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  • 1. Hassler, Ove
    et al.
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Angiographic abnormalities in the urinary bladder wall after irradiation1973Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 2. Johansson, Amanda
    et al.
    Sandström, Per
    Ullén, Anders
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Sundström, Birgitta
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Stability and immunoreactivity of the monoclonal anticytokeratin antibody TS1 after different degrees of iodination.1999In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 329-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The immunoreactivity, stability and in vivo kinetics of an anticytokeratin 8 monoclonal antibody, TS1, were investigated following different degrees of labeling with 125I (0.2, 1 and 2-3 125I/TS1 MAb). By testing with ELISA, it was demonstrated that a high degree of iodination, i.e. > 2 125I/TS1, caused a rapid decrease in immunoreactivity to almost zero within 10 days. Furthermore, a complete degradation to low molecular weight fragments and free iodine was seen, as shown by SDS PAGE and autoradiography. The differently labeled radionuclide conjugates were injected into nude mice inoculated with HeLa Hep2 cells and tumor doses (estimated by MIRD formalism), tumor:non-tumor dose ratios, % I.D./gram tissue, Gy/MBq and in vivo kinetics of the differently labeled MAbs were determined. Despite the in vitro instability of the highest iodinated radionuclide conjugate, it was possible to deliver high doses to the tumors if the conjugate was injected into the animal immediately after completion of the iodination procedure. Increases from 1.4 Gy to 15.2 Gy delivered tumor dose were obtained with a tenfold increase in the specific activity, without alterations in the tumor:non-tumor tissue dose ratios. There is room for significant improvements in efficacy at radioimmunotherapy, which can be gained by optimizing the degree of iodination. For therapeutical applications a high degree of iodination may be an advantage.

  • 3.
    Riklund, Katrine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Edbom, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Makiya, R
    Johansson, B
    Gerdes, U
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Ekelund, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Stendahl, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Radioimmunoscintigraphy of gynecologic tumors with 131I-labeled anti-PLAP monoclonal antibodies.1991In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 375-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) was performed in 20 patients with gynecologic tumors, 14 ovarian, 5 cervical, and one endometrial carcinoma. One murine monoclonal antibody (mab) against placental alkaline phosphatase (H7) was used after radiolabeling with 131I. The labeling procedure yielded antibodies with specific activity varying between 60 and 73 MBq/mg mab. Each patient received 57 to 100 MBq of the preparation. RIS was performed 7 to 35 days later. Patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma had an accumulation of activity on RIS at tumor sites (79%, 11/14) verified by ultrasonography, CT, and clinical examination. A low or absent accumulation of activity was seen in patients with cervical tumors. The patient with an endometrial adenocarcinoma was seen to have an activity accumulation at RIS corresponding to tumor sites determined by ultrasound and/or CT. It is concluded that RIS using monoclonal antibodies against placental alkaline phosphatase can provide information which will supplement that gained from other investigations of patients with ovarian adenocarcinomas.

  • 4.
    Riklund, Katrine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stendahl, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Radioimmunodetection of ovarian cancer.1993In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 32, no 7-8, p. 729-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) is a potentially valuable method for the detection of primary, secondary and recurrent malignant tumours. Antigens that have been used for monitoring as well as for RIS of ovarian carcinomas include CA 125, PLAP, HMFG, and CA 19-9. Between 70 and 100% of the tumours have been detected at RIS when these antigens have been used. Conventional methods, e.g., computerized tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US), demonstrate similar or lower detection rate than RIS for tumour diagnosis. RIS gives additional information to conventional radiological methods (CT and US) for the detection of occult ovarian carcinomas. A review of earlier investigations is given and our own recent results using PLAP as a target antigen are presented. The future potential of the technology is discussed.

