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  • 1.
    Amer, Ayad
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Costa, Tiago
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Farag, Salah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Avican, Ummehan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Forsberg, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Francis, Matthew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Genetically engineered frameshifted YopN-TyeA chimeras influence type III secretion system function in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 10, article id e77767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type III secretion is a tightly controlled virulence mechanism utilized by many gram negative bacteria to colonize their eukaryotic hosts. To infect their host, human pathogenic Yersinia spp. translocate protein toxins into the host cell cytosol through a preassembled Ysc-Yop type III secretion device. Several of the Ysc-Yop components are known for their roles in controlling substrate secretion and translocation. Particularly important in this role is the YopN and TyeA heterodimer. In this study, we confirm that Y. pseudotuberculosis naturally produce a 42 kDa YopN-TyeA hybrid protein as a result of a +1 frame shift near the 3 prime of yopN mRNA, as has been previously reported for the closely related Y. pestis. To assess the biological role of this YopN-TyeA hybrid in T3SS by Y. pseudotuberculosis, we used in cis site-directed mutagenesis to engineer bacteria to either produce predominately the YopN-TyeA hybrid by introducing +1 frame shifts to yopN after codon 278 or 287, or to produce only singular YopN and TyeA polypeptides by introducing yopN sequence from Y. enterocolitica, which is known not to produce the hybrid. Significantly, the engineered 42 kDa YopN-TyeA fusions were abundantly produced, stable, and were efficiently secreted by bacteria in vitro. Moreover, these bacteria could all maintain functionally competent needle structures and controlled Yops secretion in vitro. In the presence of host cells however, bacteria producing the most genetically altered hybrids (+1 frameshift after 278 codon) had diminished control of polarized Yop translocation. This corresponded to significant attenuation in competitive survival assays in orally infected mice, although not at all to the same extent as Yersinia lacking both YopN and TyeA proteins. Based on these studies with engineered polypeptides, most likely a naturally occurring YopN-TyeA hybrid protein has the potential to influence T3S control and activity when produced during Yersinia-host cell contact.

  • 2.
    Costa, Tiago
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Amer, Ayad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Farag, Salah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Wolf-Watz, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Fällman, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Fahlgren, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Edgren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Francis, Matthew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Type III secretion translocon assemblies that attenuate Yersinia virulence2013In: Cellular Microbiology, ISSN 1462-5814, E-ISSN 1462-5822, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 1088-1110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type III secretion enables bacteria to intoxicate eukaryotic cells with anti-host effectors. A class of secreted cargo are the two hydrophobic translocators that form a translocon pore in the host cell plasma membrane through which the translocated effectors may gain cellular entry. In pathogenic Yersinia, YopB and YopD shape this translocon pore. Here, four in cis yopD mutations were constructed to disrupt a predicted α-helix motif at the C-terminus. Mutants YopD(I262P) and YopD(K267P) poorly localized Yop effectors into target eukaryotic cells and failed to resist uptake and killing by immune cells. These defects were due to deficiencies in host-membrane insertion of the YopD-YopB translocon. Mutants YopD(A263P) and YopD(A270P) had no measurable in vitro translocation defect, even though they formed smaller translocon pores in erythrocyte membranes. Despite this, all four mutants were attenuated in a mouse infection model. Hence, YopD variants have been generated that can spawn translocons capable of targeting effectors in vitro, yet were bereft of any lethal effect in vivo. Therefore, Yop translocators may possess other in vivo functions that extend beyond being a portal for effector delivery into host cells.

  • 3.
    Costa, Tiago
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Department of Life Sciences, MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College, London, UK.
    Francis, Monika K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Region Västerbotten.
    Farag, Salah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Edgren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Francis, Matthew S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Measurement of Yersinia translocon pore formation in erythrocytes2019In: Pathogenic Yersinia: methods and protocols / [ed] Viveka Vadyvaloo and Matthew B. Lawrenz, New York, NY, U.S.A.: Humana Press, 2019, p. 211-229Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Gram-negative pathogens produce a type III secretion system capable of intoxicating eukaryotic cells with immune-modulating effector proteins. Fundamental to this injection process is the prior secretion of two translocator proteins destined for injectisome translocon pore assembly within the host cell plasma membrane. It is through this pore that effectors are believed to travel to gain access to the host cell interior. Yersinia species especially pathogenic to humans and animals assemble this translocon pore utilizing two hydrophobic translocator proteins-YopB and YopD. Although a full molecular understanding of the biogenesis, function and regulation of this translocon pore and subsequent effector delivery into host cells remains elusive, some of what we know about these processes can be attributed to studies of bacterial infections of erythrocytes. Herein we describe the methodology of erythrocyte infections by Yersinia, and how analysis of the resultant contact-dependent hemolysis can serve as a relative measurement of YopB- and YopD-dependent translocon pore formation.

  • 4.
    Farag, Salah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Francis, Monika K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Francis, Matthew S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Impact of Defective Translocon Assemblies on Hierarchal Yop Effector Translocation by Yersinia pseudotuberculosisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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