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  • 1. Armitage, James M
    et al.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Jonsson, Per
    A model assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran sources and fate in the Baltic Sea:       2009In: Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 407, no 12, p. 3784-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contamination of the Baltic Sea with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has resulted in restrictions on the marketing and consumption of Baltic Sea fish, making this a priority environmental issue in the European Union. To date there is no consensus on the relative importance of different sources of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea, and hence no consensus on how to address this issue. In this work we synthesized the available information to create a PCDD/F budget for the Baltic Sea, focusing on the two largest basins, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper. The non-steady state multimedia fate and transport model POPCYCLING-Baltic was employed, using recent data for PCDD/F concentrations in air and sediment as boundary conditions. The PCDD/F concentrations in water predicted by the model were in good agreement with recent measurements. The budget demonstrated that atmospheric deposition was the dominant source of PCDD/Fs to the basins as a whole. This conclusion was supported by a statistical comparison of the PCDD/F congener patterns in surface sediments from accumulation bottoms with the patterns in ambient air, bulk atmospheric deposition, and a range of potential industrial sources. Prospective model simulations indicated that the PCDD/F concentrations in the water column will continue to decrease in the coming years due to the slow response of the Baltic Sea system to falling PCDD/F inputs in the last decades, but that the decrease would be more pronounced if ambient air concentrations were to drop further in the future, for instance as a result of reduced emissions. The study illustrates the usefulness of using monitoring data and multimedia models in an integrated fashion to address complex organic contaminant issues.

  • 2.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, Anna
    Gocht, Tilman
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Atmospheric deposition, retention, and stream export of dioxins and PCBs in a pristine boreal catchment2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, no 6, p. 1592-1598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mass-balance between diffuse atmospheric deposition of organic pollutants, amount of pollutants retained by the terrestrial environment, and levels of pollutants released to surface stream waters was studied in a pristine northern boreal catchment. This was done by comparing the input of atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs with the amounts exported to surface waters. Two types of deposition samplers were used, equipped with a glass fibre thimble and an Amberlite sampler respectively. The measured fluxes showed clear seasonality, with most of the input and export occurring during winter and spring flood, respectively. The mass balance calculations indicates that the boreal landscape is an effective sink for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, as 96.0-99.9 % of received bulk deposition was retained, suggesting that organic pollutants will continue to impact stream water in the region for an extended period of time.

  • 3.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Dioxins, PCBs, and HCB in soil and peat profiles from a pristine boreal catchment2010In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 7, p. 2518-2525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore how atmospherically derived soil pollution is affected by environmental processes at two typical boreal catchment landscape type settings: wetlands and forested areas. Measurements of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in forest soil and peat from an oligotrophic mire at various depths were performed at a remote boreal catchment in northern Sweden. HOCs in peat were evenly distributed throughout the body of the mire while levels of HOCs in the forest soil increased with increased amount of organic matter. Evaluation of HOC composition by principal component analysis (PCA) showed distinct differences between surface soils and deeper soil and peat samples. This was attributed to vertical transport, degradation and/or shifting sources over time. The calculated net vertical transport differed between surface layers (0.3%) and deeper soils (8.0%), suggesting that vertical transport conditions and processes differ in the deeper layers compared to the surface layers.

  • 4.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Meijer, Sandra
    Halsall, Crispin
    Ågren, Anneli
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Köhler, Stephan
    Jones, Kevin C
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Modelling the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants in a boreal forest catchment: a cross disciplinary approach to assessing diffuse pollution to surface waters2010In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 9, p. 2964-2969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fate of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in soils and waters in a northern boreal catchment was explored through the development of a chemical fate model in a well-characterised catchment system dominated by two land types: forest and mire. Input was based solely on atmospheric deposition, dominated by accumulation in the winter snowpack. Release from soils was governed by the HOC concentration in soil, the soil organic carbon fraction and soil-water DOC content. The modelled export of selected HOCs in surface waters ranged between 11 and 250ng day(-1) during the snow covered period, compared to 200 and 9600ng/d during snow-melt; highlighting the importance of the snow pack as a source of these chemicals. The predicted levels of HOCs in surface water were in reasonable agreement to a limited set of measured values, although the model tended to over predict concentrations of HOCs for the forested sub-catchment, by over an order of magnitude in the case of hexachlorobenzene and PCB 180. This possibly reflects both the heterogeneity of the forest soils and the complicated and changing hydrology experienced between the different seasons.

  • 5.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Vertical and lateral redistribution of POPs in soils developed along a hydrological gradient2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 24, p. 10378-10384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study of the dispersion of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) throughout the environment is necessitated by their toxicological properties and propensity to accumulate in biota. In this study, we use data from the analysis of three (210)Pb dated soil profiles collected along a 30-m hydrological gradient to demonstrate postdepositional mobility of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We found that (i) humus originating from litter exposed to surface fallout during the 1960-1970s contains the highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the O-horizon of the soils; (ii) accumulation rates of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the O-horizon (similar to 5.0 and similar to 210 mu g m(-2) yr(-1)) constituted only 9.1% and 3.5%, respectively, of the measured annual input, demonstrating that a minor fraction of the deposited material is retained within the O-horizon; (iii) POP inventories in the upper 0.5-0.9 m of the mineral soil constituted a considerable part (40-70%) of the total pool stored in the soil, implying significant vertical translocation of atmospheric derived POPs; and (iv) increasing downslope inventories of POPs suggest a lateral downward transport of POPs from uphill soils. The findings challenge the commonly accepted view that POPs fallout is effectively retained within O-horizons.

