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  • 1.
    De Spiegeleer, Alexandre
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Volwerk, M.
    Andersson, L.
    Karlsson, T.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Mouikis, C. G.
    Nilsson, H.
    Kistler, L. M.
    Oscillatory Flows in the Magnetotail Plasma Sheet: Cluster Observations of the Distribution Function2019Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 124, nr 4, s. 2736-2754Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma dynamics in Earth's magnetotail is often studied using moments of the distribution function, which results in losing information on the kinetic properties of the plasma. To better understand oscillatory flows observed in the midtail plasma sheet, we investigate two events, one in each hemisphere, in the transition region between the central plasma sheet and the lobes using the 2-D ion distribution function from the Cluster 4 spacecraft. In this case study, the oscillatory flows are a manifestation of repeated ion flux enhancements with pitch angle changing from 0 degrees to 180 degrees in the Northern Hemisphere and from 180 degrees to 0 degrees in the Southern Hemisphere. Similar pitch angle signatures are observed seven times in about 80 min for the Southern Hemisphere event and three times in about 80 min for the Northern Hemisphere event. The ion flux enhancements observed for both events are slightly shifted in time between different energy channels, indicating a possible time-of-flight effect from which we estimate that the source of particle is located similar to 5-25R(E) and similar to 40-107R(E) tailward of the spacecraft for the Southern and Northern Hemisphere event, respectively. Using a test particle simulation, we obtain similar to 21-46 R-E for the Southern Hemisphere event and tailward of X similar to - 65R(E) (outside the validity region of the model) for the Northern Hemisphere event. We discuss possible sources that could cause the enhancements of ion flux.

  • 2.
    De Spiegeleer, Alexandre
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Volwerk, M.
    Karlsson, T.
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels, Belgium.
    Chong, Ghai Siung
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, China.
    Nilsson, H.
    Oxygen Ion Flow Reversals in Earth's Magnetotail: A Cluster Statistical Study2019Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 124, nr 11, s. 8928-8942Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a statistical study of magnetotail flows that change direction from earthward to tailward using Cluster spacecraft. More precisely, we study 318 events of particle flux enhancements in the O+ data for which the pitch angle continuously changes with time, either from 0 degrees to 180 degrees or from 180 degrees to 0 degrees. These structures are called "Pitch Angle Slope Structures" (PASSes). PASSes for which the pitch angle changes from 0 degrees to 180 degrees are observed in the Northern Hemisphere while those for which the pitch angle changes from 180 degrees to 0 degrees are observed in the Southern Hemisphere. These flux enhancements result in a reversal of the flow direction from earthward to tailward regardless of the hemisphere where they are observed. Sometimes, several PASSes can be observed consecutively which can therefore result in oscillatory velocity signatures in the earth-tail direction. The PASS occurrence rate increases from 1.8% to 3.7% as the AE index increases from similar to 0 to similar to 600 nT. Also, simultaneously to PASSes, there is typically a decrease in the magnetic field magnitude due to a decrease (increase) of the sunward component of the magnetic field in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere. Finally, based on the 115 (out of 318) PASSes that show energy-dispersed structures, the distance to the source from the spacecraft is estimated to be typically R-E along the magnetic field line. This study is important as it sheds light on one of the causes of tailward velocities in Earth's magnetotail.

  • 3. Echim, M. M.
    et al.
    Lamy, H.
    De Keyser, J.
    Maggiolo, R.
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels, Belgium.
    Wedlund, C. L. Simon
    A Method to Estimate the Physical Properties of Magnetospheric Generators From Observations of Quiet Discrete Auroral Arcs2019Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 124, nr 12, s. 10283-10293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss a method to estimate the properties of a magnetospheric generator using a quasi-electrostatic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling model and in situ or remote sensing observations of discrete quiet arcs. We first construct an ensemble of Vlasov equilibrium solutions for generator structures formed at magnetospheric plasma interfaces. For each generator solution, we compute the ionospheric electric potential from the current continuity equation. Thus, we estimate the field-aligned potential drop that allows us to assess several properties of the discrete auroral arc, such as the field-aligned potential difference, the field-aligned current density, the flux of precipitating energy, and the height-integrated Pedersen conductance. A minimization procedure based on comparing the numerical results with observations is defined and applied to find which solution of the current continuity equation and which generator model give auroral arc properties that best fit the observations. The procedure is validated in a case study with observations by DMSP and Cluster and can be generalized to other types of data.

