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  • 1. Carter, Ellison
    et al.
    Lam, Nicholas
    Chafe, Zoe
    Carvalho, Ricardo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Shan, Ming
    Ackerly, John
    Lancey, Forrest
    Household energy transitions to address air pollution exposure, health, and climate burdens associated with solid fuel burning2018Ingår i: Household energy transitions to address air pollution exposure, health, and climate burdens associated with solid fuel burning, Philadelphia, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential space heating and cooking are critical household energy service needs worldwide. Household transitions to clean-burning fuels at population scales are needed that do not contribute to poor indoor and outdoor air quality and the potential associated exposure, health, and climate burdens. We propose to discuss and debate research, implementation needs, and advances related to use of solid fuel for meeting residential energy needs with an express focus on residential heating demand, which has been less studied than residential cooking.We aim to identify knowledge gaps in the field of household energy systems in resource-constrained communities, set research priorities to address these gaps, and highlight opportunities for interdisciplinary and transnational learning and collaboration. 

  • 2.
    Carvalho, Ricardo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Lindgren, Robert
    García-Lopez, Natxo
    Nyberg, Gert
    Boman, Christoffer
    Household Bioenergy Transitions with Alternative Biomass Feedstocks and Technologies: An Integrated System to Mitigate Environmental Risks in Western Kenya2018Ingår i: Household Bioenergy Transitions with Alternative Biomass Feedstocks and Technologies: An Integrated System to Mitigate Environmental Risks in Western Kenya / [ed] École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, UNESCO, Lausanne, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Kenya, over 50% of the total primary energy consumption is from traditional solid-fuel cooking, being this a major cause of deforestation and household air pollution (HAP). Western Kenya has an agricultural biofuel feedstock of over 1.9 million Mt, which could be processed to supply cookstoves with crop-residue pellets and improved wood fallows. The sociotechnical viability of two novel bioenergy value chains were analysed using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning system. Three scenarios of transition to efficient cookstoves and decentralized biofuel and electricity production systems were tested. In the “Optimal scenario”, the current feedstock in the Kisumu and Siaya counties could satisfy over 80% of the cooking energy demand by 2030. Here, the net greenhouse gas emissions from charcoal production and HAP could be reduced by 87% to 12.6 thousand Mt CO2e. Further work should integrate socioeconomic indicators reflecting additional local/regional stakeholders´ collaboration channels (cost-effective) to support the bioenergy transitions. 

  • 3.
    Carvalho, Ricardo
    et al.
    Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark; Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, Portugal.
    Vicente, Estela
    Tarelho, Luís
    Jensen, Ole Michael
    Wood stove combustion air retrofits: a low cost way to increase energy savings in dwellings2018Ingår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 164, s. 140-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, wood-fired stoves remain as major renewable household heating and emission sources. This study focused on improving the performance of a wood stove (natural draft) traditionally used in Portugal by the adoption of alternative combustion air retrofits. Additionally, the performance of a new pellet stove (forced-air) was determined to investigate the highest achievable goal for solid-fuel stoves. In the wood stove, an outer chimney component was installed around the existing chimney to allow the vertical admission of outdoor air that was preheated before entering the combustion chamber. This measure increased the thermal efficiency of the wood stove from 62% to up to 79%. Another component was used to administrate secondary air to the wood stove reducing the carbon monoxide emissions by 39% to 2808 mg Nm−3. The two retrofits enhanced a more stable heat release from the wood stove, which reached a thermal efficiency 11% lower than that achieved by the pellet stove. This research suggests that retrofitting stoves with chimney components that allow the admission of combustion air can substantially increase energy savings in dwellings. Further efforts should focus on improving the interplay between the outdoor air and secondary air admission to achieve higher emission reductions at low-cost.

  • 4. Vicente, E.D.
    et al.
    Vicente, A.M.
    Evtyugina, M.
    Carvalho, Ricardo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Portugal.
    Tarelho, L.A.C.
    Paniagua, S.
    Nunes, T.
    Otero, M.
    Calvo, L.F.
    Alves, C.
    Emissions from residential pellet combustion of an invasive acacia species2019Ingår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 140, s. 319-329Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, different types of raw materials are under investigation to fulfil the demand for pellet-based renewable energy. The aim of this study was to experimentally quantify and characterise the gaseous and particulate matter (PM10) emissions from the combustion of a pelletised invasive species growing in the Portuguese coastal areas. The combustion of acacia pellets in a stove used for domestic heating led to a noticeable production of environmentally relevant contaminants, such as carbon monoxide (CO, 2468 ± 485 mg MJ−1), sulphur dioxide (SO2, 222 ± 115 mg MJ−1) and nitrogen oxides (NOx, 478 ± 87 mg MJ−1). Besides gaseous pollutant emissions, substantial particle emissions (118 ± 14 mg MJ−1) were also generated. Particles consisted mostly of inorganic matter, mainly alkaline metals, sulphur and chlorine. About 25%wt. of the PM10 emitted had carbonaceous nature. The chromatographically resolved organic compounds were dominated by anhydrosugars, especially levoglucosan (284 μg g−1 PM10), and several types of phenolic compounds. Retene (8.77 μg g−1 PM10) was the chief compound among polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

  • 5.
    Vicente, Estela D.
    et al.
    Centre of Environmental and Marine Studies.
    Vicente, Ana
    Centre of Environmental and Marine Studies.
    Evtyugina, Margarita
    Centre of Environmental and Marine Studies.
    Carvalho, Ricardo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Centre of Environmental and Marine Studies.
    Tarelho, Luís A. C.
    Centre of Environmental and Marine Studies.
    Oduber, Fernanda I.
    Department of Physics, Universidad de León.
    Alves, Célia
    Centre of Environmental and Marine Studies.
    Particulate and gaseous emissions from charcoal combustion in barbecue grills2018Ingår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 176, s. 296-306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of charcoal for cooking and heating can be a major source of air pollution and lead to a wide range of health outcomes. The aim of this study was to experimentally quantify and characterise the gaseous and particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions from charcoal combustion in a typical brick barbecue grill. The gaseous emission factors were 219 ± 44.8 g kg−1 for carbon monoxide (CO), 3.01 ± 0.698 g kg−1 for nitrogen oxides (NOxexpressed as NO2), and 4.33 ± 1.53 gC kg−1 for total organic carbon (TOC). Particle emissions (7.38 ± 0.353 g kg−1 of dry charcoal burned) were of the same order of magnitude as those from traditional residential wood burning appliances. About 50% of the PM2.5 emitted had a carbonaceous nature while water soluble ions accounted, on average, for 17% of the particulate mass. Alkanes (C11–C16 and C23), hopanes, steranes and alkyl-PAHs accounted for small mass fractions of PM2.5. Phenolic compounds and saccharides represented the major particle-bond organic constituents. The high proportion of either resin acids or syringyl and vanillyl compounds is consistent with emissions from charred coniferous wood. The ratios between anhydrosugars for charcoal are much lower than the values reported for lignite combustion, but overlap those from other biomass burning sources.

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