  • 6. Bidleman, T F
    et al.
    Leone, A D
    Harner, T
    Jantunen, L M
    Alegria, H
    Falconer, R F
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere: current usage or ghost of the past?2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7. Bidleman, Terry F
    et al.
    Leone, Andi D
    Falconer, Renee L
    Harner, Tom
    Jantunen, Liisa M M
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Helm, Paul A
    Diamond, Miriam L
    Loo, Binh
    Chiral Pesticides in Soil and Water and Exchange with the Atmosphere2002In: TheScientificWorldJOURNAL, Vol. 2, p. 357-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enantiomers of chiral pesticides are often metabolised at different rates in soil and water, leading to nonracemic residues. This paper reviews enantioselective metabolism of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil and water, and the use of enantiomers to follow transport and fate processes. Residues of chiral OCPs and their metabolites are frequently nonracemic in soil, although exceptions occur in which the OCPs are racemic. In soils where enantioselective degradation and/or metabolite formation has taken place, some OCPs usually show the same degradation preference — e.g., depletion of (+)trans-chlordane (TC) and (-)cis-chlordane (CC), and enrichment of the metabolite (+)heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX). The selectivity is ambivalent for other chemicals; preferential loss of either (+) or (-)o,p?-DDT and enrichment of either (+) or (-)oxychlordane (OXY) occurs in different soils. Nonracemic OCPs are found in air samples collected above soil which contains nonracemic residues. The enantiomer profiles of chlordanes in ambient air suggests that most chlordane in northern Alabama air comes from racemic sources (e.g., termiticide emissions), whereas a mixture of racemic and nonracemic (volatilisation from soil) sources supplies chlordane to air in the Great Lakes region. Chlordanes and HEPX are also nonracemic in arctic air, probably the result of soil emissions from lower latitudes. The (+) enantiomer of a-hexachlorocyclohexane (a-HCH) is preferentially metabolised in the Arctic Ocean, arctic lakes and watersheds, the North American Great Lakes, and the Baltic Sea. In some marine regions (the Bering and Chukchi Seas, parts of the North Sea) the preference is reversed and (-)a-HCH is depleted. Volatilisation from seas and large lakes can be traced by the appearance of nonracemic a-HCH in the air boundary layer above the water. Estimates of microbial degradation rates for a-HCH in the eastern Arctic Ocean and an arctic lake have been made from the enantiomer fractions (EFs) and mass balance in the water column. Apparent pseudo first-order rate constants in the eastern Arctic Ocean are 0.12 year-1 for (+)a-HCH, 0.030 year-1 for (-)a-HCH, and 0.037 year-1 for achiral ?-HCH. These rate constants are 3–10 times greater than those for basic hydrolysis in seawater. Microbial breakdown may compete with advective outflow for long-term removal of HCHs from the Arctic Ocean. Rate constants estimated for the arctic lake are about 3–8 times greater than those in the ocean.

  • 8. Bidleman, TF
    et al.
    Leone, AD
    Falconer, RL
    Harner, T
    Jantunen, LM
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Helm, PA
    Diamond, ML
    Loo, B
    Air-soil and air-water exchange of chiral pesticides2003In: ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES Book Series: ACS SYMPOSIUM SERIES, ISSN 0097-6156, Vol. 853, p. 196-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enantiomers of chiral pesticides are often metabolized at different rates in soil and water, leading to non-racemic residues. This paper reviews enantioselective metabolism of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil and water, and the use of enantiomers to follow transport and fate processes. Residues of chiral OCPs and their metabolites are frequently non-racemic in soil, although exceptions occur in which the OCPs are racemic. In soils where enantioselective degradation and/or metabolite formation has taken place, some OCPs usually show the same degradation preference; e.g. depletion of (+)trans-chlordane (TC) and (-)cis-chlordane (TC), and enrichment of the metabolite (+)heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX). The selectivity is ambivalent for other chemicals; preferential loss of either (+) or (-)o,p'-DDT and enrichment of either (+) or (-)oxychlordane (OXY) occurs in different soils.

    Non-racemic OCPs are found in air samples collected above soil which contains non-racemic residues. The enantiomer profiles of chlordanes in ambient air suggests that most chlordane in northern Alabama air comes from racemic sources (e.g. termiticide emissions), whereas a mixture of racemic and non-racemic (volatilization from soil) sources supplies chlordane to air in the Great Lakes region. Chlordanes and heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX) are also non-racemic in arctic air, probably the result of soil emissions from lower latitudes.

    The (+) enantiomer of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) is preferentially metabolized in the Arctic Ocean, arctic lakes and watersheds, the North American Great Lakes and the Baltic Sea. In some marine regions (Bering and Chukchi seas, parts of the North Sea) the preference is reversed and (-)alpha-HCH is depleted. Volatilization from seas and large lakes can be traced by the appearance of non-racemic alpha-HCH in the air boundary layer above the water. Estimates of microbial degradation rates for alpha-HCH in the eastern Arctic Ocean and an arctic lake have been made from the enantiomer fractions (EFs) and mass balance in the water column. Apparent pseudo first-order rate constants in the eastern Arctic Ocean are 0.12 y(-1) for (+)alpha-HCH 0.030 y(-1) for (-)alpha-HCH, and 0.037 y(-1) for achiral gamma-HCH. These rate constants are 3-10 times greater than those for basic hydrolysis in seawater. Microbial breakdown may compete with advective outflow for long-term removal of HCHs from the Arctic Ocean. Rate constants estimated for the arctic lake are about 3-8 times greater than those in the ocean.

  • 9. Bidleman, TF
    et al.
    Leone, AD
    Falconer, RL
    Harner, T
    Jantunen, LM
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Helm, PA,
    Diamond, ML
    Loo, B
    Air-soil and air-water exchange of chiral pesticides2002In: Environmental Fate and Effects of Pesticides, American Chemical Soicety, Washington , 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bignert, Anders
    et al.
    Contaminant Research Group, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Contaminant Research Group, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Spatial variation in concentrations and patterns of the PCDD/F and dioxin-like-PCB content in herring from the northern Baltic Sea2007In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 550-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate spatial and seasonal variation of dioxin and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB) content in herring sampled along the northern Baltic Sea coast and map out risk zones for dioxins and dl-PCBs. We further aimed to investigate relationships between congener distribution (pattern) and sampling location and season. The results showed that there were distinct geographical differences in concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans and dl-PCBs along the Swedish coast, from the Bothnian Bay to north Baltic Proper, with the highest levels detected in the southern Bothnian Sea. The majority of the locations showed concentrations above the prescribed maximum for dioxin residues (4 TEQ pg g–1 wet weight [w.w.]). If all the edible parts of the fish (muscle, subcutaneous fat and skin) are considered, the estimated concentrations exceeded the prescribed maximum level in the whole study area for herring collected during spring–summer. Concentrations in herring caught during spring–summer compared to concentrations in herring sampled in the autumn indicated seasonal variation. The pattern analysis showed a variation in relative congener concentration at the different sampling locations (spring–summer). Pattern differences were also noticed between seasons.

