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  • 1.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    Analysis of plant growth regulating substances1982Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural plant growth regulators (phytohormones) are a group of organic compounds which, in very small amounts, act as regulators of physiological processes in plants.Methods were developed for the analysis of phytohormones in samples from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris (L.) Karst»). Identification of abscisic acid, 3-indoleacetic acid, gibbe-rellin Ag and the conjugate N-(3-indoleacetyl)aspartic acid was performed by GC-MS as their methyl esters. A quantitative determination of abscisic acid was made by GC-ECD and this method was also applied to anther samples of Anemone canadensis. 3-Indole-acetic acid and N-(3-indoleacetyl)aspartic acid were quantified by reversed-phase HPLC and spectrofluorimetric detection. Dichlorophene, used as a growth regulator in containerized seedlings of pine and spruce, was analysed by GC-MID in peat and paper.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Analysis of plant growth regulating substances
  • 2.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Formation of oxidation products in a ventilation system2004Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, Vol. 38, nr 35, s. 5895-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the formation of oxidation products from the ozonolysis of a monoterpene (α-pinene) in an authentic ventilation system. We observed ten products, norpinic acid, pinic acid, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, norpinonic acid, pinonic acid, a C4 dicarbonyl (C4H6O2), a C5 dicarbonyl (C5H8O2), norpinon aldehyde, and pinon aldehyde. Experiments were conducted at a low (2.0 g m−3) and moderate (8 g m−3) humidity levels. All products but C4 dicarbonyl and norpinon aldehyde were detected at the low humidity level, but only glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, C4 dicarbonyl, norpinon aldehyde and pinon aldehyde were detected at a moderate humidity. Experiments were conducted at low ppb levels (75 ppb ozone and 4 and 10 ppb α-pinene) and with a short reaction time (75 s). Experiments showed that 5–6% of the α-pinene reacted, which was approximately 4–5 times more than predicted by theoretical calculations. This discrepancy suggests a significant contribution from heterogeneous reactions. These oxidation products were formed despite low reactant concentrations and a short reaction time, indicating that the formation of oxidation products likely occurs at ambient levels and in real settings.

  • 3.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    A study of the gas-phase ozonolysis of terpenes: the impact of radicals formed during the reaction2002Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 36, nr 20, s. 3299-3308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The gas-phase ozonolysis of α-pinene, Δ3-carene and limonene was investigated at ppb levels and the impact of the ozone, relative air humidity (RH), and time was studied using experimental design. The amounts of terpene reacted varied in the different settings and were as high as 8.1% for α-pinene, 10.9% forΔ3-carene and 23.4% for limonene. The designs were able to describe almost all the variation in the experimental data and were also successful in predicting omitted values. The results described the effects of time and ozone and also showed that RH did not have a statistically significant effect on the ozonolysis. The results also showed that all three terpenes were affected by an additional oxidation of OH radicals and/or other reactive species. The results from the designs states that this additional oxidation was responsible for 40% of the total amount of α-pinene reacted, 33% of the total amount of Δ3-carene reacted and 41% of the total amount of limonene reacted at the settings 20 ppb terpene, 75 ppb ozone, 20% RH and a reaction time of 213 s. Additional experiments with 2-butanol as OH radical scavenger showed that the reaction with OH radicals was responsible for 37% of the total α-pinene reacted and 39% of the total Δ3-carene reacted at the same settings. The scavenger experiments also showed that there were no significant amounts of OH radicals formed during the ozonolysis of limonene. The results from the designs were also compared to a mathematical model in order to evaluate further the data.

