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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Victor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Could the negative effects of static stretching in warm-up be restored by sport specific exercise?2018In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, ISSN 0022-4707, Vol. 58, no 9, p. 1185-1189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Static stretching (SS) is widely used in warm-up as it is generally believed to increase mobility and reduce the risk of injury; however, SS has been shown to induce transient negative effects on subsequent muscle performance. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that sport specific exercise could restore SS-induced negative effects on certain sports, especially of explosive muscular performance. Whether sport specific exercise could restore SS-induced negative effects on isokinetic muscle performance remains unclear.

    METHODS: The present study conducted two different warm-ups: 2-component warm-up and 3-component warm-up on 15 university students. Both protocols contained low intensity aerobic exercise and sport specific exercise, whereas the 3-component warm-up also contained SS which has been previously proven to induce negative effects on subsequent muscle performance. After the warm-ups, the subjects performed an isokinetic test on a Biodex. To make the sport specific exercise mimic the subsequent test, both included concentric isokinetic knee extension. During the tests, muscle performance of peak torque, mean power, and total work was recorded. Comparison of the measurements on each parameter between the two warm-ups was performed using paired t test.

    RESULTS: The comparisons did not reveal any significant difference in the measurement of any parameter between the two different warm-up protocols, and calculation of Cohen's revealed small effect sizes on all of the three variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: On basis of the present results and that the SS could induce transient negative effects on subsequent muscle performance, we concluded that the negative effects of the SS on the variables were restored by the isokinetic contractions.

  • 2.
    Geithner, Christina A.
    et al.
    Department of Organizational Leadership, Gonzaga University.
    Molenaar, Claire E.
    The School of Physical Therapy, Regis University.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Relative Age Effects in Women’s Ice Hockey: Contributions of Body Size and Maturity Status2018In: Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, ISSN 1063-6161, E-ISSN 1938-1581, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 124-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on relative age effects (RAEs) in women’s ice hockey is lacking data on participant characteristics, particularly body size and maturity status. The purposes of our study were to investigate RAEs in women’s ice hockey players from two countries, and to determine whether RAE patterns could be explained by chronological age, body size, and maturity status. Participants were 54 Swedish elite and 63 Canadian university players. Birthdates were coded by quartiles (Q1–Q4). Weight and height were obtained, and body mass index and chronological age were calculated for each player. Players recalled age at menarche, and maturity status was classified as early, average, or late relative to population-specific means. Chi-square (χ2), odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and effect sizes (Cohen’s w) were calculated using population data across quartiles and for pairwise comparisons between quartiles. Descriptive statistics and MANOVAs were run by quartile and by country. Significant RAEs were found for Canadian players across quartiles (p < .05), along with a Q2 phenomenon (Q2: Q3, Q2: Q4, p < .05). Swedish players were overrepresented in Q3 (Q3: Q4, p < .05). Q4 was significantly underrepresented in both countries (p < .05). The oldest, earliest maturing, and shortest players in both countries were clustered in Q2, whereas the next oldest and latest maturing Swedish players were found in Q3. Age, physical factors, and interactions may contribute to overrepresentations in Q2 and Q3. These findings do not suggest the same bias for greater relative age and maturity found in male ice hockey.

  • 3.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Gender in ice hockey: Women in a male territory2010In: Sport and discrimination in Europe / [ed] William Gasparini and Clotilde Talleu, Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing , 2010, p. 51-56Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Idrottens struktur - natur eller kultur?: Ett exempel från ishockey2011In: För barnets bästa: En antologi om idrott ur ett barnrättsperspektiv / [ed] Johan R Norberg och Johan Pihlblad, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2011, 1, p. 29-38Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports Medicine.
    Geithner, Christina
    Body Composition of Women’s Ice Hockey Players: Comparison of Estimates Using Skinfolds and iDXA2019In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 33, no 9, p. 2496-2502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare percent fat (% Fat) estimates from anthropometric equations using skinfolds (SKF) in women’s ice hockey players to estimates obtained from Lunar iDXA. Data were collected on 19 elite female Swedish hockey players (mean age ± SD = 18.4 ± 2.4 y). Four skinfolds (SKF) (triceps, abdominal, suprailiac, and thigh) were measured within two hours of iDXA assessments. The % Fat estimates from iDXA and four anthropometric equations were compared using paired t-tests, and a one-way ANOVA was used to compare % Fat estimates from the anthropometric equations. Bland Altman analyses were used to assess agreement between % Fat estimates from SKF and iDXA. The significance level was set a priori at p<0.05. The % Fat estimates from anthropometric equations were significantly lower than those from iDXA (mean ± SD: 26.85 ± 4.93%,p=0.000). Bland Altman analyses indicated mean differences of -7.96 to -10.13 percentage points between anthropometric equations and iDXA. Estimates of % Fat from anthropometric equations (range: 16.72% to 18.89%) were within the range reported in earlier studies using the Sum of 7 SKF. Thus, SKF offer a reasonable alternative to iDXA for this population, but result in underestimates of % Fat relative to iDXA. Strength and conditioning coaches should use the same body composition assessment method consistently, and interpret the results with caution, as they are estimates and not true values.

