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  • 1.
    Frumence, Gasto
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The role of social capital in HIV prevention: experiences from the Kagera region of Tanzania2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background

    The role of social capital for promoting health has been extensively studied in recent years but there are few attempts to investigate the possible influence of social capital on HIV prevention,particularly in developing countries. The overall aims of this thesis are to investigate the links between social capital and HIV infection and to contribute to the theoretical framework of the role of social capital for HIV prevention.

    Methods

    Key informant interviews with leaders of organizations, networks, social groups and communities and focus group discussions with members and non-members of the social groups and networks were conducted to map out and characterize various forms of social capital that may influenceHIV prevention. A quantitative community survey was carried out in three case communities toestimate the influence of social capital on HIV risk behaviors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the HIV prevalence in the urban district representing a high HIV prevalence zone to determine the association between social capital and HIV infection.

    Main findings

    In early 1990’s many of the social groups in Kagera region were formed because of poverty and many AIDS related deaths. This formation of groups enhanced people’s social and economic support to group members during bereavement and celebrations as well as provided loans that empowered members economically. The social groups also put in place strict rules of conduct, which helped to create new norms, values and trust, which influenced sexual health andthereby enhanced HIV prevention. Formal organizations worked together with social groups and facilitated networking and provided avenues for exchange of information including healtheducation on HIV/AIDS. Individuals who had access to high levels of structural and cognitive social capital were more likely to use condoms with their casual sex partners compared to individuals with access to low levels. Women with access to high levels of structural social capital were more likely to use condoms with casual sex partners compared to those with low levels. Individuals with access to low levels of structural social capital were less likely to be tested for HIV compared to those with access to high levels. However, there was no association between access to cognitive social capital and being tested for HIV. Individuals who had access to low levels of both structural and cognitive social capital were more likely to be HIV positive compared to individuals who had access to high levels with a similar pattern among men and women.

    Conclusion

    This thesis indicates that social capital in its structural and cognitive forms is protective to HIV infection and has played an important role in the observed decline in HIV trends in the Kagera region. Structural and cognitive social capital has enabled community members to decrease number of sexual partners, delay sexual debut for the young generation, reduce opportunities for casual sex and empower community members to demand or use condoms. It is recommended that policy makers and programme managers consider involving grassroots’ social groups and networks in the design and delivery of interventions strategies to reduce HIV transmission.

  • 2.
    Frumence, Gasto
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Killewo, Japhet
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Exploring the role of cognitive and structural social capital in the declining trends of HIV/AIDS in the Kagera region of Tanzania: A grounded theory study2011In: African Journal of AIDS Research, ISSN 1608-5906, E-ISSN 1727-9445, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents a synthesis of data from three village case studies focusing on how structural and cognitivesocial capital may have influenced the progression of the HIV epidemic in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Groundedtheory was used to develop a theoretical model describing the possible links between structural and cognitivesocial capital and the impact on sexual health behaviours. Focus group discussions and key informant interviewswere carried out to represent the range of experiences of existing social capital. Both structural and cognitive socialcapital were active avenues for community members to come together, empower each other, and develop norms,values, trust and reciprocal relations. This empowerment created an enabling environment in which members couldadopt protective behaviours against HIV infection. On the one hand, we observed that involvement in formal andinformal organisations resulted in a reduction of numbers of sexual partners, led people to demand abstinencefrom sexual relations until marriage, caused fewer opportunities for casual sex, and gave individuals the agency todemand the use of condoms. On the other hand, strict membership rules and regulations excluded some members,particularly excessive alcohol drinkers and debtors, from becoming members of the social groups, which increasedtheir vulnerability in terms of exposure to HIV. Social gatherings (especially those organised during the night) werealso found to increase youths’ risk of HIV infection through instances of unsafe sex. We conclude that even thoughsocial capital may at times have negative effects on individuals’ HIV-prevention efforts, this study provides initialevidence that social capital is largely protective through empowering vulnerable groups such as women and thepoor to protect against HIV infection and by promoting protective sexual behaviours.

  • 3.
    Sirili, Nathanael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Frumence, Gasto
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kiwara, A
    Mwangu, M
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    "Doctors ready to be posted are jobless on the street..." the deploymnet process and shortage of doctors in TanzaniaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Sirili, Nathanael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Development Studies, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Frumence, Gasto
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kiwara, Angwara
    Mwangu, Mughwira
    Anaeli, Amani
    Nyamhanga, Tumaini
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Retention of medical doctors at the district level: a qualitative study of experiences from Tanzania2018In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, article id 260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Retention of Human Resources for Health (HRH), particularly doctors at district level is a big challenge facing the decentralized health systems in poorly resourced countries. Tanzania, with 75% of its population in rural areas, has only 26% of doctors serving in rural areas. We aimed to analyze the experiences regarding the retention of doctors at district level in Tanzania from doctors' and district health managers' perspectives.

    METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out in three districts from June to September 2013. We reviewed selected HRH documents and then conducted 15 key informant interviews with members of the District Health Management teams and medical doctors working at the district hospitals. In addition, we conducted three focus group discussions with Council Health Management Team members in the three districts. Incentive package plans, HRH establishment, and health sector development plans from the three districts were reviewed. Data analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: None of the districts in this study has the number of doctors recommended. Retention of doctors in the districts faced the following challenges: unfavourable working conditions including poor working environment, lack of assurance of career progression, and a non-uniform financial incentive system across districts; unsupportive environment in the community, characterized by: difficulty in securing houses for rent, lack of opportunities to earn extra income, lack of appreciation from the community and poor social services. Health managers across districts endeavour to retain their doctors through different retention strategies, including: career development plans, minimum financial incentive packages and avenues for private practices in the district hospitals. However, managers face constrained financial resources, with many competing priorities at district level.

    CONCLUSIONS: Retention of doctors at district level faces numerous challenges. Assurance of career growth, provision of uniform minimum financial incentives and ensuring availability of good social services and economic opportunities within the community are among important retention strategies.

  • 5.
    Sirili, Nathanael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Development Studies, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O.BOX 65454, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Frumence, Gasto
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kiwara, Angwara
    Mwangu, Mughwira
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Public private partnership in training of doctors after the 1990s' health sector reforms: the case of Tanzania2019In: Human Resources for Health, ISSN 1478-4491, E-ISSN 1478-4491, Vol. 17, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Similar to many other low- and middle-income countries, public private partnership (PPP) in the training of the health workforce has been emphasized since the launch of the 1990s’ health sector reforms in Tanzania. PPP in training aims to contribute to addressing the critical shortage of health workforce in these countries. This study aimed to analyse the policy process and experienced outcomes of PPP for the training of doctors in Tanzania two decades after the 1990s’ health sector reforms. We reviewed documents and interviewed key informants to collect data from training institutions and umbrella organizations that train and employ doctors in both the public and private sectors. We adopted a hybrid thematic approach to analyse the data while guided by the policy analysis framework by Gagnon and Labonté. PPP in training has contributed significantly to the increasing number of graduating doctors in Tanzania. In tandem, undermining of universities’ autonomy and the massive enrolment of medical students unfavourably affect the quality of graduating doctors. Although PPP has proven successful in increasing the number of doctors graduating, unemployment of the graduates and lack of database to inform the training needs and capacity to absorb the graduates have left the country with a health workforce shortage and maldistribution at service delivery points, just as before the introduction of the PPP. This study recommends that Tanzania revisit its PPP approach to ensure the health workforce crisis is addressed in its totality. A comprehensive plan is needed to address issues of training within the framework of PPP by engaging all stakeholders in training and deployment starting from the planning of the number of medical students, and when and how they will be trained while taking into account the quality of the training.

  • 6.
    Sirili, Nathanael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Development Studies, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Kiwara, Angwara
    Gasto, Frumence
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Training and deployment of medical doctors in Tanzania post-1990s health sector reforms: assessing the achievements2017In: Human Resources for Health, ISSN 1478-4491, E-ISSN 1478-4491, Vol. 15, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The shortage of a skilled health workforce is a global crisis. International efforts to combat the crisis have shown few benefits; therefore, more country-specific efforts are required. Tanzania adopted health sector reforms in the 1990s to ensure, among other things, availability of an adequate skilled health workforce. Little is documented on how the post-reform training and deployment of medical doctors (MDs) have contributed to resolving Tanzania's shortage of doctors. The study aims to assess achievements in training and deployment of MDs in Tanzania about 20 years since the 1990s health sector reforms.

    METHODS: We developed a human resource for health (HRH) conceptual model to study achievements in the training and deployment of MDs by using the concepts of supply and demand. We analysed secondary data to document the number of MDs trained in Tanzania and abroad, and the number of MDs recommended for the health sector from 1992 to 2011. A cross-sectional survey conducted in all regions of the country established the number of MDs available by 2011.

    RESULTS: By 1992, Tanzania had 1265 MDs working in the country. From 1992 to 2010, 2622 MDs graduated both locally and abroad. This translates into 3887 MDs by 2011. Tanzania needs between 3326 and 5535 MDs. Our survey captured 1299 MDs working throughout the country. This number is less than 40% of all MDs trained in and needed for Tanzania by 2011. Maldistribution favouring big cities was evident; the eastern zone with less than 30% of the population hosts more than 50% of all MDs. No information was available on the more than 60% of MDs uncaptured by our survey.

    CONCLUSIONS: Two decades after the reforms, the number of MDs trained in Tanzania has increased sevenfold per year. Yet, the number and geographical distribution of MDs practicing in the country has remained the same as before the reforms. HRH planning should consider the three stages of health workforce development conceptualized under the demand and supply model. Auditing and improvement of the HRH database is highly recommended in dealing with Tanzania's MD crisis.

1 - 6 of 6
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