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  • 1.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Exploring gender stereotypes about interpersonal behavior and personality factors using digital matched-guise techniques2019In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 47, no 8, article id e8150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study explores gender stereotypes among Swedish university students (n=101) studying a course in psychology, using a matched-guise experimental design. The gender identity of a speaker in a dialogue, manifested by voice, was digitally manipulated to sound male or female. Responses to the recordings indicated that an actor with a male voice was rated significantly less conscientious, agreeable, extraverted, and open to experience than the same actor with a female voice. On social behavior, there was a tendency for the actor with a male voice to be rated as more hostile than the same actor with a female voice. The study suggests that stereotype effects rather than real behavioral differences may have an impact on perceived gender differences.

  • 2.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Peer-based intervention och key-stroke logging som hjälpmedel för att stimulera språkinlärning i översättningsundervisning2005In: Forskning om undervisning i främmande språk: rapport från workshop i Växjö 10-11 juni 2004 / [ed] Eva Larsson Ringqvist och Ingela Valfridsson, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2005, p. 65-75Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Supporting Learning Reflection in the Language Translation Class2009In: International Journal of Information Communication Technologies and Human Development, ISSN 1935-5661, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 26-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a case study a University class undertook a translation from Swedish to English in a keystroke logging environment and then replayed their translations in pairs while discussing their thought processes when undertaking the translations, and why they made particular choices and changes to their translations.Computer keystroke logging coupled with peer-based intervention assisted the students in discussing how they worked with their translations, and enabled them to see how their ideas relating to the translation developed as they worked with the text. The process showed that Computer Keystroke logging coupled with peer-based intervention has potential to (1) support student reflection and discussion around their translation tasks, and (2) enhance student motivation and enthusiasm for translation.

  • 4.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Identifying Identity: Using Second Life in the Teaching of Sociolinguistics for the Raising of Gender Awareness2012In: EuroCall Review, ISSN 1695-2618, Vol. 20, p. 49-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One of the aims of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying courses in sociolinguistics. Several experiments were conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice morphing” (a tool which allows the voice of the speaker to be distorted so that a male speaker can sound more feminine and vice versa) allowed students to enter the virtual world incognito in order to “experience” a different linguistic identity. Activities were conducted in cross-cultural settings involving students from Sweden and Chile. The paper presents the initial stages of development of a model for how language awareness issues can be internalised through first-hand experience in virtual worlds.

  • 5.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lagerström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Gender-Bending in Virtual Space: Using Voice-Morphing in Second Life to Raise Sociolinguistic Gender Awareness2011In: Learning a Language in Virtual Worlds: A Review of Innovation and ICT in Language Teaching Methodology, International Conference, Warsaw, 17th November 2011 / [ed] Sławomir Czepielewski, Warsaw: Warsaw Academy of Computer Science, Management and Administration , 2011, p. 54-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One aim of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying sociolinguistics. Several experiments have been conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice-morphing” allowed students to be exposed to, or experience different linguistic identities. In the following paper, we describe four such experiments.In the First one, we recreated a classic sociolinguistic experimental design, the so-called matched-guise test, in order to test whether our female students were evaluated differently on various personal characteristics when they appeared as male avatars. Contrary to previous match-guise studies, our results showed that all the females were more positively evaluated than all the ‘males’. However, this overall pattern was very likely a result of the poor quality of the female-to-male voice-morph. In the second experiment, students were offered the possibility of experiencing the opposite gender in a cross-cultural course setting in SL, in order to reflect over how this “gender change” affected the way they were treated in conversations. Only one student took this opportunity leaving few conclusions, except awareness of the ethically problematic aspects of such arrangements. In the third experiment, we used voice-morphing in SL to raise students’ awareness of how gender stereotypes can influence their perception of teachers. In addition to the real (male) teacher, we created two voice-morphed teacher assistant avatars in SL, one male and one female. Student evaluations showed that they were partly influenced by stereotypes and partly not. The design of the experiment was criticized by the students, however, as they felt that they had had too little time with the teacher assistants to evaluate them properly and therefore gave average ratings. In the fourth study we used similar characters as in the previous study, but in an online lecture during which the real teacher spoke as himself and also gave talks, one as his female and one as his male 55PhD student. The students listening to the lecture evaluated the female PhD student as more likeable and the male PhD student as more intelligent. After, the design was revealed and the students reflected extensively on the result and how unconscious gender stereotypes influence how we judge people. The models and studies presented here point to the potential of virtual worlds as tools for awareness-raising activities regarding gender as a social construct