  • 6.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Gendered expectations and structural conditions in ice hockeyIn: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, ISSN 0270-1367, E-ISSN 2168-3824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using player questionnaires (72 women, 42 men) and club staff interviews, this paper provides an analysis of the effect of structural conditions on expectations of support and hindrance. In spite of large structural conditions women and men rated similar levels of support and hindrance. Yet, both women and men believed that the situation in sport was better for men. The adult women’s lower expectations may be an indication of their awareness of their lower status within their sport. When comparisons are made between women and men in sport it is important to consider that gender operates at different levels and may affect conditions as well as expectations

  • 7.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Karp, Staffan
    Thorsen, Kim
    Tunga puckar och låga förväntningar - blindskär i damhockeyns utveckling2010In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 46-50Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Thorsen, Kim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Influence of stick stiffness and puck weight on puck velocity during slap shots in women's ice hockey2009In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 103-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found that reduced stick stiffness increases puck velocity in young male ice hockey players. This study investigates the hypothesis that female players are disadvantaged by using equipment that is designed for taller and stronger players. The purpose of this study was to investigate if stick flexibility and puck weight affect puck velocity in standing slap shots performed by female ice hockey players. There was a significant increase in puck velocity (4.1% p=0.037) when stick stiffness and puck weight were reduced. ANOVA revealed that there was a significant correlation between stick, puck and the participant herself (R2=0.987). Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed that participants with higher puck velocities benefitted the most when the stick flexibility and puck weight were reduced (r=0.648; p=0.043). It was concluded that decreased stick stiffness and puck weight increased puck velocity in standing slap shots for female ice hockey players.

  • 9.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Karp, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Henriksson Larsén, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Le genre en hockey sur glace2010In: Sport et discriminations en Europe: regards croisés de jeunes chercheurs et de journalistes européens / [ed] William Gasparini et Clotilde Talleu, Strasbourg Cedex, France: Editions du Conseil de l’Europe , 2010, p. 51-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Karp, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Gender in ice hockey: women in a male territory2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 235-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how female ice hockey players describe and explain their situation within as well as outside their sport. Information was obtained by semi-structured interviews with female ice hockey players. The results were analyzed in a gender perspective where the main starting point was the concepts of different levels of power relations in society developed by Harding and applied to sports by Kolnes (the symbolic, structural and individual level). The study shows that the players appeared to share the traditional views of men and women. They also described gender differences in terms of financial and structural conditions as well as differences in ice hockey history. Even though the players described structural inequalities, they were quite content with their situation and the differences in conditions were not considered when they explained the gender differences in ice hockey performance. On the individual level the players considered themselves different from other women and appeared to share the traditional views of femininity and masculinity.

    It has been suggested that performance of a sport traditionally associated with the other sex might alter the traditional view of men and women, however our results give little support to that suggestion.

  • 11.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Thorsen, Kim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Physiological Correlates of Skating Performance in Women's and Men's Ice Hockey2011In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 2133-2142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current investigation was to identify relationships between physiological off-ice tests and on-ice performance in female and male ice hockey players on a comparable competitive level. Eleven women, 24 ± 3.0 years, and 10 male ice hockey players, 23 ± 2.4 years, were tested for background variables: height, body weight (BW), ice hockey history, and lean body mass (LBM) and peak torque (PT) of the thigh muscles, [latin capital V with dot above]o2peak and aerobic performance (Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation [OBLA], respiratory exchange ratio [RER1]) during an incremental bicycle ergometer test. Four different on-ice tests were used to measure ice skating performance. For women, skating time was positively correlated (p < 0.05) to BW and negatively correlated to LBM%, PT/BW, OBLA, RER 1, and [latin capital V with dot above]o2peak (ml O2·kg-1 BW-1·min-1) in the Speed test. Acceleration test was positively correlated to BW and negatively correlated to OBLA and RER 1. For men, correlation analysis revealed only 1 significant correlation where skating time was positively correlated to [latin capital V with dot above]o2peak (L O2·min-1) in the Acceleration test. The male group had significantly higher physiological test values in all variables (absolute and relative to BW) but not in relation to LBM. Selected off-ice tests predict skating performance for women but not for men. The group of women was significantly smaller and had a lower physiological performance than the group of men and were slower in the on-ice performance tests. However, gender differences in off-ice variables were reduced or disappeared when values were related to LBM, indicating a similar capacity of producing strength and aerobic power in female and male hockey players. Skating performance in female hockey players may be improved by increasing thigh muscle strength, oxygen uptake, and relative muscle mass.

