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  • 1.
    Allard, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law. Silvermuseet/The Institute for Arctic Landscape Research (INSARC).
    Girjas reindeer herding community v. Sweden: Analysing the merits of the girjas case2021In: Arctic Review on Law and Politics, ISSN 1891-6252, E-ISSN 2387-4562, Vol. 12, p. 56-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time in the Swedish Supreme Court, a small Sami reindeer herding community has won an important victory affirming the community’s small game hunting and fishing rights. Because of protracted use and the concept of immemorial prescription, the Court recognised the community’s exclusive hunting and fishing rights, including the right to lease these rights to others. Such leases have long been prohibited by legislation and the State has retained its powers to administer such leases. This case signifies a considerable development in the area of Sami law. In its decision, the Supreme Court made some adjustments to the age-old doctrine of immemorial prescription, and provided insights into how historic evidence should be evaluated when the claimant is an Indigenous people. A common motivator for these adjustments is an enhanced awareness of international standards protecting Indigenous peoples and minorities. Even ILO Convention No. 169 – the only legally binding convention concerning Indigenous rights, but which Sweden has not yet ratified – is relevant when it comes to evaluating Sami customary uses. The Court addressed the problem of gaps in the historical material and used evidence from other parts of Swedish Lapland and adjacent time-periods, making reasonable assumptions to fill in these gaps. The Court imposes on the State the burden of proof regarding the extinguishment of already established Sami rights, as well as proof that extinguishment by legislation or expropriation, is “clear and definitive”. These conditions were not met in this case.

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  • 2. Allard, Christina
    et al.
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Girjas sameby mot staten: En analys av Girjasdomen2020In: Svensk Juristtidning, ISSN 0039-6591, no 5, p. 429-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I januari 2020 avgjorde Högsta domstolen det s.k. Girjasmålet, där rätten att upplåta småviltsjakt och fiske i fjällområdena prövats. Stridigheter om huruvida det är staten eller samebyn som har rätt att göra sådana upplåtelser har pågått i decennier och har inte gått att lösa politiskt. I artikeln analyseras domen och vilka konsekvenser den får; domens längd och komplexitet motiverar en längre rättsfallsanalys. Det konstateras att domen klargör viktiga förhållanden såsom att samiska markrättigheter upparbetats genom urminnes hävd och att ILO:s konvention nr 169 om urfolks rättigheter i delar är bindande även om den inte har ratificerats. Domen innebär att en betydande rättsutveckling skett inom det samerättsliga området.

  • 3.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    Division of Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lépy, Élise
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law. Institute for Arctic Landscape Research (INSARC), Silvermuseet, Arjeplog, Sweden.
    Heikkinen, Hannu
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Komu, Teresa
    University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland; University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Centre for Tourism and Leisure Research, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Österlin, Carl
    Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heritage for the future: narrating abandoned mining sites2022In: Resource extraction and arctic communities: the new extractivist paradigm / [ed] Sverker Sörlin, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2022, p. 206-228Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter compares the post-extraction dynamics of two mining regions in the Fennoscandinavian Arctic: the Pite valley, Sweden, and Kolari, Finland. In 1946 the Swedish mining company Boliden closed a mine in Laver, which became a ghost town. Decades later, state authorities tried to turn Laver into a cultural heritage site. Boliden joined the effort to support its plan to re-start mining at Laver, a project that has, however, become highly controversial. The Finnish case deals with a similar controversy. Hannukainen mining company wants to re-open an iron ore mine that was in operation 1975-1990. As part of their strategy to gain acceptance for re-opening, the company and supporters of the project have mobilized the history of the mining sites and argues mining is a core element of the heritage of the Kolar municipality. Both cases have generated tension regarding the type of history and heritage of these regions: those of reindeer herding by Sámi and other local communities, or that of extractive industries? The cases show that heritage making can be useful, but it can also be a source of conflict, further underscoring the importance of the long-term view of extraction.

  • 4.
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University.
    Court proceedings to evaluate the implementation of Sami land rights in Sweden2018In: Retfærd. Nordisk Juridisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0105-1121, no 2, p. 32-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1981 the Swedish Supreme Court stated that Sami land rights are based on the longtime use of land and that these rights are to be regarded as property protected by the Swedish constitution. It is thereby elucidated within the Swedish legal framework that Sami land rights are private property rights. This was also confirmed through an amendment in the Reindeer Herding Act in 1993. However, Sami land rights are primarily interpreted and protected through other land use statutes. It has been concluded that Sami land rights have not been implemented properly in the Forestry Act, which regulates forestry management. nstead, reindeer herding is primarily regarded as a public interest that needs to be considered when logging is planned and executed. In the balancing with timber production as another public interest, reindeer herding is considered as less important and must yield. Consequently, severe damages are accepted on the grazing lands without the consent of the Sami or financial compensation being payed. It has been concluded that the regulation does not comply with the constitutional protection of property. Several public inquiries have proposed changes in the Forestry Act to better reflect Sami land rights. However, no amendments have been enacted, due to strong opposing interests. This political failure to implement Sami land rights will most likely result in juridical proceedings where Sami argue that Sami land rights are not protected in compliance with constitutional requirements. The article discusses legal aspects that should be considered when courts evaluates the implementation of Sami land rights.