  • 4.
    Gunell, Herbert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Goetz, C.
    Eriksson, A.
    Nilsson, H.
    Wedlund, C. Simon
    Henri, P.
    Maggiolo, R.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    De Keyser, J.
    Rubin, M.
    Wieser, G. Stenberg
    Cessateur, G.
    Dhooghe, F.
    Gibbons, A.
    Plasma waves confined to the diamagnetic cavity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2017Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, s. S84-S92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion acoustic waves were observed in the diamagnetic cavity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the Rosetta spacecraft on 2015 August 3, when the comet was 1.25 au from the Sun. Wave spectra recorded by the Langmuir probe (RPC-LAP), peak near 200 Hz, decrease for higher frequencies and reach the noise floor at approximately 1.5 kHz. These waves were observed only when the spacecraft was in the diamagnetic cavity or at its boundary, which is identified as a sharp drop in magnetic field magnitude, measured by RPC-MAG. The plasma, on both sides of the boundary, is dominated by a cold (a few hundred K) water group ion population, one cold (k(B)T(e) similar to 0.1 eV) and one warm (k(B)T(e) similar to 10 eV) electron population. The observations are interpreted in terms of current-driven ion acoustic waves, generated by currents that flow through bulges on the boundary of the diamagnetic cavity.

  • 5.
    Gunell, Herbert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Avenue Circulaire 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Goetz, Charlotte
    Wedlund, Cyril Simon
    Lindkvist, Jesper
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Nilsson, Hans
    LLera, Kristie
    Eriksson, Anders
    Holmström, Mats
    The infant bow shock: a new frontier at a weak activity comet2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 619, artikel-id L2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The bow shock is the first boundary the solar wind encounters as it approaches planets or comets. The Rosetta spacecraft was able to observe the formation of a bow shock by following comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko toward the Sun, through perihelion, and back outward again. The spacecraft crossed the newly formed bow shock several times during two periods a few months before and after perihelion; it observed an increase in magnetic field magnitude and oscillation amplitude, electron and proton heating at the shock, and the diminution of the solar wind further downstream. Rosetta observed a cometary bow shock in its infancy, a stage in its development not previously accessible to in situ measurements at comets and planets.

  • 6.
    Gunell, Herbert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Avenue Circulaire 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium .
    Lindkvist, Jesper
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Goetz, Charlotte
    Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Box 812, 981 28 Kiruna, Sweden .
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Polarisation of a small-scale cometary plasma environment: Particle-in-cell modelling of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2019Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 631, artikel-id A174Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The plasma near the nucleus of a comet is subjected to an electric field to which a few different sources contribute: the convective electric field of the solar wind, the ambipolar electric field due to higher electron than ion speeds, and a polarisation field arising from the vastly different ion and electron trajectories.

    Aims: Our aim is to show how the ambipolar and polarisation electric fields arise and develop under the influence of space charge effects, and in doing so we paint a qualitative picture of the electric fields in the inner coma of a comet.

    Methods. We use an electrostatic particle-in-cell model to simulate a scaled-down comet, representing comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with parameters corresponding to a 3.0 AU heliocentric distance.

    Results: We find that an ambipolar electric field develops early in the simulation and that this is soon followed by the emergence of a polarisation electric field, manifesting itself as an anti-sunward component prevalent in the region surrounding the centre of the comet. As plasma is removed from the inner coma in the direction of the convectional electric field of the solar wind, a density maximum develops on the opposite side of the centre of the comet.

    Conclusions: The ambipolar and polarisation electric fields both have a significant influence on the motion of cometary ions. This demonstrates the importance of space charge effects in comet plasma physics.