  • 12.
    Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Annandale, Ellen
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Aléx, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Elwer, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Eriksson, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Harryson, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lehti, Arja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Professionell Development.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Verdonk, Petra
    Central gender theoretical concepts in health research: the state of the art2014In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 185-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite increasing awareness of the importance of gender perspectives in health science, there is conceptual confusion regarding the meaning and the use of central gender theoretical concepts. We argue that it is essential to clarify how central concepts are used within gender theory and how to apply them to health research. We identify six gender theoretical concepts as central and interlinked-but problematic and ambiguous in health science: sex, gender, intersectionality, embodiment, gender equity and gender equality. Our recommendations are that: the concepts sex and gender can benefit from a gender relational theoretical approach (ie, a focus on social processes and structures) but with additional attention to the interrelations between sex and gender; intersectionality should go beyond additive analyses to study complex intersections between the major factors which potentially influence health and ensure that gendered power relations and social context are included; we need to be aware of the various meanings given to embodiment, which achieve an integration of gender and health and attend to different levels of analyses to varying degrees; and appreciate that gender equality concerns absence of discrimination between women and men while gender equity focuses on women's and men's health needs, whether similar or different. We conclude that there is a constant need to justify and clarify our use of these concepts in order to advance gender theoretical development. Our analysis is an invitation for dialogue but also a call to make more effective use of the knowledge base which has already developed among gender theorists in health sciences in the manner proposed in this paper.

  • 13.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Correlation between Off-ice Strength and Power Variables and Skating Performance in Women's Ice Hockey2015In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 47, no 5S, p. 962-962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between off-ice tests and skating performance has not been previously investigated in elite women ice hockey players (WIHP).

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between off-ice strength-, and power- variables and different components of skating performance in Elite WIHP. 

    METHODS: Elite WIHP (n=32) age: 18.3±2.1 years, were evaluated via physiological tests of; Vertical power (squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ)); Horizontal power (standing long jump on two legs (SLJ) on one leg (SLJR) and 20m linear sprinting); Strength (isometric leg pull, squat and isokinetic leg extension on 90° and 210° (Iso90, Iso210)). Right leg measurements were selected for the isokinetic leg extension and SLJ(R). Skating performance was assessed on-ice via three agility tests; S-cornering agility skate (SCAS), Transition agility skate (TAS), Cone agility skate (CAS), and anaerobic endurance test; Modified repeat sprint skate (MRSS). Pearson ́s bivariate correlations were used to investigate the associations between physical variables and on-ice variables. Statistical significance was set to p<.05.

    RESULTS: SLJR, SLJ, Iso90, Iso210, isometric leg-pull and 20m sprint were correlated with TAS, r = .698 (p.001), r = .509 (p.026), r = -.514 (p.050), r = -.529 (p.043), -.479 (p.038) and r = .631 (p.007) respectively. SLJR and Iso90 was correlated with SCAS, r = -.619 (p.005) and r = -.520 (p.047). SLJR, SLJ, CMJ and Iso210 were correlated to MRSS, r = -.588 (p.01), r = -.539 (p.021), r = -.482 (p.037) and r = -.544 (p.04) respectively. CAS was not significantly correlated with any of the physiological tests.

    CONCLUSIONS: Off-ice power and strength tests were significantly correlated to skating performance in elite WIHP. 

  • 14.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. The National Graduate School of Gender Studies.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Running a team is like laying a puzzle: Elite coaches' perspective on women's ice hockey2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Fysiska tester inom damishockey och dess relevans för prestation2017In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 20-22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Running a team is like laying a puzzle: elite coaches' experiences of women's ice hockeyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to explore aspects important for sport development and performance in women’s ice hockey, and to reflect on the conditions in Sweden and in North America.