  • 4.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Ozone Removal in the Sampling of Parts per Billion Levels of Terpenoid Compounds: An Evaluation of Different Scrubber Materials2001Ingår i: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 35, nr 7, s. 1458-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Some reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are prone to degradation during sampling in an ozone-rich environment. A wide variety of different chemicals have been used to remove the ozone prior to sampling, but the possibility of interference by such chemicals with the sampled VOCs has not been thoroughly examined. In the present investigation, the retention/degradation of four terpenes (-pinene, -pinene, 3-carene, and limonene) and isoprene together with some of their oxidation products (-pinene oxide, nopinone, 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene (AMCH), methylglyoxal, and methacrolein) has been studied, using various ozone-removing chemicals in an attempt to evaluate their potential as ozone scrubbers in the sampling of ambient air. The chemicals included in this first screening and their ozone-removing capacity are as follows: KI, MnO2, and Na2SO3 removed ozone for more than 24 h when exposed to 73-78 ppb (150-160 g/m3) at a sampling flow rate of 500 mL/min. Silanized poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide) (PFS) removed ozone for 5 h, unsilanized PFS removed ozone for 1 h and 50 min, and Na2S2O3 removed ozone for 20 min. The recovery of the selected compounds with the different scrubbers was >95% for all compounds for KI; >95% for the terpenes oxidation products; >90% for the terpenes and isoprene for PFS; >90% for the terpenes and isoprene for MnO2 on copper nets, Na2SO3, and Na2S2O3; and <90% for the terpenes and isoprene for carulite (a commercial mixture between MnO2, CuO, and Al2O3), CuO, and indigo carmine.

  • 5.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Effect of OH radicals, relative humidity, and time on the composition of the products formed in the ozonolysis of α-pinene2003Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37, nr 29, s. 4087-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The gas-phase ozonolysis of α-pinene at ppb levels were studied and the effects of OH radicals formed in the reaction, the relative humidity (RH), and time on the products formed were investigated. Identified products were pinic acid, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, norpinonic acid and a norpinonic acid isomer, pinonic acid, a C4 dicarbonyl, a C5 dicarbonyl, norpinon aldehyde, and pinon aldehyde. The different parameters effect on the formation of these products were evaluated using experimental design and multivariate modeling. Pinonic acid, norpinonic acid and its isomer, were not detected in the absence of OH radicals. The amounts of pinic acid, norpinon aldehyde, and pinon aldehyde all decreased in the absence of OH radicals. Glyoxal and methyl glyoxal were not affected.

    The formation of pinonic acid decreased when the RH was increased. The formation of pinic acid, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, and pinon aldehyde increased with increasing RH, while norpinon aldehyde was not affected. The implications of these observations and additional interaction effects are discussed, and a novel route of the formation of pinic acid is presented.

  • 6.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Pommer, Linda
    Åstrand, Anders
    Östin, Ronny
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Ozonolysis of monoterpenes in mechanical ventilation systems2005Ingår i: ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol. 39, nr 34, s. 6315-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this investigation the ozonolysis of of three monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, Delta(3)-carene and limonene) was studied was studied in authentic mechanical ventilation systems, that included either a cross flow or a rotary heat exchanger. The effects of varying three experimental parameters were investigated: the level of ozone (25 and 75 ppb), the reaction time (25 and 75s), and the surface area in the ventilation duct (14.8 and 29.5 m(2)). The initial concentration of each of the monoterpenes was 20 ppb in every experiment, and 1-16% of the alpha-pinene, < 0.5-13% of the Delta(3)-carene, and < 0.5-16% of the limonene reacted. The effects of humidity (g m(-3)) and temperature of the outdoor and supply air, and water losses in the ventilation duct, were also evaluated. Experiments were based on a chemometric statistical design. Comparison of the results to theoretically calculated values showed that theoretical calculations underestimated the amounts that reacted in the ventilation systems by factors of 2-13, depending on the monoterpene and experimental settings.

