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  • 1.
    Allan, Veronica
    et al.
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Turnnidge, Jennifer
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Vierimaa, Matthew
    Department of Kinesiology & Health Science, Utah State University, Logan, USA.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Côté, Jean
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Development of the Assessment of Coach Emotions systematic observation instrument: A tool to evaluate coaches’ emotions in the youth sport context2016In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 859-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research on emotions in sport focuses heavily on athletes’ intrapersonal emotion regulation; however, interpersonal consequences of emotion regulation are garnering recent attention. As leaders in sport, coaches have the opportunity to regulate not only their own emotions, but also those of athletes, officials, and spectators. As such, the present study set out to develop an observational tool, demonstrating evidence of validity and reliability, for measuring coaches’ overt emotions in the youth sport context. Categories were derived and refined through extensive literature and video review, resulting in 12 categories of behavioural content and eight emotion modifiers (NeutralHappyAffectionateAlertTenseAnxiousAngry and Disappointed). The final coding system is presented herein, complete with supporting evidence for validity and reliability. As a tool for both researchers and practitioners in sport, the Assessment of Coach Emotions (ACE) offers enhanced insight into the contextual qualities underlying coaches’ interactive behaviours.

  • 2. Appleby, Ralph
    et al.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Henrick
    Examining perceptions of teammates’ burnout and training hours in athlete burnout2018In: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 316-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptions of teammates and training load have been shown to influence athletes' physical and psychological health; however, limited research has investigated these factors in relation to burnout. Athletes (N = 140) from a variety of competitive team sports, ranging in level from regional to professional, completed questionnaires measuring individual burnout, perceptions of teammates' burnout, and training hours perweek on two occasions separated by threemonths. After controlling for burnout at time one, training hours were associated with athletes' burnout and perceptions of teammates' burnout at time two. Multilevel modeling indicated actual team burnout (i.e., the average burnout score of the individual athletes in a team) and perceived team burnout were associated with individual's own burnout. The findings highlight that burnout is dynamic and relates to physiological stressors associated with training and psychological perceptions of teammates' burnout. Future research directions exploring potential social influences on athlete burnout are presented.

  • 3. Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Flotation REST as a Stress Reduction Method: The Effects on Anxiety, Muscle Tension, and Performance2018In: Journal of clinical sport psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 333-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of flotation REST upon skilled and less skilled golfers' anxiety in terms of physiological indicators of stress, self-rated anxiety scores, muscle tension, and the effect on golf putting. Prior to performing the putting task participants underwent a treatment of flotation REST or a period of resting in an armchair. Participants completed both treatments in a randomized order with a two-week interval. The results showed that both flotation REST and the armchair treatment reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no differences between treatments or athlete skill levels. No significant differences between treatments were revealed regarding self-ratings, level of muscle tension or putting precision. The results indicate that flotation REST may be useful for reducing negative symptoms related to stress and anxiety in general; however, no support for direct positive effects on golf performance were found.

  • 4.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Appleby, Ralph
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wetherell, Mark
    Gustafsson, Henrick
    The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes’ psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance2018In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 36, no 17, p. 1985-1992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experi- mental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach- athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. 

  • 5.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Northumbria University, Newcastle, United Kingdom.
    Angry Athletes: Psychological, Physiological, and Performance Implications2011In: Psychology of Anger: Symptoms, Causes and Coping / [ed] James P. Welty, New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 197-212Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Northumbria University, UK.
    Current perspectives on psychological aspects associated with the development, and practice of effective coaching and management2016In: The psychology of effective coaching and management / [ed] Davis, Paul A., New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Northumbria University, UK.
    The psychology of effective coaching and management2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Psychology of Effective Coaching and Management is a valuable resource for students, researchers, practitioners, educators, and administrators that want to increase their knowledge of psychological aspects associated with the development and practice of coaching and management. The reader is guided through models of the coaching process, approaches to coach learning, context specific education, and tools for observing coaching behaviors. Additionally, considerations for enhancing positive youth development, motivational climate, group dynamics, self-regulation, emotions, and mental toughness are outlined. The application of mental skills such as self-talk, the consideration of an athlete’s personality in coaching practice, and leadership theories in management are also reviewed. Examples of highly effective sport organizations and approaches to optimizing relationships with support staff are presented, as well as research and implications of coach burnout. The book is written by world leading scholars, sport psychologists, coaches, and managers from the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Sweden, Spain, Greece, Croatia and the UK. Each chapter presents current research and offers suggestions for optimizing effective coaching and management. The chapters are written to be accessible to a wide range of readers, and each chapter offers a set of key considerations for enhancing practice. The aim of the book is to present up-to-date knowledge of the theories and research undertaken in sport coaching and management, with a particular focus upon applying understanding to maximize effective practice. This book will serve as essential reading for scholars and students; it can be used as a key text in sports coaching or coach education programs. Furthermore, coaches as well as their athletes will benefit from the recommendations for practice presented in the book.