  • 5.
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Frågor om samisk rätt till land och vatten avgörs av domstolar2011In: Förrättsligande: rapport från 2011 års forskningsinternat / [ed] Görel Granström, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2011, p. 25-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Lagstiftning försvårar konflikt2017In: Biodiverse, ISSN 1401-5064, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det pågår en intensiv diskussion om hur skogsbruket bör bedrivas, som visar att det finns tydliga motsättningar mellan intressegrupper och rättighetshavare. Dessa motsättningar syns tydligt i konflikterna mellan renskötare och skogsägare, och de grundar sig i brister i dagens skogsvårdslagstiftning. En genomlysning av skogsvårdslagen behövs för att komma till rätta med problemen.

  • 7.
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Samerna och naturresurserna2009In: Är vi inte alla minoriteter i världen?: Rättigheter för urfolk, nationella minoriteter och invandrare / [ed] Lars Elenius, Stockholm: Ordfront , 2009, 1, p. 199-209Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law. Institutet för arktisk landskapsforskning.
    Samernas urfolksstatus - en utmaning för demokratin2022In: Demokratin och friheten: Del 4 av 4 ur antologin 100 år till / [ed] Kommittén Demokratin 100 år, Stockholm: Kommittén Demokratin 100 år , 2022, p. 46-64Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Samiska markrättigheter i förändring?: Hovrättens dom i Girjas-målet väcker frågor om innebörden av rättigheter till fast egendom2018In: Juridisk Publikation, ISSN 2000-2920, no 1, p. 25-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I januari 2018 meddelade Hovrätten för Övre Norrland dom i det så kallade Girjas-målet. Tvisten gäller frågan om Girjas sameby eller staten innehar jakt- och fiskerättigheterna inom samebyns marker ovan odlingsgränsen och vem som därmed har rätt att bestämma över de upplåtelser som görs till andra. Vid en första anblick tycks målet främst gälla förhållandena i Norrland och dess intressegrupper. Tvisten berör dock flera rättsliga frågeställningar som är av intresse även ur ett mer övergripande juridiskt perspektiv. I artikeln beskrivs den historiska bakgrunden till tvisten och domstolarnas bedömningar i målet. Därefter behandlas ett antal rättsliga frågeställningar om markrättigheters innebörd som aktualiseras genom hovrättens dom. Det konstateras att det är nödvändigt att ytterligare klargöra vissa rättsfrågor, vilket gör att förutsättningarna för prövningstillstånd hos Högsta domstolen bör vara goda.

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  • 10.
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Skogsbruk och renskötsel på samma mark: En rättsvetenskaplig studie av äganderätten och renskötselrätten2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the northern parts of Sweden forestry and Sami reindeer herding are exercised on the same land and there is an ongoing land use dispute between the land users. Land ownership and reindeer herding rights, based on immemorial prescription and customary law, are parallel property rights to the same land. Studies have concluded that the legal framework does not sufficiently reflect the property rights perspective of the land use conflict. This study examines the legal framework that regulates the relationship between forestry and reindeer herding from a property rights perspective. Starting points of the study are basic aspects of property rights, such as the right to use, decide on and benefit economically from property and the legal protection required in relation to others. Comparisons are made with the legal frameworks that regulate other relationships within real estate law, including e.g. neighbors, easements, joint facilities and utility easement.

    The study concludes that the relationship between land ownership and reindeer herding rights can be understood only against the background of historical events such as colonization and demarcation. The rights are more independent of each other than other legal relations and can be compared to a double ownership. It is further concluded that the Forestry Act is based on the assumption that reindeer herding is primarily a public interest that needs protection. Land owners have a far-reaching right to use forests that causes damages to reindeer pasture lands that is not in accordance with the legal nature of the reindeer herding right. Further, central elements usually used to regulate property rights relations are missing, e.g. mutual consideration, damages and judicial review.

    The study also examines if the legal framework is in accordance with the constitutional protection of property in Chapter 2 Section 15 of the constitutional Instrument of Government and Article 1 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights. It is concluded that the legal framework has several deficiencies in this respect. Elements are discussed that can be implemented in law to appropriately reflect the property rights studied.

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  • 11.
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Skogsbruk och renskötsel på samma mark: en rättsvetenskaplig studie av äganderätten och renskötselrätten2017In: Insolvensrättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2002-3014, E-ISSN 2002-6315, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 61-76Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En fastighetsägare kan med stöd av äganderätten avverka den skog som finns på fastigheten. I norra Sverige kan samma mark samtidigt användas av de renskötande samerna för renbete med stöd av renskötselrätten. Det finns därmed två parallella rättigheter av privaträttslig karaktär till samma mark. I artikeln beskrivs det privaträttsliga förhållandet mellan dessa rättigheter.