  • 5.
    Riklund, Katrine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Makiya, R E
    Ullén, A P
    Damber, Jan Erik
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    A putative mechanism for the non-specific uptake of intact radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies in the testes and prostate.1996In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 303-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-specific testicular accumulation of radiolabelled intact anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (MAb), (A431/26, Behringwerke AG) was observed in 11 out of 12 patients with the testes and prostate included in the examination field at radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS). Previous studies have shown that placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) serves as an Fc-receptor, mediating IgG transport through the placenta. A closely related protein, the germ cell alkaline phosphatase (GCAP), is expressed in the testes. The testicular uptake of IgG is observed only when intact but not fragmented MAbs are used, indicating involvement of Fc-receptors. MDCK cells (dog kidney cell line) transfected with the plasmid pSVT7 containing the GCAP gene were shown to acquire the capacity to both express membrane bound GCAP and to bind IgG on the cell surface. This might indicate that GCAP is responsible for the non-specific accumulation of intact MAb in the testes and prostate often observed when intact murine MAbs are used for radioimmunolocalization (RIL).

  • 6.
    Riklund, Katrine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Makiya, R
    Sundström, B
    Bäck, O
    Henriksson, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Inhibition of growth of HeLa cell tumours in nude mice by 125I-labeled anticytokeratin and antiPLAP monoclonal antibodies.1991In: Anticancer Research, ISSN 0250-7005, E-ISSN 1791-7530, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 555-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The radiommunotherapeutic potential of 125I-labeled monoclonal antibodies was investigated in 48 nude mice (BALB/c, nu/nu) inoculated s.c. with the HeLa Hep 2 human adenocarcinoma cell line. This isotope, 125I, which is not commonly used for therapeutic purposes caused significant decrease in tumour growth from day 10 to day 42, when coupled to monoclonal antibodies directed against placental alkaline phosphatase (H7) or cytokeratins (TS1). The average growth rate was approximately 50-60% of that observed in the untreated control group after 42 days. The specific radioactivity in each organ 42 days after injection of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, indicated that these target antigens retain significant amounts of radiolabeled antibody in the tumours for at least 6 weeks after injection. No weight loss was seen in the animals during this experiment. By use of autoradiographic techniques, the labeled monoclonal antibodies were visualized deep in tumours in characteristic patterns representative of viable tumour cells (H7) and necrotic areas (TS1). The therapeutic approach using 125I labeled antibodies is encouraging and may offer new dimensions in radioimmunotherapy.

  • 7. Rossi Norrlund, Rauni
    et al.
    Holback, Daniel
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Combinations of nonlabeled, 125I-labeled, and anti-idiotypic antiplacental alkaline phosphatase monoclonal antibodies at experimental radioimmunotargeting.1997In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 1087-1093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neither a preinjection of nonlabeled H7 nor a postinjection of alpha H7 nor a combination of both strategies resulted in improved tumor/nontumor dose ratios compared to a single injection of labeled H7. The monoclonal antibody H7 has a rapid and high uptake, combined with a prolonged retention time in the tumors. The kinetic properties of H7 are different from antibodies targeting intracellular tumor antigens.

  • 8. Rossi Norrlund, Rauni
    et al.
    Ullén, Anders
    Sandström, Per
    Holback, Daniel
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Dosimetry of fractionated experimental radioimmunotargeting with idiotypic and anti-idiotypic anticytokeratin antibodies.1997In: Cancer, ISSN 0008-543X, E-ISSN 1097-0142, Vol. 80, no 12 Suppl, p. 2681-2688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fractionated strategy can contribute to a significant accumulation of radiolabeled TS1 in the tumors. Furthermore, the use of alphaTS1 makes it possible to increase the tumor-to-nontumor dose ratio and maintain a prolonged high activity accumulation in the tumor.