  • 11. Bignert, Anders
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Spatial and seasonal variation of the dioxin and PCB content in herring from the northern Baltic Sea2005In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 67, p. 1403-05Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Björklund, Erland
    et al.
    Sporring, Sune
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    von Holst, Christoph
    New strategies for extraction and clean-up of persistent organic pollutants from food and feed samples using selective pressurized liquid extraction2006In: Trends in Analytical chemistry, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 318-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has gained wide acceptance for the extraction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from various environmental and biological matrices. This extraction technique was developed to shorten the extraction step, since this is one of the most time-consuming steps in many analytical procedures. When POPs enter the food chain, as in a number of recent food crises, thousands of samples have to be analyzed in a short time to protect humans from severe POP exposure. In such cases, PLE provides a good alternative to conventional extraction techniques. This article gives an overview of a number of studies of the extraction of POPs from food and feed, using PLE. Of special interest are applications dealing with selective extraction procedures, where integrated clean-up strategies are utilized to combine extraction and clean-up or fractionation to simplify further the entire sample-preparation chain.

  • 13. Broman, D
    et al.
    Jonsson, P
    McLachlan, M
    Persson, Ylva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Why are the PCDD/F Levels in Baltic Fish not Decreasing - "Old Sins" in Sediments?2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract to the 11th International Symposium on the Interactions between Sediments and Water (IASWS) conference, Feb 17-22, 2008, Esperance Australia, oral presentation

  • 14. Cai, Minggang
    et al.
    Hong, Qingquan
    Sun, Jionghui
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Department of Aquatic Sciences and Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Chen, Kai
    Wang, Yun
    Qiu, Cangrong
    Huang, Shuiying
    Concentrations, distribution and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in coastal sediments from Xiamen, China2016In: Marine Chemistry, ISSN 0304-4203, E-ISSN 1872-7581, Vol. 185, p. 74-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xiamen and its surroundings are representative areas suffering from intense anthropogenic turbulence and contamination in southeast coast of China during rapid industrialization and urbanization period, thus relevant organic pollutants research is necessary to assess the coastal environmental quality and generate management strategy. Contamination status of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was investigated for 7 surface sediment samples collected in these areas in January 2007. The given data were used to evaluate the contamination and their potential risks of the pollutants. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs were in the range of 60 to 4089 pg g(-1) (dry weight) with an average of 1706 pg g(-1) and DL-PCBs in the range of 3 to 76 pg g(-1) with an average of 28 pg g(-1). Octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and PCBs 105 and 118 were the main congeners of the PCDD/F and DL-PCB, respectively. The toxicity equivalent concentrations (TEQs) were in the range of 0.15 to 5.2 pg g(-1) (average: 3.0 pg g(-1)) for PCDD/Fs, while in the range of <limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 0.09 pg g(-1) (average: 0.05 pg g(-1)) for DL-PCBs. Congener pattern analysis showed a dominance of OCDD, suggesting main sources were current or historical use of chlorophenol, current use of dioxin contaminated pesticides or atmospheric deposition. Due to the current levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in this area, it is necessary to further research their biogeochemical processes and ecological influences in the future.

  • 15. Cornelissen, Gerard
    et al.
    Cousins, Ian T
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Holmström, Henning
    Broman, Dag
    Black carbon-dominated PCDD/Fs sorption to soils at a former wood impregnation site2008In: Chemosphere, Vol. 72, no 10, p. 1455-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of black carbon (BC) on the sorption of 17 native polychlorinated-p-dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was studied in five soil samples from a sawmill site where wood used to be impregnated with chlorophenol preservatives. The presence of BC caused measured total organic carbon (TOC)-water distribution ratios (KTOC) to be a median factor of 51 (interquartile range 18-68, n = 85) higher than modeled amorphous organic carbon (AOC)-water distribution ratios (KAOC). KTOC was a factor of 73 ± 27 above KAOC for PCDFs (n = 10) and a factor of 20 ± 13 (n = 7) for PCDDs. The reason for this difference is probably that attaining a planar configuration after sorption to BC is less thermodynamically favorable for PCDDs than for PCDFs. BC-water distribution ratios were calculated from KTOC, KAOC and BC contents, and ranged from 109.9 (2,3,7,8-Tetra-CDD) to 1011.5 l kg-1 (Octa-CDF). More than 90% of the PCDD/Fs in the soil was calculated to be BC-sorbed. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-water distribution ratios were measured to be in the same order of magnitude as KAOC. This study shows that strong sorption to BC should be included when assessing ecotoxicological risk or modeling transport to groundwater of PCDD/Fs in soil.

  • 16.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    et al.
    Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Oslo, Norway.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Broman, Dag
    Department of Applied Environmental Sciences (ITM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arp, Hans Peter
    Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Oslo, Norway.
    Persson, Ylva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jonsson, Per
    Department of Applied Environmental Sciences (ITM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Freely dissolved concentrations and sediment-water activity ratios of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the open Baltic Sea2008In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42, no 23, p. 8733-8739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aqueous concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the open sea have heretofore been measured by filtering and extracting large amounts of water. Measurement of freely dissolved concentrations with this technique is difficult because of corrections for sorption to dissolved organic matter. In this study we use a novel, more economic technique using equilibrium passive samplers consisting of 17-μm thin polyoxymethylene (POM-17), capable of measuring freely dissolved aqueous concentrations (CW) in pristine (i.e., background) locations. POM-17 was employed in an extensive field campaign at five stations in the open Baltic sea to obtain CW at two depths (1 m above the seafloor and 25 m below the surface). Median CW in the overlying water was 2.3 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/m3 PCDD/Fs and 15 pg/L sum 7-PCB, with generally less than a factor two variation among sites and depths. Also freely dissolved concentrations of native compounds in the surface sediment porewater (CPW) were determined in laboratory batch experiments. The data were used to derive sediment-water activity ratios, which indicate the diffusive flux direction. It was found that the PCDD/Fs and PCBs were in close equilibrium between the sediment porewater and the overlying water. Comparison of CPW with total sediment concentrations indicated that more than 90% of the compounds were sorbed to sedimentary black carbon.