  • 7. Hajra, Rajkumar
    et al.
    Henri, Pierre
    Vallières, Xavier
    More, Jeromé
    Gilet, Nicolas
    Wattieaux, Gaetan
    Goetz, Charlotte
    Richter, Ingo
    Tsurutani, Bruce T.
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Eriksson, Anders I.
    Nemeth, Zoltan
    Burchdegrees, James L.
    Rubin, Martin
    Dynamic unmagnetized plasma in the diamagnetic cavity around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2018Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 475, nr 3, s. 4140-4147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rosetta orbiter witnessed several hundred diamagnetic cavity crossings (unmagnetized regions) around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its two year survey of the comet. The characteristics of the plasma environment inside these diamagnetic regions are studied using in situ measurements by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium instruments. Although the unmagnetized plasma density has been observed to exhibit little dynamics compared to the very dynamical magnetized cometary plasma, we detected several localized dynamic plasma structures inside those diamagnetic regions. These plasma structures are not related to the direct ionization of local cometary neutrals. The structures are found to be steepened, asymmetric plasma enhancements with typical rising-to-descending slope ratio of similar to 2.8 (+/- 1.9), skewness similar to 0.43 (+/- 0.36), mean duration of similar to 2.7 (+/- 0.9) min and relative density variation Delta N/N of similar to 0.5 (+/- 0.2), observed close to the electron exobase. Similar steepened plasma density enhancements were detected at the magnetized boundaries of the diamagnetic cavity as well as outside the diamagnetic region. The plausible scalelength and propagation direction of the structures are estimated from simple plasma dynamics considerations. It is suggested that they are large-scale unmagnetized plasma enhancements, transmitted from the very dynamical outer magnetized region to the inner magnetic field-free cavity region.

  • 8.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels,Belgium.
    Goncharov, Oleksandr
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    De Spiegeleer, Alexandre
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Fuselier, S.
    Mukherjee, J.
    Vaivads, A.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Institute of Space Sciences,Shandong University, Weihai, China.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Giles, B.
    Can Reconnection be Triggered as a Solar Wind Directional Discontinuity Crosses the Bow Shock?: A Case of Asymmetric Reconnection2019Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 124, nr 11, s. 8507-8523Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present some unique observations of reconnection at a quasi-perpendicular bow shock as an interplanetary directional discontinuity (DD) is crossing it simultaneously with the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. There are no burst data, but available data show indications of ongoing reconnection at the shock southward of MMS: a bifurcated current sheet with signatures of Hall magnetic and electric fields, normal magnetic fields indicating a magnetic connection between the two reconnecting regions, field-aligned currents and electric fields, E . J > 0 indicating a conversion of magnetic to kinetic energy, and subspin resolution ion energy-time spectrograms indicating ions being accelerated away from the X-line. The DD is also observed by four upstream spacecraft (ACE, WIND, Geotail, and ARTEMIS P1) and one downstream in the magnetosheath (Cluster 4), but none of them resolve signatures of ongoing reconnection. We therefore suggest that reconnection was temporarily triggered as the DD was compressed by the shock. Reconnection at the bow shock is inevitably asymmetric with both the density and magnetic field strength being higher on one side of the X-line (magnetosheath side) than on the other side where the plasma flow also is supersonic (solar wind side). This is different from the asymmetry exhibited at the more commonly studied case of asymmetric reconnection at the magnetopause. Asymmetric reconnection of the bow shock type has never been studied before, and the data discussed here present some first indications of the properties of the reconnection region for this type of reconnection.

  • 9.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels, Belgium.
    Lindkvist, Jesper
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ergun, Robert E.
    Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics, Boulder, CO, USA.
    Giles, Barbara L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Bow shock generator current systems: MMS observations of possible current closure2018Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 123, s. 242-258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use data from the first two dayside seasons of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to study current systems associated with quasi‐perpendicular bow shocks of generator type. We have analyzed 154 MMS bow shock crossings near the equatorial plane. We compute the current density during the crossings and conclude that the component perpendicular to the shock normal (J⊥) is consistent with a pileup of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) inside the magnetosheath. For predominantly southward IMF, we observe a component Jn parallel (antiparallel) to the normal for GSM Y> 0 (<0), and oppositely directed for northward IMF. This indicates current closure across the equatorial magnetosheath, and it is observed for IMF clock angles near 0∘ and 180∘. To our knowledge, these are the first observational evidence for bow shock current closure across the magnetosheath. Since we observe no clear signatures of |J⊥| decreasing toward large |Y| we suggest that the main region of current closure is further tailward, outside MMS probing region. For IMF clock angles near 90∘, we find indications of the current system being tilted toward the north‐south direction, obtaining a significant Jz component, and we suggest that the current closes off the equatorial plane at higher latitudes where the spacecraft are not probing. The observations are complicated for several reasons. For example, variations in the solar wind and the magnetospheric currents and loads affect the closure, and Jn is distributed over large regions, making it difficult to resolve inside the magnetosheath proper.