  • 9. Rossi Norrlund, Rauni
    et al.
    Ullén, Anders
    Sandström, Per
    Holback, Daniel
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Experimental radioimmunotargeting combining nonlabeled, iodine-125-labeled, and anti-idiotypic anticytokeratin monoclonal antibodies: a dosimetric evaluation.1997In: Cancer, ISSN 0008-543X, E-ISSN 1097-0142, Vol. 80, no 12 Suppl, p. 2689-2698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study confirms an extensive accumulation of TS1 in the tumor, with peak values as late as 30 days after injection of labeled TS1. Furthermore, both preinjection of nonlabeled TS1 and postinjection of alphaTS1 can improve radioimmunotargeting.

  • 10.
    Rydh, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Widmark, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Tavelin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Nilsson, Sten
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Damber, Jan Erik
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Radioimmunotherapy of DU-145 tumours in nude mice--a pilot study with E4, a novel monoclonal antibody against prostate cancer.1999In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 1075-1079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anti-tumour effect of the 131I-labelled antiprostate monoclonal antibody (MAb) E4 was studied in an experimental model with 41 nude mice, subcutaneously xenografted with a human prostate cancer cell line (DU-145). The mice were divided into four study groups, i.e. one receiving single and another repeated injections of the radiolabelled MAb. A third group was injected with non-labelled MAb, and the fourth served as an untreated control group. The tumour volumes increased similarly in all groups during the 27-day observation period. The tumour tissue was morphologically disintegrated in the group that received repeated radioimmunotherapy (RIT). The tumours from this group contained large fluid-filled cystic parts and demonstrated pronounced cellular and subcellular polymorphism in the remaining viable tumour tissue. The untreated control tumours and single therapy tumours remained solid. The proportion of the total tumour volume that consisted of viable tumour cells, as determined by morphometric techniques, was significantly lower in the 131I-E4-treated groups. The use of 131I-labelled E4 MAb has thus demonstrated a promising therapeutic potential.

  • 11.
    Rydh, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Widmark, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Nilsson, Sten
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Damber, Jan Erik
    Stigbrand, T
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Radioimmunoscintigraphy with a novel monoclonal antiprostate antibody (E4): an experimental study in nude mice.1997In: Cancer, ISSN 0008-543X, E-ISSN 1097-0142, Vol. 80, no 12 Suppl, p. 2398-2403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MoAb E4 is a promising radiotracer for prostate cancer and may be used in radioimmunotherapy. As in earlier studies, TS1 shows significant radioimmunolocalization into necrotic tumor tissue, which also exists in prostate cancer.

  • 12.
    Rydh, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Suhr, Ole B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Pepys, M B
    Hawkins, P N
    Serum amyloid P component scintigraphy in familial amyloid polyneuropathy: regression of visceral amyloid following liver transplantation.1998In: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine, ISSN 0340-6997, E-ISSN 1432-105X, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 709-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) associated with transthyretin (TTR) mutations is the commonest type of hereditary amyloidosis. Plasma TTR is produced almost exclusively in the liver and orthotopic liver transplantation is the only available treatment, although the clinical outcome varies. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) scintigraphy is a method for identifying and quantitatively monitoring amyloid deposits in vivo, but it has not previously been used to study the outcome of visceral amyloid deposits in FAP following liver transplantation. Whole body scintigraphy following injection of iodine-123 labelled SAP was performed in 17 patients with FAP associated with TTR Met30 and in five asymptomatic gene carriers. Follow-up studies were performed in ten patients, eight of whom had undergone orthotopic liver transplantation 1-5 years beforehand. There was abnormal uptake of 123I-SAP in all FAP patients, including the kidneys in each case, the spleen in five cases and the adrenal glands in three cases. Renal amyloid deposits were also present in three of the asymptomatic carriers. Follow-up studies 1-5 years after liver transplantation showed that there had been substantial regression of the visceral amyloid deposits in two patients and modest improvement in three cases. The amyloid deposits were unchanged in two patients. In conclusion, 123I-SAP scintigraphy identified unsuspected visceral amyloid in each patient with FAP due to TTR Met30. The universal presence of renal amyloid probably underlies the high frequency of renal failure that occurs in FAP following liver transplantation. The variable capacity of patients to mobilise amyloid deposits following liver transplantation may contribute to their long-term clinical outcome.