  • 17.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    et al.
    Department of Applied Environmental Sciences (ITM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Broman, Dag
    Department of Applied Environmental Sciences (ITM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Breedveld, G
    Jonsson, Per
    Department of Applied Environmental Sciences (ITM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Freely dissolved concentrations and sediment-water activity ratios of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the open Baltic Sea2008In: Abstract to SETAC North America conference, Nov. 16-20, 2008, Tampa, FA, USA, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Danielsson, Conny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Analysis of PCDD/Fs in fly ash using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC×GC-µECD)2005In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 67, p. 103-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Danielsson, Conny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Korytár, Peter
    de Boer, Jacob
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Trace Analysis of PCDD/Fs and WHO-PCBs in Food and Feed Using Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography (GCxGC)2003In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 60, p. 395-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Danielsson, Conny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Korytárb, Peter
    Bergek, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Brinkman, Udo A.Th.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Trace analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and WHO polychlorinated biphenyls in food using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with electron-capture detection2005In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1086, no 1-2, p. 61-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trace analysis of 2,3,7,8-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and the 12 WHO-PCBs (four non-ortho and eight mono-ortho congeners that have been assigned toxic equivalence factors, TEFs, by the World Health Organisation) was conducted by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with a micro electron-capture detector (GC x GC-mu ECD). Four food matrices (fish oil from herring, spiked cows' milk, vegetable oil and an eel extract) were analysed by two GC x GC laboratories, and four GC-HRMS laboratories generated reference values. The two GC x GC laboratories used different column combinations for separating the target analytes. For the first dimension, non-polar DB-XLB and VF-1 columns were used, and for the second dimension, an LC-50 liquid crystalline column with unique selectivity for planar compounds. The congener-specific and total toxic equivalence (TEQ) data obtained using DB-XLB x LC-50 were in good agreement with results obtained by the GC-HRMS laboratories. The WHO-PCB data obtained with the VF-1 x LC-50 combination was also good, but the PCDD/F concentrations were sometimes overestimated due to matrix interferences. GC x GC-mu ECD using DB-XLB x LC-50 seems to fulfil the European Community requirements of a screening method for PCDD/F and WHO-PCB TEQ in food.

  • 21.
    Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Danielsson, Conny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Korytar, Peter
    de Boer, Jacob
    Validation of GC×GC-ECD for the determination of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food and feed2005In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 67, p. 99-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Korytár, Peter
    Danielsson, Conny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Diaz, Jordí
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Leonards, Pim
    Brinkman, Udo
    de Boer, Jacob
    GCxGC-ECD a promising method for the determination of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food and feed2008In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 390, no 7, p. 1815-1827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for cost-efficient alternatives to gas chromatography (GC)–high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food and feed. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC–micro electron capture detection (GC×GC-μECD) was tested and all relevant (according to the World Health Organisation, WHO) PCDD/Fs and PCBs could be separated when using a DB-XLB/LC-50 column combination. Validation tests by two laboratories showed that detectability, repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy of GC×GC-μECD are all statistically consistent with GC-HRMS results. A limit of detection of 0.5 pg WHO PCDD/F tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalency concentration per gram of fish oil was established. The reproducibility was less than 10%, which is below the recommended EU value for reference methods (less than 15%). Injections of vegetable oil extracts spiked with PCBs, polychlorinated naphthalenes and diphenyl ethers at concentrations of 200 ng/g showed no significant impact on the dioxin results, confirming in that way the robustness of the method. The use of GC×GC-μECD as a routine method for food and feed analysis is therefore recommended. However, the data evaluation of low dioxin concentrations is still laborious owing to the need for manual integration. This makes the overall analysis costs higher than those of GC-HRMS. Further developments of software are needed (and expected) to reduce the data evaluation time. Combination of the current method with pressurised liquid extraction with in-cell cleanup will result in further reduction of analysis costs.

  • 23.
    Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Lindkvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Nakano, Takeshi
    Asplund, Lillemor
    High Levels of Potentially Biogenic Dibromo and Tribromo Dibenzo-p-dioxins in Swedish Fish2005In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 67, p. 1267-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Bergek, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Kautsky, Lena
    Nakano, Takeshi
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins: A new class of marine toxins?2007In: Environmental Science & Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 41, no 9, p. 3069-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) were measured in marine fish, mussels, and shellfish. PBDDs were nondetectable in samples from freshwater environments, and their levels were successively higher in samples from the marine environments of the Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea, the West Coast of Sweden, and the Baltic Proper. In Baltic Proper littoral fish the levels of PBDDs generally exceeded those of their chlorinated analogues (PCDDs). This is alarming as some Baltic fish species already are contaminated by chlorinated dioxins to such an extent that they cannot be sold on the European market. By comparing spatial trends in PBDD and PCDD distributions, and PBDD patterns in fish, mussels, and algae, we show that the PBDDs are probably produced naturally, and we propose a route for their biosynthesis. We further show that the levels of PBDDs are high (ng/g wet weight) in mussels, and that the levels increase over time. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the PBDDs have adverse biological effects, and that the levels are increasing as a result of global warming and eutrophication.

  • 25.
    Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Sporring, S
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Björklund, E
    Shape-Selective Extraction of PCBs and Dioxins from Fish and Fish Oil Using In-Cell Carbon Fractionation Pressurized Liquid Extraction2007In: Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 79, no 7, p. 2945-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a new shape-selective, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) procedure for extracting polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs from food and feed samples with an integrated carbon fractionation step. Initially this was done using specially designed inserts for 34-mL cells, but subsequently, large solid cells (66 mL) were machined to increase the capacity and robustness of the system. Depending on the carbon load and extraction solvent strength, the non-ortho PCBs were recovered either with the bulk of the PCBs or with the PCDD/Fs. The former is preferable if PCDD/Fs are the targets. In most cases, however, data are required for all indicator PCBs, WHO-PCBs, and PCDD/Fs. Therefore, further efforts focused on developing, optimizing, and validating a cost- and time-efficient PLE procedure that can extract these targets, separate non-ortho PCBs and PCDD/Fs from the bulk of the PCBs, allow gravimetric fat determinations, and requires a minimum of postextraction cleanup. The performance of the resulting procedure was assessed in experiments with a fish tissue reference material. The trueness of the WHO-PCB-TEQ, PCDD/F-TEQ, and total-TEQ data were - 8, - 5, and - 7%, respectively, and the corresponding CVs were 1.5, 0.5, and 1.3%; within the limits set by the European community for gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry methods for food and feed control.