  • 6.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lagerström, Anna
    Raising language awareness using digital media: methods for revealing linguistic stereotyping2016In: Research methods for creating and curating data in the digital humanities / [ed] Matt Hayler and Gabrielle Griffin, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2016, p. 158-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether we are aware of it or not, language is at the heart of the mechanisms leading to stereotyping and inequality. It is one of the major factors that we evaluate when we meet others, and it has long been demonstrated that individuals are judged in terms of intellect and other character traits on the basis of their language output (e.g. Cavallaro & Chin 2009). We also adapt our own language to fit underlying norms and preconceived social stereotypes when we communicate with others. In this way, we help to shape individuals through the way we treat them linguistically, and social identity expressed through language is consequently something that is renegotiated during every meeting between humans (Crawford 1995). An awareness of such mechanisms is especially important for teachers.

    In most language courses aimed at student teachers of various levels, students are given a theoretical overview of research on aspects related to identity (gender, ethnicity, social class etc.) and language. But however well intended, there is a real danger that research focussed on identifying differences also strengthens stereotypes. Further, there is a risk that such theoretical knowledge remains just that; creating the link between so-called factual knowledge – for example, theoretical frameworks and previous studies – and internalized knowledge, applicable in our everyday lives, is especially challenging. This is particularly true in the domain of language, where metalinguistic knowledge ideally should be translated into professional language practice, a key skill for anyone working with human interaction.

    The Chapter explores  preliminary experiments conducted in 2011 where we were able to use digital media in order manipulate identity variables such as gender, and describes the aim of the current project - to further develop and explore experiential pedagogic approaches aimed at raising sociolinguistic language awareness about conceived identity-related phenomena in language, and to systematically test the effects of these methods. The project thereby combines the fields of sociolinguistics, social psychology and digital humanities in an innovative way with the objective to produce tested methods for exposing and combatting linguistic stereotyping. 

  • 7.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Zhao, Huahui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Developing Peer-to-Peer Supported Reflection as a Life-Long Learning Skill: an Example from the Translation Classroom2011In: Human Development and Global Advancements through Information Communication Technologies: New Initiatives / [ed] Susheel Chhabra & Hakikur Rahman, Hershey USA: IGI publishing , 2011, 1, p. 188-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life-long learning skills have moved from being a side-affect of a formal education to skills that are explicitly trained during a university degree. In a case study a University class undertook a translation from Swedish to English in a keystroke logging environment and then replayed their translations in pairs while discussing their thought processes when undertaking the translations, and why they made particular choices and changes to their translations. Computer keystroke logging coupled with Peerbased intervention assisted the students in discussing how they worked with their translations, enabled them to see how their ideas relating to the translation developed as they worked with the text, develop reflection skills and learn from their peers. The process showed that Computer Keystroke logging coupled with Peer-based intervention has to potential to (1) support student reflection and discussion around their translation tasks, (2) enhance student motivation and enthusiasm for translation and (3) develop peer-to-peer supported reflection as a life-long learning skill.

  • 8.
    Lindvall-Östling, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    “Oh It Was a Woman! Had I Known I Would Have Reacted Otherwise!”: Developing Digital Methods to Switch Identity-Related Properties in Order to Reveal Linguistic Stereotyping2019In: Virtual Sites as Learning Spaces: Critical Issues on Languaging Research in Changing Eduscapes / [ed] Sangeeta Bagga-Gupta, Giulia Messina Dahlberg, Ylva Lindberg, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 207-239Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes the methodological processes involved in the project Raising Awareness using Virtual Experiencing (RAVE), funded by the Swedish Research council. The aim of the project is to develop experiential pedagogic approaches aimed at raising sociolinguistic language awareness about stereotyping and language. A key feature of the method consists of updated matched-guise techniques, whereby the same recording is digitally manipulated to alter the voice quality of a speaker to sound “male” or “female”, for example. These versions of the recording are then used as input stimuli for a response phase aimed at illustrating how we as listeners react differently to a person, and what is being said, depending on the perceived identity of the speaker. This chapter then illustrates how results are used as a starting point for discussions with respondents (student groups) on issues related to stereotyping and language, with the aim to raise awareness and self-reflection.