    Method: Data were collected using individual interviews analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The sample including eight ice hockey coaches, two women and six men from being active coaches for female teams on the highest national level.

    Result: The analysis resulted in the theme “Coaching with a holistic approach” and three categories; “Individually oriented and humane leadership”, “Insight and understanding of performance requirements”, and “Necessary conditions for sport development”. The results displayed the complex task of managing a top-level team. In order to coordinate available preconditions into a beneficial environment for the players to develop and perform, the coached had adopted a holistic approach to coaching. A holistic approach to coaching was considered necessary to promote human-, as well as athletic-development in WIH.

    Conclusion: This study suggests that leadership, conditions and requirement of the game, are interrelated and all has to be considered to meet the requirements of the sport and provide opportunities for development. Furthermore, we suggest WIH would benefit from being treated as its own unique experience, instead of being compared to MIH.

  • 17.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Vescovi, Jason D.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Laboratory- and field-based testing as predictors of skating performance in competetive-level female ice hockey2016In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 7, p. 81-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-based and/or laboratory-based assessments are valid tools for predicting key performance characteristics of skating in competitive-level female hockey players.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

    METHODS: Twenty-three female ice hockey players aged 15-25 years (body mass: 66.1±6.3 kg; height: 169.5±5.5 cm), with 10.6±3.2 years playing experience volunteered to participate in the study. The field-based assessments included 20 m sprint, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30-second repeated jump test, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, 20 m shuttle run test, isometric leg pull, one-repetition maximum bench press, and one-repetition maximum squats. The laboratory-based assessments included body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), maximal aerobic power, and isokinetic strength (Biodex). The on-ice tests included agility cornering s-turn, cone agility skate, transition agility skate, and modified repeat skate sprint. Data were analyzed using stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between key performance characteristics of skating and the predictor variables.

    RESULTS: Regression models (adj R2) for the on-ice variables ranged from 0.244 to 0.663 for the field-based assessments and from 0.136 to 0.420 for the laboratory-based assessments. Single-leg tests were the strongest predictors for key performance characteristics of skating. Single leg standing long jump alone explained 57.1%, 38.1%, and 29.1% of the variance in skating time during transition agility skate, agility cornering s-turn, and modified repeat skate sprint, respectively. Isokinetic peak torque in the quadriceps at 90° explained 42.0% and 32.2% of the variance in skating time during agility cornering s-turn and modified repeat skate sprint, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Field-based assessments, particularly single-leg tests, are an adequate substitute to more expensive and time-consuming laboratory assessments if the purpose is to gain knowledge about key performance characteristics of skating.

  • 18.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Vescovi, Jason D.
    Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Geithner, Christina A.
    Department of Organizational Leadership, Gonzaga University.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Performance profiling of female ice hockey players by country and positionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to determine whether physiological qualities and on- ice skating performance differ by country and by position in women’s ice hockey.

    Design: Cross-sectional study.

    Methods: A total of 109 female ice hockey players volunteered for the study: 45 players from Sweden (19.38 ± 2.56 years; body mass 69.43 ± 7.05 kg: height 169.83 ± 5.03 cm) and 64 players from Canada (19.84 ± 1.62 years; body mass 68.28 ± 7.72 kg: height 166.14 ± 13.67 cm). Anthropometric assessments included estimated body composition using skinfold measurements. Physiological assessments included tests for acceleration, strength, power and aerobic endurance. Performance assessments included on-ice agility and anaerobic tests. Data were analyzed for mean differences by country and position using a two-way ANOVA.

    Results: The Swedish players had less body fat (p=.007), more lean mass (p=.005), and higher Beep test scores (p=.001). The Canadian players performed better on leg strength (p=.026), acceleration (p=.001), single leg standing long jumps (right leg p=.002, left leg p=.030) and the modified repeat sprint skate (MRSS) (p=.029). Positional comparisons between forwards (F) and defenders (D) showed no significant differences. F and D performed better than goalies (G) on the beep test (p=.002 and p=.002, respectively).

    Conclusion: The findings showed that the physiological profile for the female ice hockey players in this sample differed by country. The results indicate that the Canadian profile may be better adapted for on-ice performance. No performance differences were found between F and D. G are subjected to completely different requirements, due to variation in equipment and movement patterns, and should not be compared to F and D.