  • 26.
    Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Determination of the gas chromatographic elution sequences of the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of stable atropistomeric PCBs on Chirasil-Dex1996In: HRC Journal of High Resolution Chromatography, ISSN 0935-6304, E-ISSN 1521-4168, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 373-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pure enantiomers of chiral (atropisomeric) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography were used to establish the gas chromatographic elution sequences of the (+)- and (−)-enantiomers of six PCB atropisomers on Chirasil-Dex. The elution order was found to be (−/+) for PCBs 84, 132, 136, and 176 and (+/−) for PCBs 135 and 174. The retention characteristics of all 19 tri- and tetra-ortho atropisomeric PCBs were also investigated. Nine of the atropisomers could be separated using this chiral selector. PCBs 95, 132, and 149 were completely resovled and PCBs 84, 91, 135, 136, 174, and 176 were partially separated (R = 0.7–0.9). All of the separated congeners are 2,3,6-substituted in at least one ring, and conversely – none of the congeners that lacks 2,3,6-substitution could be separated. Thus, chiral recognition and enantiomer separation seems to be strongly governed by 2,3,6-substitution.

  • 27.
    Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Danielsson, Conny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Nording, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Björklund, Erland
    Lunds universitet.
    Sporring, Sune
    Lunds universitet.
    Hyphenated techniques for dioxin analysis: LC-LC-GC-ECD, GCxGC-ECD, and selective PLE with GC-HRMS or bioanalytical detection2004In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 66, p. 376-382Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Harner, T.
    et al.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Norstrom, R.
    Enantiomer Fractions Are Preferred to Enantiomer Ratios for Describing Chiral Signatures in Environmental Analysis2000In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 218-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enantiomer ratio (ER) is currently the standard descriptor of enantiomeric (chiral) signatures for environmental samples. In this paper, we argue for the adoption of the enantiomer fraction (EF) as the standard descriptor by showing drawbacks to the use of ER. The enantiomer fraction is superior because it provides a more meaningful representation of graphical data and is more easily employed in mathematical fate expressions. Several useful expressions are presented that allow EF to be used for tracking and apportioning chemical movement between environmental compartments and for investigating microbial degradation processes.

  • 29.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Karlsson, O Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 210 60, SE-110 31 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malmaeus, J Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 210 60, SE-110 31 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    NGI, Sognsvn. 72, NO-0855 Oslo, Norway.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Structure-related distribution of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HCB in a river-sea system2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 85-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water concentrations of PCDD/Fs, HCB, and non-ortho, mono-ortho, and non-dioxin-like PCBs were measured four times during 1year in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea, to investigate background levels and distribution behaviour. Sampling sites included two rivers, an estuary, and the sea. Particulate and apparently dissolved concentrations were determined using active sampling (filters+PUFs), while freely dissolved concentrations were determined using passive sampling (POM-samplers). The distribution between particulate+colloidal and freely dissolved phases, in the form of TOC-normalized distribution ratios (K(TOC)), was found to be near or at equilibrium. The observed K(TOC) were not significantly different between sampling sites or seasons. For PCDD/Fs, the concentrations were significantly correlated to suspended particulate matter (SPM), while no correlation to organic carbon (TOC) was observed. In the estuary and the sea, PCB concentrations were correlated to TOC. The sorption of various congeners to SPM and TOC appeared to be related to both hydrophobicity and 3D-structure. The PCDD/F concentration in the sea decreased to one third in May, likely connected to the increased vertical flux of particles during the spring bloom.

  • 30.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Leonardsson, Kjell
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bioturbation-driven release of buried PCBs and PBDEs from different depths in contaminated sediments2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 19, p. 7456-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioturbation can remobilize previously buried contaminants, leading to an increased exposure of aquatic biota. The remobilization of buried polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from three different sediment depth layers (2.0-2.5 cm, 5.0-5.5 cm, and 10.0-10.5 cm) was studied in a laboratory experiment with two benthic macrofauna species, the amphipod Monoporeia affinis and the polychaete Marenzelleria spp. Remobilization of PCBs and PBDEs was significantly higher in the presence of Marenzelleria spp. than in M. affinis treatments and controls (without macrofauna). The highest remobilization occurred from the most shallow layers (2.0-2.5 cm > 5.0-5.5 cm > 10.0-10.5 cm), but contaminants were remobilized due to bioturbation from layers down to at least 10 cm. Congeners with lower hydrophobicity were remobilized to a higher extent than more hydrophobic congeners. The contaminant distribution between the particulate and the dissolved phase in the water column depended on hydrophobicity and burial depth of the contaminant, with congeners from deeper layers displaying an increased distribution to the particulate phase. Release fluxes and sediment-to-water mass transfer coefficients (MTCs) show that bioturbation by the polychaete Marenzelleria spp. can lead to a significant remobilization of buried contaminants from Baltic Sea sediments.