  • 9.
    Roos, Bertil
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Steinvall, Anders
    High peaks and low valleys: Confronting the examinations inheritance of a Swedish university2003In: 2003 - EERA Congress – Hamburg, Germany, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages.
    Basic Colour Terms and Type Modification: Meaning in relation to function, salience and correlating attributes2006In: Progress in Colour Studies: Volume I. Language and Culture / [ed] C.P Biggam and C.J. Kay, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2006, p. 57-71Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In their classic study of Basic Colour Terms (BCTs), Berlin and Kay (1969:6) identified four basic criteria of a BCT: i) it is monomorphemic, ii) its signification is not included in that of any other colour term, iii) its application must not be restricted to a narrow class of objects, iv) it must be psychologically salient to informants. Four subsidiary criteria were also suggested in those cases where the first four produced non-conclusive results. Although frequently debated at first, and slightly modified by Crawford (1982), it seems that the basic criteria have stood the test of time and are still considered helpful in the identification of BCTs.          

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a possible connection between basicness and the function of a colour term modifying a noun. Following Warren (1984) and several others, three functions of adjectives in attributive position in English can be distinguished: characterising, identifying and classifying. Identification and characterisation involve modification of an instance of a noun, thus indicating the colour of the object in the case of colour terms. In contrast to the other two, classification is more abstract as it involves modification of type, rather than instance. Its abstract quality allows colour terms to be used in extended senses (i.e. outside their normal area of designation). Examples of classifying use are phrases such as red onion and blue oak, where the colour terms do not refer to the colour of an individual onion or oak, but modify onion and oak as types, creating subtypes accordingly. Significantly, the colour of the leaves of a blue oak would not be called blue when judged in a colour array – i.e. out of context.

    This type of extension can be accounted for if type modification is analysed as a kind of reference-point phenomenon (Langacker 1999), where it is the combined salience of the colour term and the colour category that is significant. In the process of extension, a salient reference point is used to access another less salient entity. Since the purpose of classifying use is to create a subtype, the emphasis is on distinction and contrast to the most common instances of the general type (in our examples onion and oak). In the case of blue oak, the weak bluish tinge of the leaves marks the distinction and motivates the name despite the green element being stronger. Thus, in naming the subtypes a salient colour term (= Basic Colour Term) is preferred even if the nuance could be considered a very poor example of the colour term.

    This paper presents details of a study of English colour terms (Steinvall 2002), based on the Bank of English text corpus and the Oxford English Dictionary. Examples and figures are used to substantiate the theoretical models. The results show a correlation between the frequency of classifying use and the Berlin and Kay hierarchy, and it is therefore suggested that classifying use may serve as a further criterion for basicness. 

                Finally, the wider implications of the findings are discussed, and the results from previous studies, such as Conklin’s (1964) observations of Hanunóo colour categories, and Forbes’ of the use of brun and marron in French, are reviewed and reanalysed from the  perspective of classifying use. In addition, a connection between classifying and figurative use is briefly explored.

  • 11.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages. Engelska.
    Color and emotions in English2007In: Anthropology of color: interdisciplinary multilevel modeling / [ed] Robert E. MacLaury, Galina V. Paramei and Don Dedrick, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2007, p. 347-362Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a corpus study of collocational patterns of English colour and emotion words. A collection of 50 colour terms and 135 emotion terms served as the starting point for the search of patterns. The obtained patterns are described and analysed with regard to salience from two different points of view: For each emotion category we ask which colour categories are most salient, and for each colour category we ask which emotion categories are most salient. The analysis of the underlying motivation for salient colour-emotion collocations demonstrates that the commonest motivations are based in metaphorical models linked to the body. This indicates the importance of experiential and embodied models for creating associations involving colour terms.