  • 12.
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law. Silvermuseet Institutet för arktisk landskapsforskning.
    The enhanced role of archaeological and historical research in court proceedings about Saami land rights2020In: Monographs of the Archaeological Society of Finland, ISSN 1799-862X, E-ISSN 1799-8611, Vol. 9, p. 177-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within Swedish law, Saami land rights have been highly controversial since early in the 20th century. In case law, Saami land rights have been placed in the historical context, since it has been established that they are based on long-standing land use. This conclusion puts historical use of land at the very center of any judicial assessment. Herein, two lawsuits about Saami land rights, in which archeology has been used to validate pre-historic and historic land use are compared: the Härjedalen Case, initiated in 1991 and relating to winter grazing rights, and the Girjas Case about hunting and fishing rights. This article describes how archaeological and historical material has been interpreted within the lawsuits and analyzes the impact on the legal assessments. The comparison illustrates how it can be problematic to use archaeological arguments in court proceedings. Nevertheless, it is concluded that archaeology, as part of wider interdisciplinary research, may contribute with knowledge about past land use, thus allowing the understanding of Saami land rights to evolve. Furthermore, how researchers within archeologyand other disciplines could respond to the fact that the results of their work might be used outside academia and within the very different environment of judicial proceedings is discussed.

  • 13.
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    The Girjas Case - court proceedings as a strategy to enforce Sámi land rights2021In: Routledge Handbook of Indigenous Peoples in the Arctic / [ed] Timo Koivurova, Else Grete Broderstad, Dorothée Cambou, Dalee Dorough, Florian Stammler, London and New York: Routledge, 2021, 1, p. 174-186Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though Swedish case law clarifies that Sámi land rights are private property rights, the implications for the legal system still remain unclear and debated. Since the political system has failed to clarify Sámi property rights, Girjas sameby, as a representative of the reindeer-herding Sámi, have turned to the judicial system to have these rights enforced. After more than ten years of legal proceedings, at the end of 2019, the Swedish Supreme Court will hand down its decision in the so-called Girjas Case. The heart of the lawsuit is who holds the hunting and fishing rights within a specific high mountain area in the north-western part of Sweden and thus who decides on the granting of licenses to others. The case illustrates the ongoing dispute between the Indigenous Sámi people and the Swedish state over the meaning of property rights with respect to land within Sapmi, the homeland of the Sámi. This chapter describes the historical background of the lawsuit and briefly outlines the legal assessments of the District Court and the Court of Appeal. In addition, the chapter discusses why litigation is being used by the Sámi as a strategy to enforce Sámi land rights within the legal system and the challenges associated with presenting historical perspectives in a court setting.

  • 14.
    Brännström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Várdduo – Centre for Sámi Research. Institute for Arctic Landscape Research (INSARC), Sweden; Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The implementation of Sámi land rights in the Swedish forestry act2024In: The significance of Sámi rights: law, justice, and sustainability for the indigenous sámi in the nordic countries / [ed] Dorothée Cambou; Øyvind Ravna, Routledge, 2024, p. 101-115Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In northern Sweden, large forest areas are used both for timber production and Sámi reindeer herding, and intense forest management practices have had predominantly negative effects on reindeer herding. Through case law, it is elucidated that Sámi land rights are private property rights based on the longtime use of land. At the same time, landowners own the forest areas. Hence, there exists parallel property rights on the same land. This chapter analyses the recognition and protection of Sámi land rights in the Forestry Act, which regulates the landowners’ forest management. The analysis is based on legal mechanisms that are usually used when property rights relations are regulated within Real Estate Law. This type of legal mechanisms is missing in the Forestry Act, and the legislation does not provide an adequate protection of the land rights of the Sámi. Instead, reindeer herding is regarded as a public interest that is balanced in relation to the public interest of timber production. To achieve a just and sustainable development in line with the rights of Indigenous peoples, there is an urgent need for a legislative reform, and the chapter proposes amendments to provide better protection to the land rights of the Sámi.

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  • 15.
    Brännström, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Allard, Christina
    Samebyars avtalsrätt: en replik2019In: Svensk Juristtidning, ISSN 0039-6591, no 2, p. 165-169Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I artikeln "Samebyars avtalsrätt" gör Eivind Torp bedömningen att den nuvarande rennäringslagen inte ger utrymme för att behandla renskötselrätten eller delar av rätten som ett civilrättsligt avtalsobjekt. Därför menar Torp att samebyarna saknar rättslig befogenhet att ingå avtal som innebär inskränkningar av renskötselrätten. Vi menar att Torp i sin analys av rättsläget bortser från den rättsutveckling som skett i tiden efter 1971 när den nuvarande rennäringslagen infördes. Dessutom är frågan om samebyarnas avtalsrätt mer komplex än vad den aktuella artikeln visar.

  • 16.
    Brännström, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Vannebäck, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Egendomsskyddet och den speciella fastighetsrätten – rättsliga utmaningar2017In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, p. 71-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
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