  • 19. Molenaar, Claire E.
    et al.
    Geithner, Christina A.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports Medicine.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports Medicine.
    The Relative Age Effect in Women's Ice Hockey: International and Positional Comparison2015In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 47, no 5S, p. 629-630Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A relative age effect (RAE), or chronological age differences among individuals within the same age group, has been observed in 14 sports (Cobley et al., 2009). A strong RAE has been reported in men’s ice hockey since 1985 (Barnsley et al., 1985). In contrast, research on RAE in women’s ice hockey is limited (Wattie et al., 2007; Weir et al., 2010) and findings are equivocal.PURPOSE: To determine whether there is a RAE in women’s ice hockey, and if it varies by country or player position.

    METHODS: Participants were 117 female ice hockey players (mean age=19.9±2.3 yr) on 2 Swedish elite-level club teams (n=54) and 4 Canadian university teams (n=63). Players reported birthdate and position (Forward=F, Defenseman=D, Goalie=G). Birthdates were coded by quartiles (Q1: Jan.-March, Q2: April-June, Q3: July-Sept., Q4: Oct.-Dec.) and by half-year. Birthdate data were submitted to chi-square analyses for the sample, by country, and by position. SPSS 17.0 for Windows was used for all analyses (significance level: p<0.05). RESULTS: A significant RAE was observed for the entire sample by quartile (Q1: 28.2%, Q2: 34.2%, Q3: 25.6%, Q4: 12.0%; χ2=12.402, p=0.006). More players were born in the first half of the year than the second (62.4% vs. 37.6%, respectively; χ2=7.188, p=0.007). In contrast, Q4 was underrepresented for the sample and by country (Canada: 12.7%, Sweden: 11.1%). A RAE was present for the Canadian players by quartile (χ2=13.381, p=0.004) and half-year (χ2=9.921, p=0.002); however, no RAE was observed for Swedish players. In addition, a significant RAE was observed for the entire sample by position for G and D by quartiles (G - χ2=10.077, p=0.018; D - χ2=8.444, p=0.038) and half year (G - χ2=6.231, p=0.013; D - χ2=4.000, p=0.046), but not for F.

    CONCLUSIONS: The significant RAE in this sample is consistent with that in men’s ice hockey and the tendency for greater participation by relatively older players in women’s ice hockey. RAE absence in the Swedish players may reflect lower participant number, competitive level, and sociocultural support, as well as greater variation in skill level. The significant RAEs observed in Canadian players and by position support the findings of Weir et al. (2010), but the positional differences found were inconsistent, perhaps due to differences in sample size and competitive level between studies. 

  • 20.
    Strömbäck, Edit
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Berglund, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Prevalence and consequences of injuries in powerlifting: a cross-sectional study2018In: The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 2325-9671, Vol. 6, no 5, article id 2325967118771016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Powerlifting consists of the squat, bench press, and dead lift, and extreme loads are lifted during training and competitions. Previous studies, which have defined an injury as an event that causes an interruption in training or competitions, have reported a relatively low frequency of powerlifting injuries (1.0-4.4 injuries/1000 hours of training). No previous study has investigated the prevalence of injuries, defined as a condition of pain or impairment of bodily function that affects powerlifters’ training, in a balanced sample of men and women, and no studies have established possible risk factors for an injury.

    Purpose: To investigate the prevalence, localization, and characterization of injuries among Swedish subelite classic powerlifters, with an emphasis on differences between men and women, and to investigate whether training and lifestyle factors are associated with an injury.

    Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

    Methods: A total of 53 female and 51 male Swedish subelite powerlifters answered an online questionnaire including questions about background characteristics, training habits, and lifestyle factors. The main part of the questionnaire included questions about injuries and their consequences. An injury was defined as a condition of pain or impairment of bodily function that affects powerlifters’ training.

    Results: Seventy percent (73/104) of participants were currently injured, and 87% (83/95) had experienced an injury within the past 12 months. The lumbopelvic region, shoulder, and hip were the most commonly injured areas for both sexes. Women experienced a significantly greater frequency of injuries in the neck and thoracic region than men. Injuries seemed to occur during training, although only 16% (11/70) of those currently injured had to completely refrain from training. Training frequency, greater personal best in the dead lift, injury onset during bench-press and dead-lift training, use of straps, alcohol consumption, and dietary issues were associated with current injuries.

    Conclusion: Injuries are very common in subelite powerlifters. Men and women report similar injury frequencies but different anatomic locations. These injuries do not prevent powerlifters from training and competing, but they may change the content of training sessions. Why powerlifters develop injuries is still unclear; however, it is likely that the management of training loads and optimization of the lifting technique during the squat, bench press, and dead lift are of importance.

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