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  • 10.
    Lindkvist, Jesper
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Brussels, Belgium.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics.
    Simon Wedlund, Cyril
    University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo, Norway.
    Kallio, Esa
    Aalto University, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Espoo, Finland.
    Mann, Ingrid
    University of Tromsø, Department of Physics and Technology, Tromsø, Norway.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Karlsson, Tomas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Energy conversion in cometary atmospheres: Hybrid modeling of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, artikel-id A81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. We wish to investigate the energy conversion between particles and electromagnetic fields and determine the location where it occurs in the plasma environment of comets.

    Methods. We used a hybrid plasma model that included photoionization, and we considered two cases of the solar extreme ultraviolet flux. Other parameters corresponded to the conditions of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at a heliocentric distance of 1.5 AU.

    Results. We find that a shock-like structure is formed upstream of the comet and acts as an electromagnetic generator, similar to the bow shock at Earth that slows down the solar wind. The Poynting flux transports electromagnetic energy toward the inner coma, where newly born cometary ions are accelerated. Upstream of the shock-like structure, we find local energy transfer from solar wind ions to cometary ions. We show that mass loading can be a local process with a direct transfer of energy, but also part of a dynamo system with electromagnetic generators and loads.

    Conclusions. The energization of cometary ions is governed by a dynamo system for weak ionization, but changes into a large conversion region with local transfer of energy directly from solar wind protons for high ionization.

  • 11. Madsen, B.
    et al.
    Wedlund, C. Simon
    Eriksson, A.
    Goetz, C.
    Karlsson, T.
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Brussels, Belgium.
    Spicher, A.
    Henri, P.
    Vallieres, X.
    Miloch, W. J.
    Extremely Low-Frequency Waves Inside the Diamagnetic Cavity of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2018Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 45, nr 9, s. 3854-3864Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Space Agency/Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko has provided several hundred observations of the cometary diamagnetic cavity induced by the interaction between outgassed cometary particles, cometary ions, and the solar wind magnetic field. Here we present the first electric field measurements of four preperihelion and postperihelion cavity crossings on 28 May 2015 and 17 February 2016, using the dual-probe electric field mode of the Langmuir probe (LAP) instrument of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium. We find that on large scales, variations in the electric field fluctuations capture the cavity and boundary regions observed in the already well-studied magnetic field, suggesting the electric field mode of the LAP instrument as a reliable tool to image cavity crossings. In addition, the LAP electric field mode unravels for the first time extremely low-frequency waves within two cavities. These low-frequency electrostatic waves are likely triggered by lower-hybrid waves observed in the surrounding magnetized plasma. Plain Language Summary As sunlight heats a comet nucleus, frozen volatile gases sublimate are ionized and interact with the solar wind and its embedded magnetic field, inducing a dynamical plasma environment around the comet. With the cornerstone European mission Rosetta and its 2years of near-continuous orbiting of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the origin, structure, and evolution of this environment are only starting to be unveiled. Exciting are the numerous crossings of the diamagnetic cavity, the innermost plasma region from which the solar wind magnetic field is excluded. Whilst the magnetic field structure of the cavity crossings is well studied, the related electric field activity remains until now unexplored. Studying the electric field with the Langmuir probes onboard Rosetta, we find that whereas the large-scale electric field structure agrees well with the observed magnetic field behavior during cavity crossings, unexpected short-lived low-frequency electric field signals manifest themselves within the cavity. We interpret these as electrostatic waves triggered by a modulating of the cavity boundary caused by observed electrostatic waves at the same frequency in the surrounding magnetized plasma. This unravels a new aspect of the electromagnetic activity in the inner cometary environment, which is crucial for our understanding of the comet-solar wind-induced plasma environment.