  • 31.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Leonardsson, Kjell
    Institutionen för vilt, fisk och miljö, SLU.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S
    Systemekologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Influence of contaminant burial depth on the bioaccumulation of PCBs and PBDEs by two benthic invertebrates (Monoporeia affinis and Marenzelleria spp.)2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 85, no 9, p. 1444-1451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bioaccumulation of buried polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) added to specific depths in sediment (2.0-2.5, 5.0-5.5 and 10.0-10.5cm) was studied in two infaunal species with similar feeding habits (surface deposit-feeders) but different bioturbation modes. The deep-burrowing polychaetes Marenzelleria spp. (Mz) displayed up to 36 times higher tissue concentrations of buried (spiked) contaminants than the surface-dwelling biodiffusing amphipod Monoporeia affinis. The differences in bioaccumulation were most pronounced for less hydrophobic contaminants due to the bioirrigating activity of Mz. Contaminants buried at shallow depths displayed higher accumulation than more deeply buried contaminants. In contrast, the bioaccumulation of unspiked (native) contaminants with a uniform vertical distribution in the sediment was similar between the species. For Mz, the BSAFs increased with increased K(OW) for the uniformly distributed contaminants, but decreased for the buried contaminants, which indicates that the dominant uptake routes of the buried contaminants can differ from the uniformly distributed contaminants. The surface sediment concentration of buried contaminants increased in Mz treatments, showing that Mz bioturbation can remobilize historically buried contaminants to the biologically active surface layer and increase the exposure for surface-dwelling species.

  • 32.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Schaanning, Morten
    NIVA, Norway.
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Systemekologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S
    Systemekologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Olofsson, Ida
    Systemekologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eek, Espen
    NGI, Norway.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Capping efficiency of various carbonaceous and mineral materials for in situ remediation of marine sediments contaminated with PCDD/Fs, OCS and HCBManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of various thin-layer capping materials in reducing the sediment-to-water flux and benthic organism bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) was investigated in a boxcosm experiment. The influence of cap layer thickness (0.5-5 cm) and different cap materials were tested using a three-factor experimental design. The capping materials consisted of a passive carrier (coarse or fine limestone material, or a marine clay sediment), and an active material (activated carbon (AC) or kraft lignin) to sequester the contaminants and decrease their bioavailability. Macrofauna was added to the boxes to get a semi-natural bioturbation. The sediment-to-water flux was measured using passive (SPMD) samplers, and the bioaccumulation by the surface-dwelling gastropod Hinia reticulata and the deep-burrowing polychaetes Nereis spp. was determined. Results showed substantial decreases in both flux and bioaccumulation as a result of thin-layer capping. The thickness of the capping layer and the choice of active material were important factors, while the use of different types of passive materials was not statistically significant for any of the observed endpoints. Flux and bioaccumulation decreased with increased cap thickness, and could be further decreased with addition of active material. Activated carbon was more efficient than lignin, and a ~90% reduction of the flux and bioaccumulation, compared to uncapped control sediment, could be achieved with 3 cm caps with 3.3% AC (g C/g ww clay). The reduction was generally larger in the surface-dwelling H. reticulata than in Nereis spp., and the magnitude of the reduction was frequently similar between Nereis spp. and sediment-to-water fluxes. The latter was interpreted to indicate a link between Nereis spp. bioirrigation and sediment-to-water fluxes. Furthermore, the reduction in sediment-to-water flux was dependent on the hydrophobicity of the congeners, with less hydrophobic congeners achieving a larger reduction than more hydrophobic congeners.      

  • 33.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Schaanning, Morten
    Samuelsson, Göran S
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S
    Olofsson, Ida
    Eek, Espen
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Capping Efficiency of Various Carbonaceous and Mineral Materials for In Situ Remediation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran Contaminated Marine Sediments: Sediment-to-Water Fluxes and Bioaccumulation in Boxcosm Tests2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 3343-3351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of thin-layer capping in reducing sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorobenzene, and octachlorostyrene was investigated in a boxcosm experiment. The influence of cap thickness (0.5-5 cm) and different cap materials was tested using a three-factor experimental design. The cap materials consisted of a passive material (coarse or fine limestone or a marine clay) and an active material (activated carbon (AC) or kraft lignin) to sequester the contaminants. The cap thickness and the type of active material were significant factors, whereas no statistically significant effects of the type of passive material were observed. Sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation by the two test species, the surface-dwelling Nassarius nitidus and the deep-burrowing Nereis spp., decreased with increased cap thickness and with addition of active material. Activated carbon was more efficient than lignin, and a ∼90% reduction of fluxes and bioaccumulation was achieved with 3 cm caps with 3.3% AC. Small increases in fluxes with increased survival of Nereis spp. indicated that bioturbation by Nereis spp. affected the fluxes.

  • 34.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Depth-specific impact of bioturbation on the release of persistent organic pollutants from sediment2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract to SETAC conference, Aug. 3-7, 2008, Sydney, Australia, poster presentation

  • 35.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Fördelning av POPs mellan sediment, plast och glas2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract to Miljøkjemisk Vintermøte, arranged by Norsk Kjemisk Selskap og Svenska Kemistsamfundet, March 12-14, 2007, oral presentation

  • 36.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Sorption of pollutants to HDPE – implications of using plastic equipment in experiments with organic contaminants2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract to SETAC world conference, Aug. 3-7, 2008, Sydney, Australia, poster presentation

  • 37. Karlsson, O Magnus
    et al.
    Malmaeus, J Mikael
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Application of a mass-balance model to predict PCDD/F turnover in a Baltic coastal estuary2010In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 209-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dynamical, process-based mass-balance model was applied to quantify the transports of polychlorinated-p-dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to, within and from the Kallrigafjärden Bay, a coastal estuary in the Baltic Sea, and to predict the PCDD/F levels in the water and sediments of the bay. Before the modelling, a one-year sampling programme was implemented in 2007–2008 to measure the flows of PCDD/Fs in tributaries entering the system, the fluxes from the adjacent sea and the levels in water, sediment and fish within the estuary. The collected data set was used as input data to the model and for validation purposes.The model was originally developed and tested for suspended particulate matter and phosphorus in Baltic coastal areas. In this work, it was run monthly without any tuning of the original model variables. The simulation results compared favourably with the field measurements of levels of 15 PCDD/F congeners in the water and sediments of the bay. The dominating fluxes of PCDD/Fs were the exchange with the adjacent sea, followed by riverine input, atmospheric deposition and sediment burial.Although the sediment-water exchange was of minor importance for the overall mass-balance due to the rapid water turnover and limited areas favourable for the long-term deposition of fine sedimentary matter, sensitivity analyses indicated that the model’s predictive capability was improved with about 5% by taking the sediment burial and release into account.

