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  • 1.
    Lee, Janice Ser Huay
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Rist, Lucy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Obidzinski, Krystof
    Center for International Forestry Research, Jalan CIFOR, Indonesia.
    Ghazoul, Jaboury
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Koh, Lian Pin
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Zurich, Switzerland.
    No farmer left behind in sustainable biofuel production2011In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 144, no 10, p. 2512-2516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal concerns about the social and environmental impacts of biofuel production are driving producers to adopt better management practices. Existing certification schemes for sustainable biofuel production are, however, biased towards industrial-scale producers that have the financial capital and economies of scale to meet sustainability and certification objectives. Smallholder farmers in developing countries, by contrast, often lack the means and capacity to do so. Some of the challenges faced by smallholders include high certification costs, insufficient institutional capacity, inadequate financial and social incentives, poor group organization and lack of external support. Drawing lessons from existing certification programs, we argue that proponents of sustainable practices and standards must fully appreciate the complex realities of smallholder production systems. We provide policy recommendations for ensuring that no farmer is left behind in the quest to increase sustainable biofuel production.

  • 2.
    Rist, Lucy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Campbell, Bruce M.
    Frost, Peter
    Adaptive management: where are we now?2013In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how the concept might be further assessed. AM is currently being used to describe many different management contexts, scales and locations. Few authors define the term explicitly or describe how it offers a means to improve management outcomes in their specific management context. Many do not adhere to the idea as it was originally conceived, despite citing seminal work. Significant confusion exists over the distinction between active and passive approaches. Over half of the studies reporting to implement AM claimed to have done so successfully, yet none quantified specific benefits, or costs, in relation to possible alternatives. Similarly those studies reporting to assess the approach did so only in relation to specific models and their parameterizations; none assessed the benefits or costs of AM in the field. AM is regarded by some as an effective and well-established framework to support the management of natural resources, yet by others as a concept difficult to realize and fraught with implementation challenges; neither of these observations is wholly accurate. From a scientific and technical perspective many practical questions remain; in particular real-world assessments of the value of experimentation within a management framework, as well as of identified challenges and pathologies, are needed. Further discussion and systematic assessment of the approach is required, together with greater attention to its definition and description, enabling the assessment of new approaches to managing uncertainty, and AM itself.

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    Adaptive management: where are we now?
  • 3.
    Rist, Lucy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N.
    Fleischer-Dogley, Frauke
    Edwards, Peter
    Bunbury, Nancy
    Ghazoul, Jaboury
    Sustainable harvesting of coco de mer, Lodoicea maldivica, in the Vallée de Mai, Seychelles2010In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 260, no 12, p. 2224-2231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coco de mer palm Lodoicea maldivica, endemic to the Seychelles, is a flagship species for tourism and conservation. It bears the world's largest seed for which it is currently heavily exploited across its limited range, and it is clear that harvesting at current levels cannot be maintained indefinitely. Biologically informed harvesting protocols are therefore required to move towards sustainable management that secures the long-term viability of the population and the revenue that it currently generates. Demographic modelling using population matrix models is a useful tool in these efforts as it identifies both the life stages with the strongest influence on population dynamics as well as the consequences of current use intensities. Here we provide an initial population model based on data currently available to assess the status of the largest L. maldivica population in the Vallée de Mai World Heritage Site. We estimated transition probabilities and constructed matrices to estimate the populations’ growth rate under current and alternative harvesting regimes, taking into account uncertainty regarding adult mortality and lifespan. Model projections of the population under current harvesting intensities forecast a marked decrease in the proportion of juveniles in the population and a gradually declining population over the next 200 years. Population growth rates were most sensitive to adult survival, reflecting the long generation time of this species and the remaining uncertainty in this respect. Based on this preliminary model we propose a precautionary sustainable harvesting limit for L. maldivica and discuss the challenges and opportunities of its management, including recommendations for future data collection.

  • 4.
    Rist, Lucy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Shanley, Patricia
    Woods and Wayside International, Princeton, NJ, USA.
    Sunderland, Terry
    Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
    Sheil, Douglas
    Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation, Kibale, Uganda.
    Ndoye, Ousseynou
    Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Liswanti, Nining
    Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
    Tieguhong, Julius
    Technical Training and Research Centre for Development, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    The impacts of selective logging on non-timber forest products of livelihood importance2012In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 268, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for combining timber and non-timber forest product extraction has been examined in the context of diversified forest management. Many tropical forests are exploited both commercially for timber and by forest-dependent communities for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Divergences between these two uses may have significant implications for forest-dependent livelihoods. This article gathers existing examples of conflicts and complementarities between selective logging and non-timber uses of forest from the livelihood perspective. Additionally it draws on three case studies from Brazil, Cameroon and Indonesia to examine by what mechanisms, and to what extent, logging impacts forest resources of livelihood importance, as well as to consider how factors such as logging regime and forest management system may mediate such influences. By doing so we aim to shed further light on a relatively unacknowledged issue in tropical forest management and conservation.

    Four specific mechanisms were identified; conflict of use and the indirect impacts of logging being those most commonly implicated in negative effects on livelihood-relevant NTFPs. Eighty two percent of reviewed articles highlighted negative impacts on NTFP availability. Examples of positive impacts were restricted to light demanding species that respond to the opening of forest structure and typically represent a small subset of those of livelihood value. Despite considerable impacts on livelihoods, in all three case studies we found evidence to support the potential for enhanced compatibility between timber extraction and the subsistence use of NTFPs. Drawing on this evidence, and findings from our review, we make specific recommendations for research, policy and management implementation. These findings have significant implications for reconciling timber and non-timber uses of tropical forests.

  • 5.
    Rist, Lucy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Uma Shaanker, R
    Milner-Gulland, EJ
    Ghazoul, J
    Combining traditional ecological knowledge and conventional scientific data in forest management2010In: Traditional Knowledge Bulletin, Vol. 1 JuneArticle, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many forest communities possess considerable knowledge of the natural resources they utilise. This knowledge, by providing a source of baseline data or by filling information gaps that cannot be addressed through research, can inform scientific approaches to forest management, or provide novel management alternatives. Although the integration of TEK with conventional scientific sources of information has been well validated, there remains little attention to quantitative forms of knowledge or to identifying specific benefits and challenges arising in this integration. An emerging management challenge in a Wildlife Sanctuary in Southern India represented an ideal opportunity to assess the role of TEK in forest management. The infection of a fruit tree by a native mistletoe poses significant livelihood and biodiversity impacts. Specifically we considered the efficiency of deriving information from TEK compared to scientific field studies, the potential of TEK to provide novel solutions to a management problem, the degree to which TEK could provide quantitative information, and the biases that might be associated with information derived from TEK. TEK complemented previously gathered ecological data by providing concordant and additional information, but also contradicted some results obtained using a scientific approach. TEK also gave a longer-term perspective with regard to NTFP harvesting patterns further suggesting that the use of diverse information sources may provide a more effective approach to assessing the status of harvested resources.

1 - 5 of 5
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