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  • 1.
    Bignert, Anders
    et al.
    Contaminant Research Group, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Contaminant Research Group, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Spatial variation in concentrations and patterns of the PCDD/F and dioxin-like-PCB content in herring from the northern Baltic Sea2007In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 550-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate spatial and seasonal variation of dioxin and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB) content in herring sampled along the northern Baltic Sea coast and map out risk zones for dioxins and dl-PCBs. We further aimed to investigate relationships between congener distribution (pattern) and sampling location and season. The results showed that there were distinct geographical differences in concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans and dl-PCBs along the Swedish coast, from the Bothnian Bay to north Baltic Proper, with the highest levels detected in the southern Bothnian Sea. The majority of the locations showed concentrations above the prescribed maximum for dioxin residues (4 TEQ pg g–1 wet weight [w.w.]). If all the edible parts of the fish (muscle, subcutaneous fat and skin) are considered, the estimated concentrations exceeded the prescribed maximum level in the whole study area for herring collected during spring–summer. Concentrations in herring caught during spring–summer compared to concentrations in herring sampled in the autumn indicated seasonal variation. The pattern analysis showed a variation in relative congener concentration at the different sampling locations (spring–summer). Pattern differences were also noticed between seasons.

  • 2. Bignert, Anders
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Spatial and seasonal variation of the dioxin and PCB content in herring from the northern Baltic Sea2005In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 67, p. 1403-05Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Cai, Minggang
    et al.
    Hong, Qingquan
    Sun, Jionghui
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Department of Aquatic Sciences and Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Chen, Kai
    Wang, Yun
    Qiu, Cangrong
    Huang, Shuiying
    Concentrations, distribution and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in coastal sediments from Xiamen, China2016In: Marine Chemistry, ISSN 0304-4203, E-ISSN 1872-7581, Vol. 185, p. 74-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xiamen and its surroundings are representative areas suffering from intense anthropogenic turbulence and contamination in southeast coast of China during rapid industrialization and urbanization period, thus relevant organic pollutants research is necessary to assess the coastal environmental quality and generate management strategy. Contamination status of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was investigated for 7 surface sediment samples collected in these areas in January 2007. The given data were used to evaluate the contamination and their potential risks of the pollutants. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs were in the range of 60 to 4089 pg g(-1) (dry weight) with an average of 1706 pg g(-1) and DL-PCBs in the range of 3 to 76 pg g(-1) with an average of 28 pg g(-1). Octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and PCBs 105 and 118 were the main congeners of the PCDD/F and DL-PCB, respectively. The toxicity equivalent concentrations (TEQs) were in the range of 0.15 to 5.2 pg g(-1) (average: 3.0 pg g(-1)) for PCDD/Fs, while in the range of <limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 0.09 pg g(-1) (average: 0.05 pg g(-1)) for DL-PCBs. Congener pattern analysis showed a dominance of OCDD, suggesting main sources were current or historical use of chlorophenol, current use of dioxin contaminated pesticides or atmospheric deposition. Due to the current levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in this area, it is necessary to further research their biogeochemical processes and ecological influences in the future.

  • 4.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    et al.
    Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Oslo, Norway.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Broman, Dag
    Department of Applied Environmental Sciences (ITM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arp, Hans Peter
    Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Oslo, Norway.
    Persson, Ylva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jonsson, Per
    Department of Applied Environmental Sciences (ITM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Freely dissolved concentrations and sediment-water activity ratios of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the open Baltic Sea2008In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42, no 23, p. 8733-8739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aqueous concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the open sea have heretofore been measured by filtering and extracting large amounts of water. Measurement of freely dissolved concentrations with this technique is difficult because of corrections for sorption to dissolved organic matter. In this study we use a novel, more economic technique using equilibrium passive samplers consisting of 17-μm thin polyoxymethylene (POM-17), capable of measuring freely dissolved aqueous concentrations (CW) in pristine (i.e., background) locations. POM-17 was employed in an extensive field campaign at five stations in the open Baltic sea to obtain CW at two depths (1 m above the seafloor and 25 m below the surface). Median CW in the overlying water was 2.3 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/m3 PCDD/Fs and 15 pg/L sum 7-PCB, with generally less than a factor two variation among sites and depths. Also freely dissolved concentrations of native compounds in the surface sediment porewater (CPW) were determined in laboratory batch experiments. The data were used to derive sediment-water activity ratios, which indicate the diffusive flux direction. It was found that the PCDD/Fs and PCBs were in close equilibrium between the sediment porewater and the overlying water. Comparison of CPW with total sediment concentrations indicated that more than 90% of the compounds were sorbed to sedimentary black carbon.