  • 13.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Johansson, B
    Makiya, R
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Ekelund, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Tumour radioimmunolocalization in nude mice by use of antiplacental alkaline phosphatase monoclonal antibodies.1989In: Tumor Biology, ISSN 1010-4283, E-ISSN 1423-0380, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 243-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three monoclonal antibodies and their Fab and Fab'2 fragments with specificity against human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) were evaluated for tumour immunolocalization of human PLAP-producing Hela Hep 2 tumours in nude mice. The antibodies and their fragments were labelled with 125I and injected intraperitoneally in mice with developing Hep 2 tumours. The animals were followed individually for 14 days with repetitive computerized gamma-camera recordings, which enable quantitation of several crucial parameters, i.e. the time-dependent antibody uptake in the tumours, decrease in background activity and tumour/background ratio. Excellent radioimmunolocalization was obtained with both the intact PLAP-specific immunoglobulins and their fragments but not with the nonspecific antibodies. No background subtraction had to be used. As much as 15% of the initially injected dose could be visualized in the tumours and for the uncleaved mab up to 80% of the radioactivity in the animals was retained in the tumours after 14 days, a considerably longer observation time than usually reported in such tumour xenograft models. The Fab and Fab'2 fragments were found to be excreted fast with less than 5% of the injected dose remaining in the animals after 48 h, but still with positive specific localization to the tumours after an initial high uptake in the kidneys. The results are encouraging and indicate significant potentials of the PLAP-antiPLAP mab system for immunolocalization studies in patients.

  • 14.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Ullén, Anders
    Sandström, P
    Mirzaie-Joniani, Homa
    Sundström, B
    Nillson, B
    Ärlestig, L
    Norrlund, R R
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Twenty years with monoclonal antibodies: State of the art--Where do we go?1996In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 259-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this review, we have selected some parameters with the potential to improve the efficacy of RIL and RIT. Focus has partially been on the behaviour of radiolabelled antibodies in vivo in relation to properties and amounts of both target antigen and the antibodies used. If, out of the 28 factors listed in Table 1, some should be given preference in future work, it is our opinion that after the initial saturation of the tumour site a rapid decrease in redundant antibody is of significant importance. Furthermore, quantitative aspects of both antigens and antibodies should be more carefully evaluated when possible. By combining several of the listed approaches toward increasing efficiency, a more extensive use of RIL and RIT could be expected in the future.

  • 15. Ullén, Anders
    et al.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Nilsson, B
    Ärlestig, L
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Secondary antibodies as tools to improve tumor to non tumor ratio at radioimmunolocalisation and radioimmunotherapy.1996In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 281-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way of selectively improving the efficiency of radioimmunolocalization and radioimmunotherapy is to eliminate redundant, circulating, non-targeting radiolabeled antibodies after saturation of the target sites. Secondary antibodies of different types have been proposed as clearing agents for such purposes. The conceptually different approaches of the 'secondary antibody' strategy including its advantages and limitations are discussed. This mini-review also presents a model describing the kinetics of the components (the antigen, the primary and secondary antibodies) and approaches required to improve the efficacy of both radioimmunolocalization and radioimmunotherapy.

  • 16. Ullén, Anders
    et al.
    Sandström, Per
    Rossi Norrlund, Rauni
    Rathsman, Sandra
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Dosimetry of fractionated administration of 125I-labeled antibody at experimental radioimmunotargeting.1997In: Cancer, ISSN 0008-543X, E-ISSN 1097-0142, Vol. 80, no 12 Suppl, p. 2510-2518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this antigen target system, a single injection of a large amount of antibody was found to be more efficient than the same antibody dose subdivided into three or ten fractions. It was concluded that not only the radioactivity but also the amount of antibody per fraction should be considered when determining optimal fractionated radioimmunotherapy.

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