved from centralization to decentralization and a goal-oriented approach has been introduced on all educational levels. This paper provides an historical overview of the Swedish educational system, educational and assessment policies and principles, to explain why and how the reforms have been carried out. This is followed by a discussion on the effects and consequences of recent reforms, based on findings in recent education and assessment research.

  • 11.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Grade stability in a criterion-referenced grading system: the Swedish example2005In: Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice, ISSN 0969-594X, E-ISSN 1465-329X, ISSN 1465-329X (on-lline), Vol. 12, no 2, p. 125-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates empirically the mechanisms behind the increasing grade point averages in Swedish upper secondary schools. Four hypotheses are presented as plausible explanations; improved student achievements, student selection effects, strategic behaviour in course choices, and lowering of grading standards. The analysis is based on extensive data, and focuses on grades and test scores from upper secondary school graduates over a 6-year period. The result shows that the increase in grade point averages cannot be explained by better achievements, selection effects or course choices, which means that standards have been lowered, which is interpreted here as grade inflation. The grade inflation is most likely an effect of the leniency in the grading system in combination with pressure for high grading, related to the upper secondary school grades' function as an instrument for selection to higher education.

  • 12.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Kan man mäta kvalitet?: Om skolans mätningar och bedömningar2011In: Utbildningsvetenskapens kärna: Läraryrkets innersta väsen? / [ed] Jansson, Bo, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2011, p. 181-204Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Konsten att göra bra prov: vad lärare behöver veta om kunskapsmätningar2013Book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. Umeå University.
    National curriculum assessment in England: a Swedish perspective2009In: Educational research (Windsor. Print), ISSN 0013-1881, E-ISSN 1469-5847, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 255-258Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Policy and practice in Swedish education, assessment, and school leadership2012In: School leadership in the context of standards-based reform / [ed] Volante, Louis, New York: Springer, 2012, p. 147-172Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the Swedish school system has been subject to a number of reforms. These reforms have mainly been focused on decentralization and educational goals and have resulted in many changes for the schools and people in the system. Among other things, the responsibility for schools was moved from the state to municipalities. The “free school reform” and the introduction of a voucher system put the schools in the market and introduced competition on many levels. National steering documents would ensure common goals and comparability in terms of educational content. The idea was to give the professionals within the system, i.e., school leaders and teachers, the freedom to decide how to reach the goals, while using the open market to “weed out” unsuccessful schools.

    The Swedish system which used to be one of the most centralized and regulated systems in the world, is today one of the most decentralized and deregulated, characterized by competition on many levels and an increasing focus on results. This has put pressure on the schools to show good results, which, in turn, has led to a number of consequences for all stakeholders. This chapter describes the Swedish goal-referenced school system through the perspective of educational accountability and looks at how the reforms and the increased focus on results have affected school leaders and teachers. Validity issues related to the current accountability model and the performance measures are also discussed.

  • 16.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Proven i skolan2017In: Utvärdering och bedömning i skolan: för vem och varför? / [ed] Hult, Agneta; Olofsson, Anders, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2017, 2, p. 185-199Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Proven i skolan2011In: Utvärdering och bedömning i skolan: för vem och varför? / [ed] Hult, Agneta; Olofsson, Anders, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Educational Measurement.
    Subjektiva bedömningar och objektiva tolkningar2007In: Sporre eller otyg: om bedömning och betyg, Lärarförbundets förlag, Stockholm , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Sweden: the intersection of international achievement testing and educational policy development2016In: The intersection of international achievement testing and education policy: global perspectives on large-scale reform / [ed] Louis Volante, New York: Routledge, 2016, 1, p. 91-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    The reliability and validity of the grade point average as instrument for selection to higher education2005In: Cadmo: Giornale italiano di Pedagogia sperimentale, ISSN 1122-5165, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 23-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After an educational reform in the 1990s, all upper secondary programs in Sweden, irrespective of their orientation, are to give students the basic requirements for higher education eligibility. The grade point average (GPA) is used for ranking students in the selection process. This study empirically investigates grading patterns in upper secondary schools. The purpose is to find out if some programs are higher or lower grading than other programs, and also if the course compositions of the various programs affect the students’ GPA and hence their ranking. The analysis is based on data from all students graduating from Swedish upper secondary schools in 2002. The results show that students in vocationally oriented programs are favoured, both by easy grading and by their program’s course composition, which affects their competitive strength in the process of selection to higher education.

  • 21.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Almarlind, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    When theory and practice don't match: Teachers' interpretation of a formative assessment model2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish school system is based on a goal-referenced model but with less regulation than in most other systems. The idea is that the methods used for reaching the goals should be subordinate the outcome. The purpose is to enable the teachers the freedom to individualise education and use the most appropriate assessment method for each situation, which in turn will be beneficial for student learning. Formative assessment is a key component in this process. However, this model does not seem to be entirely successful, since evaluations of student performance shows a decrease over time and also increased gaps between student groups.  This presentation describes the first study in a project that investigates how formative assessment is carried out in Swedish schools. The presentation describes a common formative assessment model that is used in a Swedish elementary school (ages 14-16) and the problems that the teachers are experiencing when trying to carry it out in practice. Plausible reasons are discussed and a revised version of the model is presented.