  • 7.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Ekologi och geovetenskap.
    Åstrand, Anders
    Östin, Ronny
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    The effect of mechanical ventilation systems on the chemistry in the supply airArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Fjällström, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Drying of linseed oil paints: the effects of substrate on the emission of aldehydes2003Ingår i: Indoor Air, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 277–82-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of substrate on the emission of aldehydes from linseed oil paint was investigated. Plates of glass, fiberboard, gypsum board, lime mortar and wood lath were painted, and then placed into emission chambers. Samples were collected every eighth hour over 10 days with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazin samplers. Analysis was performed with liquid chromatography/UV-detection and mass spectrometry. Paint applied on gypsum board gave the highest total amount of emitted carbonyls, and that on wood lath gave the least. Painted glass had the highest contribution of unsaturated species, and lime mortar, the lowest. Lime mortar also had the highest momentary levels of a single species, 443 nmol/h/m2 of propanal, while fiberboard peaked at only 123 nmol/h/m2 of propanal. In turn, the emission from the painted fiberboard had the slowest decline, and thus at the end of the experiment the highest levels. All substrates gave an emission that peaked within 16 h.

  • 9.
    Fjällström, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Kurt
    Drying of linseed oil paints: a laboratory study of aldehyde emissions2002Ingår i: Industrial Crops and Products, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 173-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of temperature, air humidity, air exchange rate, artificial light and fatty acid constitution on the emissions of aldehydes from linseed oil paint were investigated. Experiments were designed using a multivariate approach and data were analysed using different projection methods (principal component analysis, partial least-squares). Paints used were produced out of two different types of oils, where the fatty acid chains were either mainly linoleic or linolenic acid. The paints were applied onto glass plates and dried in chambers with a controlled climate. Aldehydes were sampled using silica gel impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analysed by HPLC with UV and MS detection. Consecutive sampling of aldehydes every eighth hour as well as total aldehyde sampling was performed during the first 5 days after application of the paints. Hexanal and propanal were the dominating aldehydes emitted for linoleic and linolenic acid rich paint, respectively. Temperature and humidity sped up the emission process, giving a higher total amount of aldehydes. A higher amount of linoleic acid slowed down the emission process and gave higher total amounts of aldehydes. Artificial light and air exchange rate showed no significant effects on the emission process.

  • 10.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Olofsson, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Rendahl, Per
    Johansson, Magnus I
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Barbro AV
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Behavior of fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim during mechanical, chemical, and active sludge treatment of sewage water and digestion of sludge2006Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 1042-1048Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavior and fate of three fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin), one sulfonamide (sulfamethoxazole), and trimethoprim were investigated at a sewage treatment plant in Umeå, Sweden, in 2004. This plant uses conventional mechanical, chemical, and activated sludge methods to treat the sewage water and digest the sludge; the dewatered digested sludge is pelleted (dry weight > 90% of total weight). Raw sewage water and particles as well as effluents and sludge from specific treatment areas within the plant were sampled. In addition to quantifying the antibiotics within the plant, we characterized the sample matrixes to facilitate evaluation of the results. Of the five substances examined, only norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim were present in concentrations higher than their limits of quantification. Norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin sorbed to sludge in a manner that was independent of changes in pH during sewage treatment, and more than 70% of the total amount of these compounds passing through the plant was ultimately found in the digested sludge. The results suggest that fluoroquinolones undergo thermal degradation during pelleting, but more studies are needed to confirm this. Trimethoprim was found in the final effluent at approximately the same concentration and mass flow as in the raw sewage, and could not be quantified in any solid sample. Predicted environmental concentrations, based on consumption data for Umeå municipality, correlated well with the results obtained, especially when the predicted concentrations were corrected to account for the amount of each active substance excreted in urine. The results obtained were compared to those of previous studies of these three substances' behavior and fate and were found to be similar, although some of the other plants studied employed the various treatment steps in different orders.