  • 8.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Northumbria University, UK.
    Davis, Louise
    Northumbria University, UK.
    Emotions and emotion regulation in coaching2016In: The psychology of effective coaching and management / [ed] Paul A. Davis, New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016, p. 285-306Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wills, Samuel
    Appleby, Ralph
    Nieuwenhuys, Arnie
    Exploring "Sledging" and Interpersonal Emotion-Regulation Strategies in Professional Cricket2018In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 136-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines cricketers’ perceptions of emotional interactions between competitors. Semistructured interviews with 12 male professional cricketers explored experiences (i.e., emotions, cognitions, behaviors) relating to incidents during competition where they or an opponent attempted to evoke an emotional reaction (e.g., sledging). Cricketers described their use of sledging as aggressive actions and verbal interactions with the aim of disrupting concentration and altering the emotional states of opponents. They described experiencing a variety of emotions (e.g., anxiety, anger) in response to opponents’ attempts at interpersonal emotion regulation; linguistic analyses indicated that both positive than negative emotions were experienced. A range of strategies in response to competitors’ deliberate attempts at interpersonal emotion regulation were outlined. The present study extends previous research investigating interpersonal emotion regulation within teams by indicating that professional cricketers are aware of the impact of cognitions and emotions on performance and attempt to negatively influence these factors in competitors

  • 10.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Halvarsson, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundstrom, Wictor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Alpine Ski Coaches' and Athletes' Perceptions of Factors Influencing Adaptation to Stress in the Classroom and on the Slopes2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research examining the student-athlete experience proposes a number of factors that can be both sources of stress and/or support. The dual career pathway offers a number of potential positive outcomes including psychological, social, and financial benefits; however, challenges including time management, fatigue, and restricted social activities are well documented. In consideration of the multidimensional student-athlete experience and the numerous factors that influence the complexity of potential stress, a mixed methods research study design was used in the study. First, data collected from surveys completed by 173 elite junior alpine skiers were analyzed to identify the degree to which athletes report experiencing stress associated with specific aspects pertaining to training, life, and organizational factors. These factors were then explored through semi-structured interviews with six coaches at the associated national elite sport schools. Taken collectively, athletes' reports of psychophysiological training stress on the Multidimensional Training Distress Scale were low. Scores on the college studentathletes' life stress scale revealed very low levels of general life stress; although the subscales associated with "performance demand" and "academic requirements" scored marginally higher. Scores on the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers indicated low levels of organizational stress. The interviews with coaches elucidated the underlying factors potentially influencing athletes' positive adaptations to stress as they reported programming a number of strategies to reduce negative outcomes. Coaches aimed to teach athletes self-awareness and regulation strategies through the use of the training diaries and ongoing communication to promote positive adaptation to stress. A number of coaches also worked with sport psychology consultants to optimize athletes' training and study situations. Traditionally, research has noted high levels of stress in student-athletes due to co-occurring demands (school & sport); however, the data in the present study suggests that optimizing support mechanisms across domains can promote positive adaptations to potential sources of stress.

  • 11.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Department of Sport Development, University of Northumbria, UK.
    Woodman, Tim
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Callow, Nichola
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Better out than in: The influence of anger regulation on physical performance2010In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 457-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the influence of individual differences in anger regulation as potential moderators of the anger–performance relationship. Extending Lazarus’s (1991, 2000a) cognitive–motivational–relational theory of emotion, we investigated the influence of trait anger and the anger regulation styles of anger-in and anger-out on the performance of a physical task. As hypothesized, trait anger and anger-out were positively associated with anger-derived performance enhancement on a peak force task; anger-in significantly inhibited the trait anger–performance relationship. Results are discussed in relation to Lazarus’s cognitive–motivational–relational theory and future research directions are offered.