  • 12. Maggiolo, R.
    et al.
    Gibbons, A.
    Cessateur, G.
    De Keyser, J.
    Dhooghe, F.
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Brussels, Belgium.
    Loreau, J.
    Mousis, O.
    Vaeck, N.
    Effect of the Surface Roughness of Icy Grains on Molecular Oxygen Chemistry in Molecular Clouds2019Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 882, nr 2, artikel-id 131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular cloud and protosolar nebula chemistry involves a strong interaction between the gas phase and the surface of icy grains. The exchanges between the gas phase and the solid phase depend not only on the adsorption and desorption rates but also on the geometry of the surface of the grains. Indeed, for sufficient levels of surface roughness, atoms and molecules have a significant probability to collide with the grain icy mantle several times before being potentially captured. In consequence, their net sticking probability may differ from their sticking probability for a single collision with the grain surface. We estimate the effectiveness of the recapture on uneven surfaces for the various desorption processes at play in astrophysical environments. We show that surface roughness has a significant effect on the desorption rates. We focus in particular on the production of O-2 since unexpectedly large amounts of it, probably incorporated in the comet when it formed, have been detected in the coma of comet 67P by the Rosetta probe. Our results suggest that the higher escape probability of hydrogen compared to heavier species on rough surfaces can contribute to enhancing the production of O-2 in the icy mantles of grains while keeping its abundance low in the gas phase and may significantly decrease the desorption probability of molecules involved in the O-2 chemical network.

  • 13. Nilsson, H.
    et al.
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Avenue Circulaire 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Karlsson, T.
    Brenning, N.
    Henri, P.
    Goetz, C.
    Eriksson, A. I.
    Behar, E.
    Wieser, G. Stenberg
    Vallieres, X.
    Size of a plasma cloud matters: The polarisation electric field of a small-scale comet ionosphere2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, artikel-id A50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The cometary ionosphere is immersed in fast flowing solar wind. A polarisation electric field may arise for comets much smaller than the gyroradius of pickup ions because ions and electrons respond differently to the solar wind electric field.

    Aims. A situation similar to that found at a low activity comet has been modelled for barium releases in the Earth's ionosphere. We aim to use such a model and apply it to the case of comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the target of the Rosetta mission. We aim to explain the significant tailward acceleration of cometary ions through the modelled electric field.

    Methods. We obtained analytical solutions for the polarisation electric field of the comet ionosphere using a simplified geometry. This geometry is applicable to the comet in the inner part of the coma as the plasma density integrated along the magnetic field line remains rather constant. We studied the range of parameters for which a significant tailward electric field is obtained and compare this with the parameter range observed.

    Results. Observations of the local plasma density and magnetic field strength show that the parameter range of the observations agree very well with a significant polarisation electric field shielding the inner part of the coma from the solar wind electric field.

    Conclusions. The same process gives rise to a tailward directed electric field with a strength of the order of 10% of the solar wind electric field. Using a simple cloud model we have shown that the polarisation electric field, which arises because of the small size of the comet ionosphere as compared to the pick up ion gyroradius, can explain the observed significant tailward acceleration of cometary ions and is consistent with the observed lack of influence of the solar wind electric field in the inner coma.