  • 22.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Educational assessment in digital environments: insights from different assessment contexts2019In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lind Pantzare, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Standard setting in Sweden: school grades and national tests2018In: Examination standards: how measures and meanings differ around the world / [ed] Jo-Anne Baird, Tina Isaacs, Dennis Opposs, Lena Gray, London, UK: UCL Press, 2018, p. 235-251Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Comparing the incomparable: a predictive validity analysis based on matching methods2008In: The impact of testing on people and society, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the selection instruments for higher education in Sweden, by comparing how students selected on either grades from upper secondary school (GPA) or an admissions test (the SweSAT) perform in higher education. The study appreciates that evaluating multiple instruments is not without problems, as applicants in different admission groups are not necessarily comparable with respect to personal traits, and different instruments may benefit individuals differently. The study investigates if combining regression models with matching methods will give additional or better information about the different selection instruments, compared to traditional methods in predictive validity studies. The data consists of register data from students born 1972-1974, who have been admitted to a Business Administration or Edconomics programme in a Swedish university between the years 1993 to 1996. The number of credits taken in higher education serve as criterion for academic success. The results from the regression analyses support previous findings in validation studies, showing that the GPA admitted students are more productive in the economics programme than students admitted from the SweSAT group, and even a negative correlation between test scores and number of credits among those admitted. However, the results also show that the SweSAT group are more productive than the GPA group overall, when the total number of university credits serve as criterion.

  • 25.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Grade inflation and school competition: an empirical analysis based on the Swedish upper school grades2005In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 309-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the connection between grade inflation and school competition by studying graduates from the Swedish upper secondary schools in 1997. The final grades are compared to the SweSAT national test scores. Single school municipalities are compared with multiple school municipalities in order to study if potential intra-municipal school competition leads to grade inflation. We also compare independent schools with public schools. It is found that intra-municipal school competition leads to modest levels of grade inflation. Foremost, non-native students fare better being graded in municipalities with potential competition than in single school environments. Independent schools appear to inflate grades heavily. A male student with average previous educational achievement improves his position in the grade distribution by approximately 15% if graded in an independent school.

  • 26.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Group differences in student performance in the selection to higher education: tests vs grades2017In: Frontiers in Education, ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 2, article id 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Student selection in the Swedish admission to higher education system is based on two fundamentally different performance measures: their criterion-referenced upper secondary grade point average (GPA) and their score on a norm-referenced and multiple-choice admissions test [Swedish admissions test (SweSAT)]. Several student characteristics are known to affect rankings in such assessments. The objectives of this study are to assess main and interactive effects of several variables that influence rankings obtained from these measures in greater detail than previously attempted and assess the findings from a fairness perspective. The data consist of test scores, upper secondary grades, and background information for SweSAT participants aged 19–25 years, who took the test in the autumn of 2011 (N = 23,214) or spring of 2012 (N = 27,075). The data were analyzed through correlation and regression analyses. The results support previous findings that gender, parents’ education, and immigration status are all influential. Males obtain better SweSAT scores than females, while females obtain better GPAs, in accordance with previous findings regarding gender-related variations in rankings provided by similar instruments. Moreover, we found the same pattern in scores for specific components of the test and grades in specific subjects, suggesting that the test and GPA measure different, gender-related, things. In addition, students with an immigrant background seem to be more highly ranked by grades than by the SweSAT, largely due to differences in assessments of their verbal skills.

  • 27.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    University entrance selection and age at admission2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the predictive validity of the upper secondary grade point average (GPA), when used as selection instrument to higher education. The purpose of the paper is to find out if the predictive strength of the GPA is affected by time, here measured as the time that has passed between when the grades were received (graduation) and university entrance. The data includes approximately 5 900 students admitted to a Business administration or an Economics programme in a Swedish university between the years 1993 to 1996. The predictive validity is studied by correlating the GPA from upper secondary school for the students from each age group with their academic performance, measured by university credits. The results show that there is a weak positive correlation between grades and university credits, but that the predictive strenght decreases with time, to be insignificant about three years after upper secondary school completion. Implications are discussed.