  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    The Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Karlstad University.
    Skoog, Therése
    The School of Law, Psychology and Social Work Örebro University.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Unit of Performance and Training, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Haberl, Peter
    United States Olympic Committee.
    Mindfulness and Its Relationship With Perceived Stress, Affect, and Burnout in Elite Junior Athletes2015In: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 263-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and burnout and whether this relationship is mediated by perceived stress, negative affect, and positive affect in elite junior athletes. Participants were 233 (123 males and 107 females) adolescent athletes, ranging in age from 15–19 years (M = 17.50; SD = 1.08). Bivariate correlations revealed that mindfulness had a significant negative relationship with both perceived stress and burnout. To investigate mediation, we employed nonparametric bootstrapping analyses. These analyses indicated that positive affect fully mediated links between mindfulness and sport devaluation. Further, positive affect and negative affect partially mediated the relationships between mindfulness and physical/emotional exhaustion, as well as between mindfulness and reduced sense of accomplishment. The results point toward mindfulness being negatively related to burnout in athletes and highlight the role of positive affect. Future research should investigate the longitudinal effect of dispositional mindfulness on stress and burnout.

  • 13.
    Hickey, A
    et al.
    University Institute for Ageing, Newcastle University, UK.
    Newham, J
    Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK.
    Slawinska, MM
    Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK.
    Kwasnicka, D
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Bentley, Australia.
    McDonald, S
    Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK.
    Del Din, S
    Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University Institute for Ageing, Newcastle University, UK.
    Sniehotta, FF
    Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, UK.
    Godfrey, Alan
    Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University Institute for Ageing, Newcastle University, UK.
    Estimating cut points: a simple method for new wearables2016In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 83, p. 78-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearable technology is readily available for continuous assessment due to a growing number of commercial devices with increased data capture capabilities. However, many commercial devices fail to support suitable parameters (cut points) derived from the literature to help quantify physical activity (PA) due to differences in manufacturing. A simple metric to estimate cut points for new wearables is needed to aid data analysis.

    Objective

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate a simple methodology to determine cut points based on ratios between sedentary behaviour (SB) and PA intensities for a new wrist worn device (PRO-Diary™) by comparing its output to a validated and well characterised ‘gold standard’ (ActiGraph™).

    Study design

    Twelve participants completed a semi-structured (four-phase) treadmill protocol encompassing SB and three PA intensity levels (light, moderate, vigorous). The outputs of the devices were compared accounting for relative intensity.

    Results

    Count ratios (6.31, 7.68, 4.63, 3.96) were calculated to successfully determine cut-points for the new wrist worn wearable technology during SB (0–426) as well as light (427–803), moderate (804–2085) and vigorous (≥2086) activities, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Our findings should be utilised as a primary reference for investigations seeking to use new (wrist worn) wearable technology similar to that used here (i.e., PRO-Diary™) for the purposes of quantifying SB and PA intensities. The utility of count ratios may be useful in comparing devices or SB/PA values estimated across different studies. However, a more robust examination is required for different devices, attachment locations and on larger/diverse cohorts.

  • 14.
    Hill, Andrew P.
    et al.
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Perfectionism and emotion regulation in coaches: a test of the 2 × 2 model of dispositional perfectionism2014In: Motivation and Emotion, ISSN 0146-7239, E-ISSN 1573-6644, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 715-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manner in which coaches regulate their emotions has implications for their performance and well-being. Drawing on research that has found perfectionism to predict emotion regulation in other settings, this study adopted the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism to examine whether subtypes of perfectionism among coaches were associated with variation in the use of emotion regulation strategies. Coaches (N = 238, M age = 23.92, SD = 10.32) from various sports completed measures of perfectionism (personal standards and evaluative concerns) and emotion regulation strategies (expressive suppression, cognitive reappraisal, and control of anger directed inwards and outwards). Moderated hierarchical regression provided mixed support for the 2 × 2 model. As expected, pure personal standards perfectionism (high standards/low concerns) was generally associated with the highest capacity for emotion regulation and pure evaluative concerns perfectionism (low standards/high concerns) with the lowest. Unexpectedly, mixed perfectionism (high standards/high concerns) was associated with the highest level of expressive suppression, suggesting that in some instances standards might exacerbate rather than attenuate concerns.