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  • 14. Nilsson, Hans
    et al.
    Wieser, Gabriella Stenberg
    Behar, Etienne
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Wieser, Martin
    Galand, Marina
    Wedlund, Cyril Simon
    Alho, Markku
    Goetz, Charlotte
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Henri, Pierre
    Odelstad, Elias
    Vigren, Erik
    Evolution of the ion environment of comet 67P during the Rosetta mission as seen by RPC-ICA2017Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, s. S252-S261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rosetta has followed comet 67P from low activity at more than 3.6 au heliocentric distance to high activity at perihelion (1.24 au) and then out again. We provide a general overview of the evolution of the dynamic ion environment using data from the RPC-ICA ion spectrometer. We discuss where Rosetta was located within the evolving comet magnetosphere. For the initial observations, the solar wind permeated all of the coma. In 2015 mid-April, the solar wind started to disappear from the observation region, to re-appear again in 2015 December. Low-energy cometary ions were seen at first when Rosetta was about 100 km from the nucleus at 3.6 au, and soon after consistently throughout the mission except during the excursions to farther distances from the comet. The observed flux of low-energy ions was relatively constant due to Rosetta's orbit changing with comet activity. Accelerated cometary ions, moving mainly in the antisunward direction gradually became more common as comet activity increased. These accelerated cometary ions kept being observed also after the solar wind disappeared from the location of Rosetta, with somewhat higher fluxes further away from the nucleus. Around perihelion, when Rosetta was relatively deep within the comet magnetosphere, the fluxes of accelerated cometary ions decreased, as did their maximum energy. The disappearance of more energetic cometary ions at close distance during high activity is suggested to be due to a flow pattern where these ions flow around the obstacle of the denser coma or due to charge exchange losses.

  • 15. Wedlund, Cyril Simon
    et al.
    Behar, Etienne
    Kallio, Esa
    Nilsson, Hans
    Alho, Markku
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Avenue Circulaire 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Bodewits, Dennis
    Beth, Arnaud
    Gronoft, Guillaume
    Hoekstra, Ronnie
    Solar wind charge exchange in cometary atmospheres II. Analytical model2019Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 630, artikel-id A36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Solar wind charge-changing reactions are of paramount importance to the physico-chemistry of the atmosphere of a comet because they mass-load the solar wind through an effective conversion of fast, light solar wind ions into slow, heavy cometary ions. The ESA/Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) provided a unique opportunity to study charge-changing processes in situ. Aims. To understand the role of charge-changing reactions in the evolution of the solar wind plasma and to interpret the complex in situ measurements made by Rosetta, numerical or analytical models are necessary. Methods. An extended analytical formalism describing solar wind charge-changing processes at comets along solar wind streamlines is presented. It is based on a thorough book-keeping of available charge-changing cross sections of hydrogen and helium particles in a water gas. Results. After presenting a general 1D solution of charge exchange at comets, we study the theoretical dependence of charge-state distributions of (He2+, He+, He-0) and (H+, H-0, H-) on solar wind parameters at comet 67P. We show that double charge exchange for the He2+-H2O system plays an important role below a solar wind bulk speed of 200 km s-1, resulting in the production of He energetic neutral atoms, whereas stripping reactions can in general be neglected. Retrievals of outgassing rates and solar wind upstream fluxes from local Rosetta measurements deep in the coma are discussed. Solar wind ion temperature effects at 400 km s-1 solar wind speed are well contained during the Rosetta mission. Conclusions. As the comet approaches perihelion, the model predicts a sharp decrease of solar wind ion fluxes by almost one order of magnitude at the location of Rosetta, forming in effect a solar wind ion cavity. This study is the second part of a series of three on solar wind charge-exchange and ionization processes at comets, with a specific application to comet 67P and the Rosetta mission.

  • 16. Wedlund, Cyril Simon
    et al.
    Behar, Etienne
    Nilsson, Hans
    Alho, Markku
    Kallio, Esa
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Avenue Circulaire 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Bodewits, Dennis
    Heritier, Kevin
    Galand, Marina
    Beth, Arnaud
    Rubin, Martin
    Altwegg, Kathrin
    Volwerk, Martin
    Gronoff, Guillaume
    Hoekstra, Ronnie
    Solar wind charge exchange in cometary atmospheres III. Results from the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2019Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 630, artikel-id A37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Solar wind charge-changing reactions are of paramount importance to the physico-chemistry of the atmosphere of a comet. The ESA/Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) provides a unique opportunity to study charge-changing processes in situ.

    Aims: To understand the role of these reactions in the evolution of the solar wind plasma and interpret the complex in situ measurements made by Rosetta, numerical or analytical models are necessary.

    Methods: We used an extended analytical formalism describing solar wind charge-changing processes at comets along solar wind streamlines. The model is driven by solar wind ion measurements from the Rosetta Plasma Consortium-Ion Composition Analyser (RPC-ICA) and neutral density observations from the Rosetta Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis-Comet Pressure Sensor (ROSINA-COPS), as well as by charge-changing cross sections of hydrogen and helium particles in a water gas.