  • 28.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Urval till högre utbildning: Påverkas betygens prediktionsvärde av ålder?2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige används i huvudsak två urvalsinstrument för att gruppera och rang-ordna sökande till högskolan: betygsmedelvärdet från gymnasieskolan och resultat på högskoleprovet. I den här rapporten studeras hur betygen från gymnasieskolan förutsäger studerandes prestationer i högskolan bland studen-ter som antas vid olika tidpunkter efter avslutad gymnasieutbildning. Syftet är att undersöka om den prediktiva styrkan hos gymnasiebetygen påverkas av tid mellan utbildningen och utbildningsutfall i högre utbildning. Studien omfattar cirka 5 900 studenter som antagits till ett ekonomprogram vid en svensk hög-skola, 1993–1996. Resultatet visar att det finns en svag positiv korrelation mellan gymnasiebetyg och universitetspoäng, men att den prediktiva styrkan minskar med tid mellan avslutad utbildning och utbildningsutfall i högre utbildning. Om det gått tre år eller mer mellan gymnasium och antagning finns inget signifikant samband kvar.

  • 29.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Prediction of study success: should selection instruments measure cognitive or non-cognitive factors?2009In: Assessment for a creative world, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a number of countries, both high school GPA and admission tests are used in the selection to higher education. The validity research on such instruments has mainly focused on their predictive validity, and the outcome generally shows that the GPA is a better predictor than the test. One explanation is that the grades also measure non-cognitive factors, which are considered important for school performance. Moreover, many admission tests have been criticised for being too alien to what is being taught in schools, hence lacking in relevance for future education. As a consequence, many admission tests are being revised, to be more similar to the school grades in terms of content. A relevant question is if this is the right way to proceed if the main purpose of the test is to predict future study success? This study compares the subtests of a traditional admissions test (the SweSAT) with high school grades in verbal and quantitative subjects in terms of content construct and predictive strength. Success in higher education is measured by the number of credits achieved by students in economics and business administration programmes at Swedish universities. The purpose is to find out if the difference in predictive strength can be related to cognitive or non-cognitive factors.  The data is analysed by regression analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM). The findings show that there are differences in content as well as construct, but that variations in predictive strength have to do with both cognitive and non-cognitive factors, where quantitative grades and test scores are more similar in construct than verbal grades and test scores, but also better predictors of performance in higher education. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research, and some suggestions for future research are made.

  • 30.
    Wikström, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Admissions Tests2018In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation / [ed] Bruce B. Frey, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2018, p. 48-51Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Wikström, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    University education and income – does prior achievement matter?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out if the income premium from university entrance differs with respect to prior achievement as measured by previous grades. Using income at the age of 28 to 30, we analyze if high-achievers have larger income premiums from entering university than low-achievers in a sample of Swedish upper secondary school students. We find that income differences generally are positive, albeit larger for females than for males. It is also found that the income premium is larger for high-achievers than for low-achievers. However, especially for males, the income premium rises only marginally with prior achievement for a large part of the grade distribution, indicating that there are only small differences in the returns to university entrance for a majority of upper secondary school graduates.

  • 32.
    Wikström, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    University education and income: does prior achievement matter?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out if the income premium from university entrance differs with respect to prior achievement as measured by previous grades. Using income at the age of 28 to 30, we analyze if high-achievers have larger income premiums from entering university than low-achievers in a sample of Swedish upper secondary school students. We find that income differences generally are positive, albeit larger for females than for males. It is also found that the income premium is larger for high-achievers than for low-achievers. However, especially for males, the income premium rises only marginally with prior achievement for a large part of the grade distribution, indicating that there are only small differences in the returns to university entrance for a majority of upper secondary school graduates.

  • 33.
    Wikström, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Who benefits from university admissions tests?: a comparison between grades and test scores as selection instruments to higher education2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there are two separate instruments for ranking applicants in the admission to higher education; the GPA from upper secondary school and the Swedish Scholastic Assessment Test (the SweSAT). A problem in the selection is that different groups of students perform differently on the instruments. Also, while the GPA is regarded more valid but with reliability problems, the test is seen as reliable but with lower predictive validity. Hence, in 2011, the test was revised, with the purpose to increase its relevance for university studies. New item types and new subtests were introduced, and the weights of the verbal and quantitative parts of the test were made more balanced. This study compares how students are ranked on the basis of the new test compared to their GPA, to find out if previous group differences still remain. The data consists of test participants in the autumn of 2011 and spring of 2012 at the ages 17 to 25. The results show that the correlation between test scores and GPA is approximately the same as before the revision. It is also found that there are still group differences in terms of boys performing better on the test and girls on the GPA. However, when studying separate sub-tests and grades and national course tests from isolated subjects, the students seem to be ranked more similarly than in the overall SweSAT-GPA comparison. Although students with a non-Swedish background are performing lower than other students on both instruments, boys in this group seem to be graded more leniently than the girls with a similar background in mathematics, and the opposite is the case in verbal subjects.

  • 34.
    Wolming, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Educational Measurement.
    Evidence or consequence?: Validity issues in educational measurement2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Wolming, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    The concept of validity in theory and practice2010In: Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice, ISSN 0969-594X, E-ISSN 1465-329X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 117-132Article in journal (Refereed)
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