  • 11.
    Lindberg, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Johansson, Magnus I.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Screening of human antibiotic substances and determination of weekly mass flows in five sewage treatment plants in Sweden2005Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, nr 10, s. 3421-3429Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Twelve antibiotic substances for human use, including trimethoprim and representatives of the fluoroquinolone (FQ), sulfonamide (SA), penicillin (PE), cephalosporin (CE), nitroimidazole (NI), tetracycline (TC), and macrolide (MA) groups, were subjected to a screening study at five Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) during one week in 2002 and one week in 2003. The analytes were extracted from raw sewage water, final effluent, and sludge by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-solid extraction (as appropriate) and then identified and quantified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The most frequently detected antibiotics in the matrices considered in this study were norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline. The other analytes were only detected in a few samples. Analysis of the weekly mass flows through each STP showed that FQs were partly eliminated from the water during sewage water treatment and the highest amounts of these substances were found in sludge. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were mainly found in raw sewage water and final effluent, but these substances had balancing mass flows, indicating that they too can withstand sewage water treatment. The mass flow patterns for doxycycline were more complex, with high amounts occurring in sludge in some cases, suggesting that the behavior of this analyte may be more strongly influenced by the treatment process and other variables at individual STPs. The environmental load (the sum of the amounts in the final effluent and sludge) normalized to the number of inhabitants in the catchment area of each investigated STP compared with theoretical predictions based on consumption data (in parentheses) showed good correlations: norfloxacin, 0.8 (0.9); ofloxacin, 0.3 (0.2); ciprofloxacin, 1.3 (3.5); sulfamethoxazole, 0.2 (0.4); trimethoprim, 1.1 (1.0); and doxycycline, 0.7 (0.4) mg per person per week. The results show that reasonably accurate predictions of environmental load of these antibiotics can be time-effectively derived from consumption data without additional measurements.

  • 12. Magnusson, R
    et al.
    Nilsson, C
    Andersson, K
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Gieling, R
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Ostman, C
    Rannug, U
    Determination of chemical composition and mutagenicity in particles from chainsaw exhaust. Experimental set-up, stability and results from two different fuels2000Ingår i: Environmental Technology, ISSN 0959-3330, Vol. 21, nr 7, s. 819-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A dilution tunnel for sampling of particles and gaseous emissions in chainsaw exhaust was constructed and tested for reproducibility. In addition the equipment was used to measure chainsaw emissions when using two different fuels, aliphatic petrol with synthetic lubricating oil and regular lead-free petrol with mineral lubricating oil. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the mutagenicity of sampled particles were measured as well as the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and aldehydes in the exhaust. particles were sampled isokinetically and collected on a filter followed by two polyurethane foam plugs (PUF) in series for sampling of the semivolatile components. PAH were analysed by a coupled liquid chromatography - gas chromatography (LC-GC) system and mutagenicity testing was carried out by using Ames Salmonella assay. The measured physical parameters as well as the particulate, semivolatile and gaseous emissions showed that reproducible measurements of exhaust emissions could be achieved using this experimental set-up. In terms of mutagenicity when testing for reproducibility, a small but significant effect was observed for the Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 in the absence of a metabolizing system, both for the particulate phase and the semivolatile components. A significant difference was seen between the two different fuels tested, the conventional petrol with mineral oil having 5-10 times higher concentrations of different PAH compounds and a much higher mutagenic effect for all strains. This difference was seen both for the particulate phase and the semivolatile components.

  • 13. Magnusson, Roger
    et al.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Kurt
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Rannug, Ulf
    Östman, Conny
    Effect of Gasoline and Lubricant on Emissions and Mutagenicity of Particles and Semivolatiles in Chain Saw Exhaust2000Ingår i: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 34, nr 14, s. 2918-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The exhaust from a two-stroke chain saw engine was characterized using two different types of gasoline, aliphatic gasoline and conventional lead-free gasoline, in combination with four lubricants differing in mineral oil, polyolester, and polyisobutylene (PIB) content. This characterization was focused on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mutagenicity testing using Ames Salmonella assay. In addition, exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), aldehydes, and hydrocarbons (HC) were measured. The two-stroke engine was tested in a test bench, and particulate, semivolatile, and gaseous exhaust components were sampled using a dilution tunnel. Much less PAH were emitted when using aliphatic gasoline due to a much lower gasoline content of PAH and aromatics than the conventional gasoline. Also about half the NOx emissions, up to 50% higher formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions, and 10% higher total HC emissions were observed for the aliphatic gasoline. The influence of lubricant on the studied exhaust emissions was found to be of minor importance. In terms of mutagenicity, significant effects were seen for six of the eight gasoline/lubricant combinations, and the highest effects were observed without a metabolizing system. Generally, the conventional gasoline gave higher effects than did the aliphatic gasoline. A difference between lubricants was also seen, especially in combination with gasoline A; however, the interpretation of mutagenic effects of the lubricants was not straightforward. Overall, one synthetic ester-based lubricant and one mineral oil-based lubricant gave the highest mutagenicity.

