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  • 1.
    Johansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Theorin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Westling, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Ohki, Yukari
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    How a lateralized brain supports symmetrical bimanual tasks2006Ingår i: PLoS biology, ISSN 1544-9173, E-ISSN 1545-7885, Vol. 4, nr 6, s. e158-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A large repertoire of natural object manipulation tasks require precisely coupled symmetrical opposing forces by both hands on a single object. We asked how the lateralized brain handles this basic problem of spatial and temporal coordination. We show that the brain consistently appoints one of the hands as prime actor while the other assists, but the choice of acting hand is flexible. When study participants control a cursor by manipulating a tool held freely between the hands, the left hand becomes prime actor if the cursor moves directionally with the left-hand forces, whereas the right hand primarily acts if it moves with the opposing right-hand forces. In neurophysiological (electromyography, transcranial magnetic brain stimulation) and functional magnetic resonance brain imaging experiments we demonstrate that changes in hand assignment parallels a midline shift of lateralized activity in distal hand muscles, corticospinal pathways, and primary sensorimotor and cerebellar cortical areas. We conclude that the two hands can readily exchange roles as dominant actor in bimanual tasks. Spatial relationships between hand forces and goal motions determine hand assignments rather than habitual handedness. Finally, flexible role assignment of the hands is manifest at multiple levels of the motor system, from cortical regions all the way down to particular muscles.

  • 2.
    Theorin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Integrativ medicinsk biologi, Fysiologi.
    To select one hand while using both: neural mechanisms supporting flexible hand dominance in bimanual object manipulation2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In daily activities, the brain regularly assigns different roles to the hands dependingon task and context. Yet, little is known about the underlying neural processes. Thiscertainly applies to how the brain, where each hemisphere primarily controls onehand, manages the between-hand coordination required in bimanual objectmanipulation. By using behavioral, neurophysiological and functional magneticresonance imaging techniques, the present thesis examines neural mechanisms thatsupport hand coordination during tasks where the two hands apply spatiotemporallycoupled but opposing forces for goal attainment, e.g., as when removing the cap froma bottle. Although the two hands seem to operate symmetrically in such tasks, Study Ishowed that one hand primarily acts while the other assists. Moreover, this roledifferentiation was found to be flexible with the brain appointing either hand asprime actor depending on the spatial congruency between hand forces and desiredmovement consequences. Accordingly, when we remove a cap from a bottle, the handthat grasps the cap, be it left or right depending on overall task constraints, isappointed as prime actor because the twist forces it generates are aligned with thegoal to remove the cap, while the other hand, holding the bottle, applies stabilizingforces in the opposite direction. Changes in hand assignments are caused by amidline shift of lateralized activity throughout the motor system, from distal handmuscles to corticospinal pathways and primary sensorimotor and cerebellar corticalareas (Study I). Although the bimanual actions examined involved both within- andbetween-hand coordination, Study II failed to reveal additional brain activity duringbimanual as compared to matching unimanual actions, except for the primarysensorimotor areas where subpopulations of neurons were preferentially engagedduring either bimanual or unimanual actions. Thus, dedicated neurons in the motorcortices might support critical bimanual coordinative operations. While imagingresults indicated that a mainly left-lateralized parietal-premotor network managedthe task irrespective of prime actor, premotor areas presumably established handassignment by allocating the lead either to the left or the right primary sensorimotorareas (Study I and II). Regarding the process of prime actor selection and hence thecontrol of these premotor networks, imaging results indicate a transitory involvementof prefrontal cortical areas (Study III). The detected areas belong to a networkconsidered critical for cognitive operations such as judgment and decision-making,and for evaluation of utility of actions, including conflict detection. The implicitselection of prime actor during bimanual tasks thus seems to be supported by corticalareas traditionally associated primarily with complex cognitive challenges.