  • 5.
    Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Andersson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Aurell, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Bergek, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Karlsson, S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Liljelind, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Spinnel, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Screening of Polychlorinated Dibenzothiophenes in the Swedish Environment2006In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 68, p. 288-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Kaisarevic, Sonja
    et al.
    Hilscherova, Klara
    Weber, Roland
    Sundqvist, Kristina L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Voncina, Ernest
    Bobic, Stanka
    Andric, Nebojsa
    Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina
    Vojinovic-Miloradov, Mirjana
    Giesy, John Paul
    Kovacevic, Radmila
    Characterization of dioxin-like contamination in soil and sediments from the "hot spot" area of petrochemical plant in Pancevo (Serbia)2011In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 677-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:  Combinatorial bio/chemical approach was applied to investigate dioxin-like contamination of soil and sediment at the petrochemical and organochlorine plant in Pancevo, Serbia, after the destruction of manufacturing facilities that occurred in the spring of 1999 and subsequent remediation actions. Materials and methods: Soil samples were analyzed for indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Prioritized soil sample and sediment samples from the waste water channel were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Microethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (Micro-EROD) and H4IIE–luciferase bioassays were used for monitoring of dioxin-like compounds (DLC) and for better characterization of dioxin-like activity of soil samples. Results:  Bioanalytical results indicated high dioxin-like activity in one localized soil sample, while the chemical analysis confirmed the presence of large quantities of DLC: 3.0 × 105 ng/g d.w. of seven-key PCBs, 8.2 ng/g d.w. of PCDD/Fs, and 3.0 × 105 ng/g d.w. of planar and mono-ortho PCBs. In the sediment, contaminant concentrations were in the range 2–8 ng/g d.w. of PCDD/Fs and 9–20 ng/g d.w. of PCBs. Conclusions:  This study demonstrates the utility of combined application of bioassays and instrumental analysis, especially for developing and transition country which do not have capacity of the expensive instrumental analysis. The results indicate the high contamination of soil in the area of petrochemical plant, and PCDD/Fs contamination of the sediment from the waste water channel originating from the ethylene dichloride production.

  • 7.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Sources of dioxins and other POPs to the marine environment: Identification and apportionment using pattern analysis and receptor modeling2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the studies underlying this thesis, various source tracing techniques were applied to environmental samples from the Baltic region.

    Comprehensive sampling and analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surface sediments in Swedish coastal and offshore areas resulted in a unique data set for this region. Nearly 150 samples of surface sediments were analyzed for all tetra- to octa-chlorinated PCDD/Fs. The levels showed large spatial variability with hotspots in several coastal regions. Neither Sweden nor the EU has introduced guideline values for PCDD/Fs in sediment, but comparisons to available guidelines and quality standards from other countries indicate that large areas of primarily coastal sediments may constitute a risk to marine organisms.

    Multivariate pattern analysis techniques and receptor models, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), were used to trace sources. These analyses suggested that three to six source types can explain most of the observed pattern variations found in the sediment samples. Atmospheric deposition was suggested as the most important source to offshore areas, thus confirming earlier estimates. However, spatial differences indicated a larger fraction of local/regional atmospheric sources, characterized by PCDFs, in the south. This was indicated by the identification of several patterns of atmospheric origin. In coastal areas, the influence of direct emission sources was larger, and among these, chlorophenol used for wood preservation and emissions from pulp/paper production and other wood related industry appeared to be most important. The historic emissions connected to processes involving chemical reactions with chlorine (e.g. pulp bleaching) were found to be of less importance except at some coastal sites.

    The analysis of PCDD/Fs in Baltic herring also revealed spatial variations in the levels and pollution patterns along the coast. The geographical match against areas with elevated sediment levels indicated that transfer from sediments via water to organisms was one possible explanation.

    Fugacity, a concept used to predict the net transport direction between environmental matrices, was used to explore the gas exchange of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) between air and water. These estimates suggested that, in the Kattegat Sea, the gaseous exchange of HCHs primarily resulted in net deposition while PCBs were net volatilized under certain environmental conditions. The study also indicated that, while the air concentrations of both PCBs and γ-HCH are mostly dependent upon the origin of the air mass, the fluctuations in α-HCH were primarily influenced by seasonal changes.