    Results: A mission-wide overview of charge-changing efficiencies at comet 67P is presented. Electron capture cross sections dominate and favor the production of He and H energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), with fluxes expected to rival those of H+ and He2+ ions.

    Conclusions: Neutral outgassing rates are retrieved from local RPC-ICA flux measurements and match ROSINA estimates very well throughout the mission. From the model, we find that solar wind charge exchange is unable to fully explain the magnitude of the sharp drop in solar wind ion fluxes observed by Rosetta for heliocentric distances below 2.5 AU. This is likely because the model does not take the relative ion dynamics into account and to a lesser extent because it ignores the formation of bow-shock-like structures upstream of the nucleus. This work also shows that the ionization by solar extreme-ultraviolet radiation and energetic electrons dominates the source of cometary ions, although solar wind contributions may be significant during isolated events.

  • 17. Wedlund, Cyril Simon
    et al.
    Bodewits, Dennis
    Alho, Markku
    Hoekstra, Ronnie
    Behar, Etienne
    Gronoff, Guillaume
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Avenue Circulaire 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Kallio, Esa
    Beth, Arnaud
    Solar wind charge exchange in cometary atmospheres I. Charge-changing and ionization cross sections for He and H particles in H2O2019Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 630, artikel-id A35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Solar wind charge-changing reactions are of paramount importance to the physico-chemistry of the atmosphere of a comet, mass-loading the solar wind through an effective conversion of fast light solar wind ions into slow heavy cometary ions. Aims. To understand these processes and place them in the context of a solar wind plasma interacting with a neutral atmosphere, numerical or analytical models are necessary. Inputs of these models, such as collision cross sections and chemistry, are crucial. Methods. Book-keeping and fitting of experimentally measured charge-changing and ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium particles in a water gas are discussed, with emphasis on the low-energy/low-velocity range that is characteristic of solar wind bulk speeds (<20 keV u-1/2000 km s-1). Results. We provide polynomial fits for cross sections of charge-changing and ionization reactions, and list the experimental needs for future studies. To take into account the energy distribution of the solar wind, we calculated Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and fitted them with bivariate polynomials for solar wind temperatures ranging from 105 to 106 K (12-130 eV). Conclusions. Single- and double-electron captures by He2+ dominate at typical solar wind speeds. Correspondingly, single-electron capture by H+ and single-electron loss by H- dominate at these speeds, resulting in the production of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). Ionization cross sections all peak at energies above 20 keV and are expected to play a moderate role in the total ion production. However, the effect of solar wind Maxwellian temperatures is found to be maximum for cross sections peaking at higher energies, suggesting that local heating at shock structures in cometary and planetary environments may favor processes previously thought to be negligible. This study is the first part in a series of three on charge exchange and ionization processes at comets, with a specific application to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and the Rosetta mission.

  • 18. Wieser, Gabriella Stenberg
    et al.
    Odelstad, Elias
    Wieser, Martin
    Nilsson, Hans
    Goetz, Charlotte
    Karlsson, Tomas
    Andre, Mats
    Kalla, Leif
    Eriksson, Anders I.
    Nicolaou, Georgios
    Wedlund, Cyril Simon
    Richter, Ingo
    Gunell, Herbert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Investigating short-time-scale variations in cometary ions around comet 67P2017Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, s. S522-S534Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly varying plasma environment around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko inspired an upgrade of the ion mass spectrometer (Rosetta Plasma Consortium Ion Composition Analyzer) with new operation modes, to enable high time resolution measurements of cometary ions. Two modes were implemented, one having a 4 s time resolution in the energy range 0.3-82 eV/q and the other featuring a 1 s time resolution in the energy range 13-50 eV/q. Comparing measurements made with the two modes, it was concluded that 4 s time resolution is enough to capture most of the fast changes of the cometary ion environment. The 1462 h of observations done with the 4 s mode were divided into hour-long sequences. It is possible to sort 84 per cent of these sequences into one of five categories, depending on their appearance in an energy-time spectrogram. The ion environment is generally highly dynamic, and variations in ion fluxes and energies are seen on time-scales of 10 s to several minutes.

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