  • 15.
    Klockare, Ellinor
    et al.
    Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Karlstad University.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Track and field athletes’ experiences and perceived effects of flotation-REST: An interpretative phenomenological analysis2015In: International Journal of Sport Psychology, ISSN 0047-0767, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 409-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has highlighted flotation-REST as a promising method for relaxation and performance enhancement in sport; however, to further evaluate the use of flotation-REST in an athletic environment, additional research is warranted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six elite track and field athletes about their experiences and perceived effects of flotation-REST. Athletes were interviewed twice; once for their immediate response and again to explore their perceptions of flotation-REST over time. The data was analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Flotation-REST was perceived as pleasant and relaxing. Five athletes reported less stress and an overall increase in well-being for one or two days afterwards, although they felt physically tired during training sessions. Being in a better mood, placing fewer demands on themselves, and feeling more optimistic and present were also perceived effects. This study shows the potential of flotation-REST as a technique for health promotion, stress management, and a means to practise mindfulness.

  • 16.
    Lane, Andrew M.
    Faculty of Education, Health and Well-being, University of Wolverhampton, Gorway Road, Walsall, WS13BD, UK.
    Stanley, Damian M. (Contributor)
    Psychology and Behavioural Science, Coventry University, UK.
    Do Emotion Regulation Intentions and StrategiesDiffer Between Situations?2014In: Current Advances in Psychology, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 26-32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined relationships between actual and desired emotional states, meta-beliefs concerning the utility of distinct emotions, and emotion regulation strategies used by individuals in a sport situation as well as an emotion-eliciting situation from a different aspect of their lives. Participants (N = 924) reported their emotions, meta-beliefs for optimal emotional states, and their use of emotion regulation strategies across two broad categories of situations: Before sports competition, and a situation from daily life. Results indicated that prior to competition, high activation emotions such as anger, anxiety and excitement were preferred. In terms of strategy use, analyses revealed greater intention to use of strategies intended to increase pleasant and unpleasant emotions were associated with daily life. In conclusion, results indicated that meta-beliefs for optimal emotional states, and strategies used to regulate emotions vary between situations. We suggest that the ability to regulate emotions in a flexible manner to suit the specific dynamics of various situations is proposed to be helpful in the pursuit of personally meaningful goals and that training of a variety of emotion regulation skills could be beneficial.

  • 17.
    Lane, Andrew M.
    et al.
    Faculty of Education, Health and Well-being, University of Wolverhampton, Gorway Road, Walsall, WS13BD, UK.
    Bucknall, Gordon
    Davis, Paul A.
    Department of Sport Development, University of Northumbria, UK.
    Beedie, Christopher J.
    Emotions and emotion regulation among novice military parachutists2012In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 331-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soldiers (N = 95) reported emotions and emotion regulation strategies experienced in their first parachute jump and other challenging situations. Results indicated an emotional profile characterized by feeling anxious, energetic, and happy before parachuting and playing sport. However, this pattern was not similar to the emotional responses experienced at work or in life in general. Participants reported greater use of strategies to increase unpleasant emotions an hour before parachuting than in other situations. Findings suggest that developing training protocols to increase the flexibility and versatility of emotion regulation skills might enhance the preparation of novice soldiers for military duties.

  • 18. Lundkvist, E.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, H.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lemyre, N.
    Ivarsson, A.
    The temporal relations across burnout dimensions in athletes2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 1215-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout is a construct that has garnered considerable attention in sport psychology within recent years. Several hypothesized models regarding how the three dimensions (exhaustion, devaluation, and reduced sense of accomplishment) temporally relate to each other have been advanced. One proposal outlined by Maslach and Leiter suggests that exhaustion predicts devaluation which predicts reduced sense of accomplishment. However, there is no consensus among researchers as it has been argued that exhaustion predicts devaluation and reduced accomplishment separately. The aim of this study was to test multiple alternative hypotheses regarding the relationships of the burnout dimensions in athletes. Two samples of Swedish youth elite athletes with differing time spans between measurements were used. Specifically, one sample involved time-intensive measures collected every week over an eight-week period, and the other sample included four measurement points across an 18-month period. Results showed that none of the previously proposed models outlining the temporal relations of burnout dimensions were supported. Statistical analysis of the models including the cross-lagged predictions of dimensions did not have any statistically significant impact except when exhaustion negatively predicted devaluation between time 1 (month 0) and time 2 (month 6) in the 18-month sample; this relation faded in the following time points. Further, issues regarding the stability of devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment emerged as their autocorrelation were very weak in the time-intensive sample. These findings raise a number of points for further theoretical and practical discussions about the athlete burnout construct.