  • 3.
    Theorin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Integrativ medicinsk biologi, Fysiologi.
    Johansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Integrativ medicinsk biologi, Fysiologi.
    Selection of prime actor in bimanual object manipulationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Theorin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Integrativ medicinsk biologi, Fysiologi.
    Johansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Integrativ medicinsk biologi, Fysiologi.
    Zones of bimanual and unimanual preference within human primary sensorimotor cortex during object manipulation2007Ingår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 36, nr Suppl 2, s. T2-T15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We asked which brain areas are engaged in the coordination of our hands in dexterous object manipulations where they cooperate for achieving a common goal. Well-trained right-handers steered a cursor on a screen to hit successively displayed targets by applying isometric forces and torques to a rigid tool. In two bimanual conditions, the object was held freely in the air and the hands thus generated coupled opposing forces. Yet, depending on the mapping rule linking hand forces and cursor movements, all subjects selected either the left or the right hand as prime actor. In two unimanual conditions, the subjects performed the same task with either the left or the right hand operating on a fixed tool. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed common activation across all four conditions in a dorsal fronto-parietal network biased to the left hemisphere and in bilateral occipitotemporal cortex. Contrary to the notion that medial wall premotor areas are especially active in complex bimanual actions, their activation depended on acting hand (left, right) rather than on grip type (bimanual, unimanual). We observed effects of grip type only in the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC). In particular, with either hand as prime actor, bimanual actions preferentially activated subregions of the SMC contralateral to the acting hand. A sizeable subregion with preference for unimanual activity was found only in the left SMC in our right-handed subjects. Collectively, these results indicate a hemispheric asymmetry for the SMC and that partially different neural populations support the control of bimanual versus unimanual object manipulations.

  • 5.
    Theorin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Johansson, Roland S
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Selection of prime actor in humans during bimanual object manipulation2010Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 30, nr 31, s. 10448-10459Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In bimanual object manipulation tasks, people flexibly assign one hand as a prime actor while the other assists. Little is known, however, about the neural mechanisms deciding the role assignment. We addressed this issue in a task in which participants moved a cursor to hit targets on a screen by applying precisely coupled symmetrical opposing linear and twist forces on a tool held freely between the hands. In trials presented in an unpredictable order, the action of either the left or the right hand was spatially congruent with the cursor movements, which automatically rendered the left or right hand the dominant actor, respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging indicated that the hand-selection process engaged prefrontal cortical areas belonging to an executive control network presumed critical for judgment and decision-making and to a salience network attributed to evaluation of utility of actions. Task initiation, which involved switching between task sets, had a superordinate role with reference to hand selection. Behavioral and brain imaging data indicated that participants initially expressed two competing action representations, matching either mapping rule, before selecting the appropriate one based on the consequences of the initial manual actions. We conclude that implicit processes engaging the prefrontal cortex reconcile selections among action representations that compete for the establishment of a dominant actor in bimanual object manipulation tasks. The representation selected is the one that optimizes performance by relying on the superior capacity of the brain to process spatial congruent, as opposed to noncongruent, mappings between manual actions and desired movement goals.

  • 6.
    Åberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Ljungberg, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Edin, Ellenor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Millqvist, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Theorin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Terenghi, Giorgio
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Clinical evaluation of a resorbable wrap-around implant as an alternative to nerve repair: A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised clinical study of sensory, motor and functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair.2009Ingår i: Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS, ISSN 1748-6815, Vol. 62, nr 11, s. 1503-1509Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripheral nerve injures are common and often result in impaired functional recovery. The majority of injuries involve the arm and/or the hand. The traditional treatment for peripheral nerve injuries is repair by using microsurgical techniques, either by primary nerve suture or nerve graft, but research to find more successful methods that could improve recovery is ongoing. Tubulisation has been investigated by several authors and is suggested as an alternative to microsurgical techniques. The resorbable poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) is one of the materials that has been previously tested experimentally. In this prospective, randomised, assessor-blinded clinical study, PHB was investigated as an alternative to epineural suturing in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries at the wrist/forearm level of the arm. Twelve patients, with a complete, common, sharp injury of the median and/or ulnar nerve at the wrist/forearm level, were treated by either using PHB or microsurgical epineural end-to-end suturing. All patients were assessed using a battery of tests, including evaluation of functional, sensory and motor recovery by means of clinical, neurophysiological, morphological and physiological evaluations at 2 weeks and 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after surgery. No adverse events or complications considered as product related were reported, and thus PHB can be regarded as a safe alternative for microsurgical epineural suturing. The majority of the methods in the test battery showed no significant differences between the treatment groups, but one should consider that the study involved a limited number of patients and a high variability was reported for the evaluating techniques. However, sensory recovery, according to the British Medical Research Council score and parts of the manual muscle test, suggested that treating with PHB may be advantageous as compared to epineural suturing. This, however, should be confirmed by large-scale efficacy studies.

1 - 6 av 6
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