     

  • 8.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Olsson, M
    Broman, D
    Bignert, A
    Cornelissen, G
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Concentrations and Congener Patterns of PCDD/FS in Surface Sediment, Settling Particulate Matter, Water and Fish From the South Bothnian Sea, Sweden2007In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 69, p. 247-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on PCDD/F contamination along the Swedish coast of the southern Bothnian Sea, a heavily polluted area of the Baltic Sea. Data from earlier studies of surface sediment, perch, viviparous blenny and herring were analyzed together with new data for settling particulate matter (SPM) and sea water. PCDD/F pollution in surface sediment and SPM in the southern Bothnian Sea were similar both in respect to pattern and levels. The highest levels were 170 000 and 33 000 pg/g TOC in sediment and SPM respectively, and the congener pattern was dominated by OCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. The dissolved concentrations in water were estimated by analysis of passive samplers of low density polyethylene (LDPE) type. The water pollution pattern was extremely different and showed complete domination of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. The fish showed species specific differences in the fractions of the two dominating congeners, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF. All species did, however, show an increase in the fraction 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF as compared to the pattern in passive water samplers.

  • 9.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Andersson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Sjöblom, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Cato, I
    Geladi, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Hopke, P K
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Receptor Modeling of PCDD/FS in Sediment of the Sundsvall Bay, Sweden2008In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 70, no 1641-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Sundsvall Bay area, located in the southern Bothnian Sea (a sub-basin of the Baltic Sea), industrial history have included a large variety of activities, from small sawmills to large pulp and paper mills as well as chloralkali production. Previously, several sawmills in the area used chlorophenol formulations for wood preservation, and these were contaminated by PCDD/Fs. Chloralkali production using graphite electrodes and bleaching of pulp using chlorine are manufacturing processes also known to have caused PCDD/Fs emissions. A chemical industry has been active in the area since the 1930s and an aluminum smelter was built in 1942. Aluminum production, like many high temperature processes, is known to produce PCDD/Fs.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using receptor modeling for identification and apportioning of the major sources of PCDD/Fs in the Sundsvall Bay. The Sundsvall Bay was chosen as the first study area of this modeling technique along the Swedish coast since there are several possible sources of PCDD/Fs in the area and a relatively large number of sediment samples have been analyzed. Current PCDD/F emissions have been investigated by sampling river water, industrial effluent entering the bay and, in addition, soil from two contaminated sawmill sites.

  • 10.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Cato, I
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Spatial Distribution and Profiles of Dioxins in Surface Sediment from the Baltic Sea2006In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 68, p. 444-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Division of Geophysic and Marine Geology, Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Bignert, Anders
    The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Levels and homologue profiles of PCDD/Fs in sediments along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea2009In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 396-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope  The primary aim of this study was to explore the variations in PCDD/F levels and homologue profiles of Baltic surface sediments by comprehensively analyzing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in samples from a large number of sites, encompassing not only previously known hotspot areas, but also sites near other potential PCDD/F sources, in pristine reference areas (in which there was no industrial activity) and offshore sites. Materials and methods  Surface sediment samples (146 in total) were collected at various points along the Swedish coast and offshore areas. In addition, bulk deposition was sampled, monthly, at a single site in northern Sweden during 1 year. The concentrations of tetra- through octa-substituted CDD/Fs were determined in both matrices. Results  Highly elevated concentrations of PCDD/Fs were found at many sites in coastal areas and concentrations were also slightly elevated in some offshore areas. Homologue profiles varied substantially amongst samples from coastal sites, while those from offshore and other pristine sediments were relatively similar. The offshore sediments showed different profiles from those observed in the deposition samples. Sediment levels of PCDD/Fs were not generally significantly correlated to organic carbon levels, except in some pristine areas. Comparison of data obtained in this and previous studies suggest that both their levels and profiles are similar today to those observed 20 years ago in coastal and offshore areas. The only detected trend is that their levels appear to have decreased slightly in the offshore area of the Bothnian Sea. Discussion  The localization of hotspot areas along the coast, the lack of consensus between PCDD/F profiles of sediments and general background, and their weak correlations with organic carbon suggest that PCDD/Fs in the study area largely originate from local/regional emissions. However, due to complicating factors such as sediment dynamics and land upheaval, it is not possible to conclude whether these pollutants derive from recent emissions or from a combination of recent emissions and re-distribution of previous inputs. Conclusions  The results show that: elevated levels of PCDD/Fs are present in both coastal and offshore areas of the Baltic Sea, the major hotspots are close to the shore, and there are large variations in profiles, indicating that local emissions are (or have been) the major causes of pollution. Recommendations and perspectives  In order to identify other hotspot areas and trace sources, comprehensive analysis of PCDD/Fs in surface sediments is needed in all areas of the Baltic Sea that have not been previously investigated. The high levels of PCDD/Fs observed in surface sediments also indicate a need to elucidate whether they are due mainly to current emissions or a combination of recent pollution and re-distribution of historically deposited pollutants. To do so, better understanding of sediment dynamics and present-day inputs, such as riverine inputs, industrial effluents, and leakage from contaminated soil is required. There are indications that contaminated sediments have a regional impact on fish contamination levels. However, as yet there is no statistically robust evidence linking contaminated sediments with elevated levels in Baltic biota. It should also be noted that the Baltic Sea is being massively invaded by the deep-burrowing polychaete Marenzielleria ssp., whose presence in sediments has been shown to increase water concentrations of hydrophobic pollutants. In awareness of this, it is clear that high levels in sediments cannot be ignored in risk assessments. In order to investigate the emission trends more thoroughly, analysis of PCDD/Fs in offshore sediment cores throughout the Baltic Sea is also recommended. Electronic supplementary material  The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11356-009-0110-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • 12.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Geladi, Paul
    Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Division of Geophysic and Marine Geology, Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Congener fingerprints of tetra- through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in Baltic surface sediments and their relations to potential sources2009In: Chemosphere, Vol. 77, no 5, p. 612-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive congener fingerprints of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), including non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners, in 142 surface sediment samples from the Baltic Sea were characterized by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The pattern analysis revealed source specific indicators of chlorophenol use, high temperature processes, chlorine bleach/chloralkali production and a source signature suggested to originate from pulp/paper or related production. Congener patterns in sediments from offshore and pristine coastal areas showed strong resemblance to patterns of atmospheric deposition and flue gases, indicating that these sources have high impact in areas that are not affected by point sources. Prominent contributors to the patterns of hotspot areas along the Swedish coast included chlorophenol indicators and a source characterized by hexa-CDDs while the contribution of the traditional chlorine bleach pattern was weaker. This study demonstrates the importance of comprehensive PCDD/F congener analysis for identifying links to candidate sources.

