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  • 1.
    Hult, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gender, culture and non-financial employment commitment in Great Britain and Sweden2008In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 73-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main question this paper seeks to tackle is whether men and women, as some argue, commit themselves to employment differently or for different reasons. The focus is thus on the mechanisms behind non-financial employment commitment (such as the possible effect of family situation, occupational position, and of different work-related preferences and experiences). The question is comparatively investigated in Sweden and Great Britain, where, in spite of many similarities, the existence of different societal/cultural contexts with relevance for gender and work has been suggested. The results in this paper suggest that the most important motivator for non-financial employment commitment is interesting work, which was found to have a positive effect both as a work goal and as experienced in the workplace. Although women and men in both countries displayed quite similar patterns, some country and gender differences appeared in the way occupational position and degree of education relate to this type of commitment. Higher occupational position and education where more clearly related to higher degrees of commitment for British women than for British men, while the Swedish gender pattern was reversed. In the concluding discussion, possible explanations and implications are discussed, and avenues for further research are suggested.

  • 2.
    Hult, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Organizational commitment and conflicting values: The impact of systems of norms in six Western Countries2003In: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, ISSN 0020-7152, E-ISSN 1745-2554, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 408-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares organizational commitment in six western countries: USA, Great Britain, New Zealand, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. The main focus is on the hypothesized existence of conflicting values due to different systems of norms. The assumption made is that the central norms, values, and expectations in any particular work organization, originate in a more general technical/economic system of norms; and that subordinated groups, supporters of left-wing values, those identifying with lower social classes, and union members all espouse other systems of norms, which are not entirely compatible with this technical/economic system, and that these groups are therefore likely to display lower organizational commitment than other groups. The results in this paper do suggest the existence of conflicting norms and that this has implications for organizational commitment. The most noteworthy finding is that organizational commitment correlates with right-wing political values in five of the six countries. Other similarities and differences between the countries are also identified and discussed, and new avenues for further comparative research are suggested.

  • 3.
    Hult, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Organizational commitment and person-environment fit in six western countries2005In: Organization Studies, ISSN 0170-8406, E-ISSN 1741-3044, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 249-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The connection between work environment and organizational commitment (OC) is investigated and compared across six western countries, using data from the 1997International Social Survey Program (ISSP). Differences in work environment are examined on two levels: (1) with reference to theoretical literature and empirical findings in comparative research and (2) with reference to how individuals perceive their workplace situation in relation to their personal evaluations of different workplace features (person-environment fit). Although no connection between work environment and OC is found when countries are compared on the basis of literature on the differences in the organization of production, the connection proves to be salient with respect to individual and group levels. The result suggests that the most important factor for OC in all countries is a job that the individual finds interesting. A control for job satisfaction makes it clear that the effect of finding the work interesting is independent of satisfaction with work. Other similarities and differences between the countries are also identified and discussed. New avenues for further comparative research are suggested.

  • 4.
    Hult, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The way we conform to paid labour: Commitment to employment and organization from a comparative perspective2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis compares work orientations in six Western countries (the USA, Great Britain, New Zealand, Germany, Norway, and Sweden), using data from the 1997 International Social Survey Program (ISSP). The main issue examined is whether different ‘production regimes’ correspond to levels and patterns of employment and organizational commitment among the working population.

    It is concluded that the country levels of employment commitment varies depending on the institutional set-ups, with respect to production and welfare regimes, being highest in the Scandinavian countries and lowest in Great Britain and the USA. Organizational commitment varies in a more complex manner, with the strongest commitment being found in the USA and the lowest in Sweden. In all countries, the most important factor determining the level of an individual’s organizational commitment is whether the person finds his or her job interesting. This effect is independent of job satisfaction. Organizational commitment was also found to be positively and strongly correlated with right-wing political values in five of the six countries. When it comes to employment commitment, it was found that women display, often significantly, higher commitment than do men. The results suggest that the most important motivator for employment commitment is the desire for interesting work. The concluding discussion summarises and presents the main findings in schematic figures, and includes interpretative discussions focusing on future research.