  • 14.
    Marklund, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in air from various indoor environments2005Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 7, nr 8, s. 814-819Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eleven organophosphorus compounds (OPs) that are used as plasticizers and flame retardants were analysed in duplicate samples of indoor air from 17 domestic and occupational environments. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns were used as adsorbents and analysis was performed using GC with a nitrogen phosphorus selective detector. The total amounts of OPs in the air samples ranged between 36 and 950 ng m(-3); tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) being the most abundant (0.4 to 730 ng m(-3)), followed by tributyl phosphate (0.5-120 ng m(-3)). Public buildings tended to have about 3-4 times higher levels of OPs than domestic buildings. The relative amounts of individual OPs varied between the sites and generally reflected the building materials, furniture and consumer products used in the sampled environments. Potential sources of these compounds include, inter alia, acoustic ceilings, upholstered furniture, wall coverings, floor polish and polyvinylchloride floor coverings. A correlation was observed between the TCEP concentrations in the air in the sampled environments and previously reported concentrations in dust, but no such correlation was seen for the heavier and less volatile tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP). Based on estimated amounts of indoor air inhaled and dust ingested, adults and children in the sampled environments would be exposed to up to 5.8 mu g kg(-1) day(-1) and 57 mu g kg(-1) day(-1) total OPs, respectively.

  • 15.
    Marklund, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Screening of organophosphorus compounds and their distribution in various indoor environments2003Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 53, nr 9, s. 1137-1146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Twelve organophosphorus compounds (OPs), which are used for diverse purposes (e.g. as plasticizers and flame retardants), were analysed in settled house dust from 15 indoor environments and in wipe test samples from computer screens and covers. Seven of the substances analysed dominated Swedish imports of OPs in 1999, six of these are also listed as EU High Production Volume Chemicals. Eight of the substances were found in all samples. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate was the most abundant in most of the samples, with levels ranging from 0.014 to 5.3 g/kg followed by tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate, tris(chloropropyl)phosphate and tris(1,3-dichloropropyl)phosphate. In wipe test samples from computers, triphenyl phosphate proved to be the main component of the OPs analysed (4.0 μg/m2). Potential sources of these compounds include, inter alia, floor polish, polyvinylchloride floor coverings, upholstery and plastic products. The distribution patterns of the OPs differed between the sites and generally reflected the building materials and consumer products used in their vicinity.

  • 16.
    Marklund, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    The Distribution of Organophosphorus Compounds in Various Indoor Environments2003Ingår i: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 62, s. 367-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Pommer, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Development of a NO2 scrubber for accurate sampling of ambient levels of terpenes2002Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 36, nr 9, s. 1443-1452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The result of pumping air containing 56 ppb NO2 through a terpene-spiked adsorbent (90–130 ng, 90–100 ml min−1), Tenax TA, for 20 min (1.8–2.0 l) was that 8% of α-pinene, 7% of β-pinene, 21% of Δ3-carene and 5% of limonene were oxidised. In similar experiments with air containing 56 ppb O3, 3% of α-pinene, 4% of β-pinene, 10% of Δ3-carene and 38% of limonene were oxidised. Sampling a mixture of a terpene and NO2 using Tenax TA can give unwanted overestimation of the amount of reaction products from the terpene–NO2 reaction or underestimation of the original terpene levels. A scrubber was needed to reduce the problems caused by interfering reactions on the adsorbent of NO2 and to reduce discrimination of reactive compounds due to their relatively fast decay on the adsorbent. Several chemicals have been tested for their ability of removing NO2 and our objective was to develop a well functioning, reusable, easy to handle, easy manufactured NO2 scrubber. The result of the experiments was a scrubber consisting of two glass fibre filters coated with Na2SO3 assembled in a dust collector. The recovery of the terpenes through the scrubber varied between 75% and 97% at 15–75% relative humidity, and the scrubber is a one-use scrubber due to memory effects. The Na2SO3 scrubber could be stored in room air for at least one month without loosing the capacity of removing NO2.