  • 38. Magnusson, R
    et al.
    Nilsson, C
    Andersson, K
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Gieling, R
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Ostman, C
    Rannug, U
    Determination of chemical composition and mutagenicity in particles from chainsaw exhaust. Experimental set-up, stability and results from two different fuels2000In: Environmental Technology, ISSN 0959-3330, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 819-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dilution tunnel for sampling of particles and gaseous emissions in chainsaw exhaust was constructed and tested for reproducibility. In addition the equipment was used to measure chainsaw emissions when using two different fuels, aliphatic petrol with synthetic lubricating oil and regular lead-free petrol with mineral lubricating oil. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the mutagenicity of sampled particles were measured as well as the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and aldehydes in the exhaust. particles were sampled isokinetically and collected on a filter followed by two polyurethane foam plugs (PUF) in series for sampling of the semivolatile components. PAH were analysed by a coupled liquid chromatography - gas chromatography (LC-GC) system and mutagenicity testing was carried out by using Ames Salmonella assay. The measured physical parameters as well as the particulate, semivolatile and gaseous emissions showed that reproducible measurements of exhaust emissions could be achieved using this experimental set-up. In terms of mutagenicity when testing for reproducibility, a small but significant effect was observed for the Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 in the absence of a metabolizing system, both for the particulate phase and the semivolatile components. A significant difference was seen between the two different fuels tested, the conventional petrol with mineral oil having 5-10 times higher concentrations of different PAH compounds and a much higher mutagenic effect for all strains. This difference was seen both for the particulate phase and the semivolatile components.

  • 39.
    Nording, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sporring, Sune
    Björklund, Erland
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Efficient Screeing of Dioxins in Food and Feed Using Shape-Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Cell Based Bioassay Analysis2004In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 66, p. 617-622Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Nording, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sporring, Sune
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Björklund, Erland
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Monitoring dioxins in food and feedstuffs using accelerated solvent extraction with a novel integrated carbon fractionation cell in combination with a CAFLUX bioassay2005In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 381, no 7, p. 1472-1475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of dioxins in fish oil and fish meal were determined with accelerated solvent extraction, using a novel integrated carbon fractionation extraction cell followed by a miniturized multilayer silica column and bioanalysis on a recently-developed chemically-activated fluorescent gene expression cell bioassay. The developed method allows for simultaneous gravimetric lipid weight determination, which was shown for both matrices under study (about 100% lipid recovery of each sample). Initial results practically meet the quality criteria on screening methods for control of dioxins in food and feedstuffs laid down in the EU Commission Directives 2002/69/EC (food) and 2002/70/EC (feed). This demonstrates that the developed method can be used as a screening tool for monitoring dioxins in food and feed after some additional improvements and testing on a greater number of matrices.

  • 41. Sporring, S
    et al.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Björlund, E
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    On-line ASE extraction and fractionating of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs (WHO-PCBs) in feed samples2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract to the 27th International Conference on Capillary Chromatography, Riva del Garda, Italy, May, 2004.

  • 42. Sporring, Sune
    et al.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Björklund, Erland
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Combined Extraction/Clean-Up Strategies for Fast Determination of PCDD/Fs and WHO-PCBs in Food and Feed Samples Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction2003In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 64, p. 183-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Olsson, M
    Broman, D
    Bignert, A
    Cornelissen, G
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Concentrations and Congener Patterns of PCDD/FS in Surface Sediment, Settling Particulate Matter, Water and Fish From the South Bothnian Sea, Sweden2007In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 69, p. 247-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on PCDD/F contamination along the Swedish coast of the southern Bothnian Sea, a heavily polluted area of the Baltic Sea. Data from earlier studies of surface sediment, perch, viviparous blenny and herring were analyzed together with new data for settling particulate matter (SPM) and sea water. PCDD/F pollution in surface sediment and SPM in the southern Bothnian Sea were similar both in respect to pattern and levels. The highest levels were 170 000 and 33 000 pg/g TOC in sediment and SPM respectively, and the congener pattern was dominated by OCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. The dissolved concentrations in water were estimated by analysis of passive samplers of low density polyethylene (LDPE) type. The water pollution pattern was extremely different and showed complete domination of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. The fish showed species specific differences in the fractions of the two dominating congeners, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF. All species did, however, show an increase in the fraction 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF as compared to the pattern in passive water samplers.

  • 44.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Andersson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Sjöblom, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Cato, I
    Geladi, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Hopke, P K
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Receptor Modeling of PCDD/FS in Sediment of the Sundsvall Bay, Sweden2008In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 70, no 1641-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Sundsvall Bay area, located in the southern Bothnian Sea (a sub-basin of the Baltic Sea), industrial history have included a large variety of activities, from small sawmills to large pulp and paper mills as well as chloralkali production. Previously, several sawmills in the area used chlorophenol formulations for wood preservation, and these were contaminated by PCDD/Fs. Chloralkali production using graphite electrodes and bleaching of pulp using chlorine are manufacturing processes also known to have caused PCDD/Fs emissions. A chemical industry has been active in the area since the 1930s and an aluminum smelter was built in 1942. Aluminum production, like many high temperature processes, is known to produce PCDD/Fs.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using receptor modeling for identification and apportioning of the major sources of PCDD/Fs in the Sundsvall Bay. The Sundsvall Bay was chosen as the first study area of this modeling technique along the Swedish coast since there are several possible sources of PCDD/Fs in the area and a relatively large number of sediment samples have been analyzed. Current PCDD/F emissions have been investigated by sampling river water, industrial effluent entering the bay and, in addition, soil from two contaminated sawmill sites.