  • 19.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Northumbria University, UK.
    What is missing and why it is missing from coach burnout research2016In: The psychology of effective coaching and management / [ed] Paul A. Davis, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016, p. 407-428Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of burnout in sports has been the focus of research attention for several decades, although research has largely centered on the antecedents and consequences associated with athlete burnout. Currently, a limited number of studies have examined coach burnout and the implications it can have on the coaching process, social interactions, and general wellbeing. The professionalization of coaching has promoted the development of effective coaching yet it has also increased job demands and the potential for work-family conflict. In this chapter we provide a brief introduction to the burnout construct as well as a short review of the coach burnout research to date. Further, suggestions are outlined for how the authors foresee that research in the area will evolve in the future. Specifically, the use of theoretical frameworks that advance knowledge of burnout and promote diverse lines of inquiry are forwarded. Additionally, the use of more idiocratic quantitative designs with more frequent measurement across multiple time points are proposed in an effort to advance knowledge of coach burnout. Finally, we offer applied suggestions for burnout prevention and optimization of the wellbeing of coaches.

  • 20.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Geography and Sustainable development, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom .
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, United Kingdom .
    Hassmén, Peter
    School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Australia .
    Workaholism, home-work/work-home interference, and exhaustion among sport coaches2016In: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 222-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to (a) examine the associations between workaholismand work-related exhaustion and (b) examine associations between work–home/home–work interference and work-related exhaustion in 261 Swedish coaches.Quantile regression showed that workaholism is only associated with exhaustionfor coaches who score high on exhaustion, that negative work–home interferencehas a stronger association with exhaustion than negative home–work interference,and that the coaches on a mean level scored low on all measured constructs. Inaddition, coaches in the higher percentiles have a higher risk for burnout. Ourresults highlight the importance of studying coach exhaustion with respect toaspects that extend beyond the sports life.

  • 21.
    Slawinska, Malgorzata M.
    et al.
    Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK.
    Papaioannou, Athanasios G.
    University of Northumbria, UK; University of Thessaly, Greece.
    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L.D.
    Curtin University, School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Australia.
    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis
    University of Thessaly, Greece.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    On the relativistic nature of predicted and real physical experiences: A field experiment2015In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 16, p. 106-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:An important yet unresolved question stemming from judgment and decision-makingliterature is whether individuals evaluate physical experiences in relative or absolute terms.Design and method:The study examined 181 experienced basketball players in a 2 (type of experience:predicted versus real) x 2 (evaluation mode: separate versus joint) x 2 (type of activity: running versusshooting) experimental research design.Results:We demonstrated that individuals who were familiar with physical tasks evaluated predictedand real physical experiences in absolute terms. In addition, we showed that relativistic modes ofevaluation applied to real physical experiences but not predicted physical experiences.Conclusions:This research contributes to the debate concerning whether prior task experience in-fluences formation of relative evaluations, and reveals that contexts that urge for relative evaluationsundermine happiness with physical tasks.

  • 22.
    Woodman, Tim
    et al.
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Department of Sport Development, University of Northumbria, UK.
    The Role of Repression in the Incidence of Ironic Errors2008In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, ISSN 08884781, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 183-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of repression in the incidence of ironic errors was investigated on a golf task. Coping styles of novice golfers were determined using measures of cognitive anxiety and physiological arousal. Following baseline putts, participants (n = 58) performed a competition putt with the opportunity to win UK£50 (approx. US$100). Before completing the competition putt participants were instructed to “land the ball on the target, but be particularly careful not to over-shoot the target.” The distance the ball traveled past the hole formed the measure of ironic effects. Probing of the coping style × condition interaction, F(2, 41) = 6.53, p < .005, revealed that only the repressors incurred a significant increase in ironic error for the competition putt. This suggests that the act of repressing anxiety has a detrimental performance effect.

  • 23.
    Woodman, Tim
    et al.
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Development, University of Northumbria, UK.
    Hardy, Lew
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Callow, Nichola
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Glasscock, Ian
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Yuill-Proctor, Jason
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Emotions and sport performance: An exploration of happiness, hope and anger2009In: Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 08952779, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 169-188Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted three experiments to examine the relationships between emotions and subcomponents of performance. Experiment 1 revealed that anger was associated with enhanced gross muscular peak force performance but that happiness did not influence grammatical reasoning performance. Following Lazarus (1991, 2000a), we examined hope rather than happiness in Experiment 2. As hypothesized, hope yielded faster soccer-related reaction times in soccer players. Experiment 3 was an examination of extraversion as a moderator of the anger-performance relationship. When angry, extraverts' peak force increased more than introverts'. Results are discussed and future research directions are offered in relation to Lazarus's framework.

1 - 23 of 23
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