  • 5.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edlund, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Age and labour market commitment in West Germany, Denmark, Norway and Sweden2008In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 109-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines age differences in non-financial employment commitment in two types of `exit cultures'. Germany and Denmark represent the `early'-exit culture where early retirement has become the norm. Sweden and Norway represent the `late'-exit culture where labour market activity until advanced age is more common. The categorization of countries corresponds to the time for data collection (1997). The main question is whether suggested differences in exit culture are manifested in age differences in non-financial employment commitment.

    The claim that age differences in commitment relate to exit culture received some support. In the two early-exit countries, the probability for men to display low employment commitment was found to increase at the age of 43—54. Also women in these countries dropped in commitment but first at 55+. In the two late-exit countries there was no important loss in commitment related to the middle or old age groups.

  • 6.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    School of Social Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Stattin, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Age, policy changes and work orientation: comparing changes in commitment to paid work in four European Countries2009In: Journal of Population Ageing, ISSN 1874-7884, E-ISSN 1874-7876, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 101-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to ageing populations and a future shortage of labour active people, there is a political ambition to prolong people’s work force activities in Europe. The question of this paper is to what degree policy changes aimed at prolonging people’s working lives have been successful in influencing peoples’ commitment to paid work during the studied period of time? The age patterns of non-financial employment commitment (EC) and organisational Commitment (OC) are examined from the perspective of policy changes in four European countries, using ISSP-data collected in 1997 and 2005 from Denmark, Great Britain, Hungary and Sweden. Because of hypothesised country and group differences in visibility and proximity of policy measures taken to increase labour market participation among older workers, Danish and Swedish people were expected to display some degree of general and intended attitudinal response to the policy changes and that the British and Hungarian response would be more gender divided. The results showed that policy changes overall had little intended effect on people’s attitudes to work. Instead, EC dropped dramatically in Hungary for all men from the age of 30 and over, and for Swedish men and Danish women in the 45–53 age group. OC decreased for Swedish men in the age 54 and over, and for Danish women in the 45–53 age group. The main exceptions were British and Hungarian women that displayed unchanged or even an increase in EC in the age group 54 and over.

  • 7.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Stattin, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Comparing mortality rates and recognizing health selection bias: A response to Wallman and Svärdsudd2010In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 70, no 10, p. 1489-1491Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Stattin, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Timing of retirement and mortality: A cohort study of Swedish construction workers2010In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 70, no 10, p. 1480-1486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies indicate that early retirement per se may have a negative effect on health to such an extent that it increases mortality risk. One type of early retirement often referred to in these studies is retirement with disability pension/benefit. Given the overall objective of disability benefit programmes - to help the disabled live socially and economically satisfactory lives, freed from exposure to employment health hazards and thus avoid further declines in health - the finding is challenging. This paper examined the relationship between timing of retirement and mortality using a cohort of Swedish construction workers. The mortality risk of disability pensioners - excluding those with diagnoses normally connected to increased mortality - was compared with the risk of those continuing to work. Although initial indications were in line with earlier results, it became obvious that the increased mortality risk of disability pensioners did not depend on early retirement per se but on poor health before early retirement not explicitly recognized in the diagnosis on which the disability pension rested. The results indicate that there are no general differences in mortality depending on timing of retirement. Future studies of mortality differences arising from working or not working must sufficiently control for health selection effects into the studied retirement paths.

  • 9.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Svallfors, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Production regimes and work orientations: A comparison of six Western Countries2002In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 315-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work orientations are compared in six Western countries, using data from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP). The main issue in the paper is whether different ‘production regimes’ correspond to levels and patterns of employment commitment and organizational commitment among the working population. It is concluded that the level of employment commitment varies with production regime, being highest in the Scandinavian countries and lowest in the liberal market economies. Organizational commitment varies in a more complex manner, with the strongest commitment found in the USA and the lowest in Sweden. Group differences in commitment display a mixed pattern, with little systematic variation between production regimes.

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