  • 45.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Cato, I
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Spatial Distribution and Profiles of Dioxins in Surface Sediment from the Baltic Sea2006In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 68, p. 444-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Division of Geophysic and Marine Geology, Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Bignert, Anders
    The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Levels and homologue profiles of PCDD/Fs in sediments along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea2009In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 396-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope  The primary aim of this study was to explore the variations in PCDD/F levels and homologue profiles of Baltic surface sediments by comprehensively analyzing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in samples from a large number of sites, encompassing not only previously known hotspot areas, but also sites near other potential PCDD/F sources, in pristine reference areas (in which there was no industrial activity) and offshore sites. Materials and methods  Surface sediment samples (146 in total) were collected at various points along the Swedish coast and offshore areas. In addition, bulk deposition was sampled, monthly, at a single site in northern Sweden during 1 year. The concentrations of tetra- through octa-substituted CDD/Fs were determined in both matrices. Results  Highly elevated concentrations of PCDD/Fs were found at many sites in coastal areas and concentrations were also slightly elevated in some offshore areas. Homologue profiles varied substantially amongst samples from coastal sites, while those from offshore and other pristine sediments were relatively similar. The offshore sediments showed different profiles from those observed in the deposition samples. Sediment levels of PCDD/Fs were not generally significantly correlated to organic carbon levels, except in some pristine areas. Comparison of data obtained in this and previous studies suggest that both their levels and profiles are similar today to those observed 20 years ago in coastal and offshore areas. The only detected trend is that their levels appear to have decreased slightly in the offshore area of the Bothnian Sea. Discussion  The localization of hotspot areas along the coast, the lack of consensus between PCDD/F profiles of sediments and general background, and their weak correlations with organic carbon suggest that PCDD/Fs in the study area largely originate from local/regional emissions. However, due to complicating factors such as sediment dynamics and land upheaval, it is not possible to conclude whether these pollutants derive from recent emissions or from a combination of recent emissions and re-distribution of previous inputs. Conclusions  The results show that: elevated levels of PCDD/Fs are present in both coastal and offshore areas of the Baltic Sea, the major hotspots are close to the shore, and there are large variations in profiles, indicating that local emissions are (or have been) the major causes of pollution. Recommendations and perspectives  In order to identify other hotspot areas and trace sources, comprehensive analysis of PCDD/Fs in surface sediments is needed in all areas of the Baltic Sea that have not been previously investigated. The high levels of PCDD/Fs observed in surface sediments also indicate a need to elucidate whether they are due mainly to current emissions or a combination of recent pollution and re-distribution of historically deposited pollutants. To do so, better understanding of sediment dynamics and present-day inputs, such as riverine inputs, industrial effluents, and leakage from contaminated soil is required. There are indications that contaminated sediments have a regional impact on fish contamination levels. However, as yet there is no statistically robust evidence linking contaminated sediments with elevated levels in Baltic biota. It should also be noted that the Baltic Sea is being massively invaded by the deep-burrowing polychaete Marenzielleria ssp., whose presence in sediments has been shown to increase water concentrations of hydrophobic pollutants. In awareness of this, it is clear that high levels in sediments cannot be ignored in risk assessments. In order to investigate the emission trends more thoroughly, analysis of PCDD/Fs in offshore sediment cores throughout the Baltic Sea is also recommended. Electronic supplementary material  The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11356-009-0110-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • 47.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Geladi, Paul
    Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Division of Geophysic and Marine Geology, Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Congener fingerprints of tetra- through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in Baltic surface sediments and their relations to potential sources2009In: Chemosphere, Vol. 77, no 5, p. 612-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive congener fingerprints of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), including non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners, in 142 surface sediment samples from the Baltic Sea were characterized by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The pattern analysis revealed source specific indicators of chlorophenol use, high temperature processes, chlorine bleach/chloralkali production and a source signature suggested to originate from pulp/paper or related production. Congener patterns in sediments from offshore and pristine coastal areas showed strong resemblance to patterns of atmospheric deposition and flue gases, indicating that these sources have high impact in areas that are not affected by point sources. Prominent contributors to the patterns of hotspot areas along the Swedish coast included chlorophenol indicators and a source characterized by hexa-CDDs while the contribution of the traditional chlorine bleach pattern was weaker. This study demonstrates the importance of comprehensive PCDD/F congener analysis for identifying links to candidate sources.

  • 48.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Geladi, Paul
    Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hopke, Philip
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    PCDD/F Source Apportionment in the Baltic Sea Using Positive Matrix Factorization2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 1690-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was used to identify and apportion candidate sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in samples of offshore and coastal surface sediments from the Baltic Sea. Atmospheric deposition was the dominant source in offshore and pristine areas, in agreement with previous studies. Earlier chlorophenol use and a source suggested origins from pulp and paper production and related industries were identified as important coastal sources. A previously presumed major source, chlorine bleaching of pulp, was of only minor importance for modern Baltic surface sediments. The coastal source impacts were mostly local or regional, but pattern variations in offshore samples indicate that coastal sources may have some importance for offshore areas. Differences between sub-basins also indicated that local and regional air emissions from incineration or other high-temperature processes are more important in the southern Baltic Sea compared to those in northerly areas. These regional differences demonstrated the importance of including offshore sediments from the Bothnian Bay, Gulf of Finland, and other areas of the Baltic Sea in future studies to better identify the major PCDD/F sources to the Baltic Sea.

  • 49.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wingfors, H
    Brorström-Lundén, E
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Air-sea gas fluxes of PCBs and HCHs in the Kattegat Sea.2002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract to the workshop “Understanding and modelling the regional and global scale distribution and fate of POPs”

  • 50.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wingfors, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Brorstöm-Lundén, Eva
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Air–sea gas exchange of HCHs and PCBs and enantiomers of α-HCH in the Kattegat Sea region2004In: Environmental Pollution: Volume 128, Issues 1-2, March 2004, Pages 73-83, ISSN 0269-7491, Vol. 128, no 1-2, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations and air–water gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined in nine paired air and water samples. The samples were collected monthly in the Kattegat Sea between December 1998 and November 1999. Average fugacity and flux values indicated that PCBs were oversaturated in the water, while HCHs were net deposited. Variations were large over the year, especially during spring and summer. Air parcel back trajectories suggested that air concentrations over the Kattegat Sea are largely dependent of air mass origin. Seasonal trends were detected for airborne HCHs and for PCBs in water. The air and water enantiomeric compositions of α-HCH indicated that a larger portion of α-HCH in air originated from the underlying water during summer than during winter.

    Air–water exchange of PCBs and HCHs is studied in the Kattegat Sea and shows to vary seasonally.

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