  • 12.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages.
    English Colour Terms in Context2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines usage of English colour terms in context, based on an extensive computerised text corpus, the Bank of English. It describes the ways in which English colour terms may be used to refer to nuances outside their normal area of designation and to attributes outside the colour domain. Usage patterns are analysed on three different levels: with regard to the overall frequency of occurrences, nominal domains and individual tokens, respectively.

    Cognitive linguistics supplies the theoretical framework employed in the analyses of the observed patterns. The study identifies three types of usage where colour terms refer to peripheral colour nuances or to concepts outside the colour domain: classifying, figurative and marked usage.

    When a colour term has a classifying function, it can be used outside the normal area of designation. This usage is analysed as a type of reference-point construction where a term referring to a salient point in the colour domain is used to subcategorise an entity whose actual colour may be only a peripheral member of the category named by the colour term. An analysis of the OED and the Bank of English shows that this type of usage is primarily restricted to a few of the most salient basic terms.

    This study points to the close affinities between classifying and figurative usage. Figurative expressions of colour terms frequently have a classifying function. I argue that figurative meanings are derived through two types of metonymy: +SALIENT ATTRIBUTE FOR OBJECT+ and +SALIENT CONCRETE ATTRIBUTE FOR SALIENT ABSTRACT ATTRIBUTE+.

    Marked usage arises when specific colour terms are used in nominal domains where the specificity is not expected. This phenomenon is consequently confined to non-basic colour terms.

    On the basis of the established patterns of usage and the frequency of occurrences, this thesis suggests that the colour category may be analysed as a radial category, with the basic colour terms forming the centre.

  • 13.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The Power of Colour Term Precision: The use of non-basic colour terms in nineteenth-century English travelogues about northern Scandinavia2011In: New directions in colour studies / [ed] Biggam, CP; Hough, CA; Kay, CJ; Simmons, DR, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011, p. 219-231Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I analyse and discuss the effects of the use of specific colour vocabulary employed by five English-speaking travelogue writers visiting Northern Scandinavia in the nineteenth century. The number of different colour terms (types) and their frequency of occurrence (tokens) as well as the objects they describe are presented and analysed. The results show that the objects described most often with specific colour vocabulary are natural objects in the landscape. I argue that this use of colour precision in the discourse can be viewed as reflecting two aspects: first, a desire to add attributes such as exoticness and exclusiveness to the narrative as they are readily available associations in many terms; second, the writers’ engagement and involvement in the landscape they travel through, as the use of specific terminology can be very clearly linked to the writers’ opinions about what is described. 

  • 14.
    Wang, Airong
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Towards a model for mapping participation: Exploring factors affecting participation in a telecollaborative learning scenario in Second Life2013In: The JALTCALLJournal, ISSN 1832-4215, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to examine factors affecting participation in telecollaborative language courses conducted in virtual world environments. From recordings of a course in sociolinguistics conducted in Second Life (SL), we determine degrees of linguistic participation (voice and chat), and triangulate these data with questionnaire responses and observations in order to elucidate demographic, behavioural, and contextual factors that may have affected the outcomes. Findings suggest that power relations in terms of educational level, the task design (creating engagement), the presence of the teacher (evening out participation), the medium – SL (both negative and positive) and technological issues (negative) are of primary importance.

  • 15.
    Wang, Airong
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Who owns the floor?: Examining participation in a collaborative learning scenario between student teachers and active professionals in second life2014In: International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, ISSN 1947-8518, E-ISSN 1947-8526, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 34-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of unequal power relations on participation in a group of student teachers and invited professionals in two collaborative workshops in Second Life. The data includes recordings, group reflections, and individual questionnaires. Participation was examined from the aspects of floor space, turn length, and utterance functions and complemented with student reflections. The results show that at a general level, the differences of floor space and turn length between the invited professionals and the students were small. Moreover, the invited professionals did more conversational management than the students, while the students performed more supportive speech acts. There were, however, individual variations.

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