  • 18.
    Pommer, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Nilsson, Calle
    The influence of O3, relative humidity, NO and NO2 on the oxidation of α-pinene and Δ3-carene2004Ingår i: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 173-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Upto 13% of α-pinene and δ3-carene had reacted after 213 s in this dark experimental set-up, where O3, NO and NO2 were mixed with terpenes at different relative humidities (RHs). The different experiments were planned according to an experimental design, where O3, NO2, NO, RH and reaction time were varied between high and low settings (25 and 75 ppb, 15 and 42%, 44 and 213 s). An increased amount of α-pinene and δ3-carene reacted in the chamber was observed, when the level of O3, NO and reaction time was increased and RH was decreased. In the study, it was found that different interactions affected the amount of terpene reacted as well. These interactions were between O3 and NO, O3 and reaction time, NO and RH, and between NO and reaction time.

  • 19.
    Pommer, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    An experimental comparison of a kinetic model for the reaction of α-pinene and Δ3-carene with ozone and nitrogen oxides2004Ingår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 14, nr S8, s. 75-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A kinetic model was compiled to simulate reactions of the monoterpenes, α-pinene and Δ3-carene, with O3, NO2 and NO. The influence of different initial settings of O3, NO2 and NO on the monoterpene reaction was evaluated. At initial levels of 75 p.p.b. of O3, NO2 and NO each, 1.5% of α-pinene and 1.1% of Δ3-carene were calculated to react after 215 s. The corresponding experimental results showed that 9.3–12.2% of α-pinene and 9.9–11.7% of Δ3-carene reacted. The calculated levels of O3, NO2 and NO were compared to experimental measurements and were shown to correspond well. However, comparison of the amount of monoterpene reacted between calculated and experimental results, demonstrated that the calculations underestimated the amount of monoterpene reacted in the experimental chamber. The difference between experimental and calculated results could, e.g., be the effect of surfaces and the presence of water, which are parameters not included in the kinetic model known to have influence on these reactions.

  • 20.
    Pommer, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Sundell, J
    Nilsson, C
    Sjöström, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Class separation of buildings with high and low prevalence of SBS by principal component analysis2004Ingår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 16-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we were able to separate buildings with high and low prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS) using principal component analysis. The prevalence of SBS was defined by the presence of at least one typical skin, mucosal and general (headache and fatigue) symptom. Data from the Swedish Office Illness Study describing the presence and level of chemical compounds in outdoor, supply, and room air, respectively, were evaluated together with information about the buildings in six models. When all data were included the most complex model was able to separate 71% of the high prevalence buildings from the low prevalence buildings. The most important variable that separates the high prevalence buildings from the low prevalence buildings was a more frequent occurrence or a higher concentration of compounds with shorter retention time in the high prevalence buildings. Elevated relative humidity in supply and room air and higher levels of total volatile organic compounds in outdoor and supply air were more common in high prevalence buildings. Ten building variables also contributed to the separation of the two classes of low and high prevalence buildings.

  • 21.
    Öberg, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Johansson, M
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Karlsson, S
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Lövgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Marklund, Ann
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Nording, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Undergraduate Education in Environmental Chemistry at Umeå University, Sweden2004Ingår i: SETAC 4th World Congress/25th Annual Meeting in North America, 14-18 November, Portland OR, USA, 2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract to the Fourth SETAC World Congress, oral presentation.

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