  • 13.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Geladi, Paul
    Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hopke, Philip
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    PCDD/F Source Apportionment in the Baltic Sea Using Positive Matrix Factorization2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 1690-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was used to identify and apportion candidate sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in samples of offshore and coastal surface sediments from the Baltic Sea. Atmospheric deposition was the dominant source in offshore and pristine areas, in agreement with previous studies. Earlier chlorophenol use and a source suggested origins from pulp and paper production and related industries were identified as important coastal sources. A previously presumed major source, chlorine bleaching of pulp, was of only minor importance for modern Baltic surface sediments. The coastal source impacts were mostly local or regional, but pattern variations in offshore samples indicate that coastal sources may have some importance for offshore areas. Differences between sub-basins also indicated that local and regional air emissions from incineration or other high-temperature processes are more important in the southern Baltic Sea compared to those in northerly areas. These regional differences demonstrated the importance of including offshore sediments from the Bothnian Bay, Gulf of Finland, and other areas of the Baltic Sea in future studies to better identify the major PCDD/F sources to the Baltic Sea.

  • 14.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wingfors, H
    Brorström-Lundén, E
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Air-sea gas fluxes of PCBs and HCHs in the Kattegat Sea.2002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract to the workshop “Understanding and modelling the regional and global scale distribution and fate of POPs”

  • 15.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wingfors, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Brorstöm-Lundén, Eva
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Air–sea gas exchange of HCHs and PCBs and enantiomers of α-HCH in the Kattegat Sea region2004In: Environmental Pollution: Volume 128, Issues 1-2, March 2004, Pages 73-83, ISSN 0269-7491, Vol. 128, no 1-2, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations and air–water gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined in nine paired air and water samples. The samples were collected monthly in the Kattegat Sea between December 1998 and November 1999. Average fugacity and flux values indicated that PCBs were oversaturated in the water, while HCHs were net deposited. Variations were large over the year, especially during spring and summer. Air parcel back trajectories suggested that air concentrations over the Kattegat Sea are largely dependent of air mass origin. Seasonal trends were detected for airborne HCHs and for PCBs in water. The air and water enantiomeric compositions of α-HCH indicated that a larger portion of α-HCH in air originated from the underlying water during summer than during winter.

    Air–water exchange of PCBs and HCHs is studied in the Kattegat Sea and shows to vary seasonally.

  • 16.
    Wiberg, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bignert, A
    Cato, I
    Cornelissen, G
    Cousins, IT
    Hedman, J
    Kiljunen, M
    McLachlan, MS
    Peltonen, H
    Sellström, U
    Shatalov, V
    Sundqvist, Kristina L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Managing the dioxin problem in the Baltic region with focus on sources to air and edible fish: Balticpops - a 2-year Swedish EPA research program2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Wiberg, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Cato, I
    Geladi, Paul
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tracking dioxin sources in the Baltic Sea by sediment analysis and receptor modeling2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    INTAS workshop on The importance of sediments for the water quality of the Gulf of Finland, Helsingfors 21-22 november, 2006, oral presentation

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