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  • 1.
    Cerveny, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zátiší 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany, Czech Republic.
    Brodin, T.
    Cisar, P.
    McCallum, E. S.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bioconcentration and behavioral effects of four benzodiazepines and their environmentally relevant mixture in wild fish2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 702, article id 134780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the adverse effects of four benzodiazepines frequently measured in European surface waters. We evaluated bioaccumulation potential of oxazepam, bromazepam, temazepam, and clobazam in freshwater fish species - perch (Perca fluviatilis) and we conducted a series of behavioral trials to assess their potential to alter boldness, activity, and social behavior. All selected endpoints were studied individually for each target benzodiazepine and as a mixture of all tested compounds to assess possible combinatory effects. We used a three-dimensional automated tracking system to quantify the fish behavior. The four compounds bioconcentrated differently in fish muscle (temazepam > clobazam > oxazepam > bromazepam) at high exposure (9.1, 6.9, 5.7, 8.1 mu g L-1, respectively) and low exposure (0.5, 0.5, 0.3, 0.4 mu g L-1, respectively) concentrations. A significant amount of oxazepam was also measured in fish exposed to temazepam, most likely because of the metabolic transformation of temazepam within the fish. Bromazepam, temazepam, and clobazam significantly affected fish behavior at high concentration, while no statistically significant changes were registered for oxazepam. The studied benzodiazepines affected behavior in combination, because the mixture treatment significantly changed several important behavioral traits even at low concentration, while no single compound exposure had such an effect at that dose. Based on our results, we conclude that effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic environments could be underestimated if risk assessments only rely on the evaluation of single compounds. More studies focused on the combinatory effects of environmentally relevant mixtures of pharmaceuticals are necessary to fill the gaps in this knowledge. 

  • 2.
    Cerveny, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Vodnany, Czech Republic.
    Grabic, Roman
    Fedorova, Ganna
    Grabicova, Katerina
    Turek, Jan
    Zlabek, Vladimir
    Randak, Tomas
    Fate of perfluoroalkyl substances within a small stream food web affected by sewage effluent2018In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 134, p. 226-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fate of fourteen target perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are described within a small stream affected by a sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. Concentrations of target PFASs in samples of water, benthic macroinvertebrates and brown trout (Salmo trutta) are presented. Two hundred brown trout individuals originating from clean sites within the same stream were tagged and stocked into an experimental site affected by the STP's effluent. As a passive sampling approach, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed in the water to reveal the water-macroinvertebrates-fish biotransformation processes of PFASs. Bioconcentration/bioaccumulation of target compounds was monitored one, three, and six months after stocking. Twelve of the fourteen target PFASs were found in concentration above the LOQ in at least one of the studied matrices. The compound pattern varied significantly between both the studied species and water samples. Concerning the accumulation of PFASs in fish, the highest concentrations were found in the liver of individuals sampled after three months of exposure. These concentrations rapidly decreased after six months although the water concentrations were slightly increasing during experiment.

  • 3.
    McCallum, Erin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Cerveny, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Slow-Release Implants for Manipulating Contaminant Exposures in Aquatic Wildlife: A New Tool for Field Ecotoxicology2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 14, p. 8282-8290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field-based ecotoxicology studies are invaluable for uncovering the effects of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) on aquatic organisms. However, large-scale exposures are still very rare due to prohibitive costs, the availability of replicated habitats, and the potential for exposure to cause lasting damage to the environment. Here, we evaluated the viability of internal slow-release implants as an alternative method for manipulating CEC exposures in aquatic wildlife using two fat-based carriers (coconut oil and vegetable shortening). We treated roach (Rutilus rutilus) with implants containing a high (50 mu g/g), low (25 mu g/g), or control (0 mu g/g) concentration of the behavior-modifying pharmaceutical oxazepam. We then measured oxazepam uptake in four tissues (plasma, muscle, liver, and the brain) over 1 month. The two carriers released oxazepam differently: coconut oil was the superior implant type because it delivered a more consistent dose across time, while vegetable shortening released oxazepam rapidly at the start of the exposure period. For both carriers and treatments, the brain and liver contained the most oxazepam. Overall, the method is a promising technique for controlled manipulations of pharmaceuticals in fish, and we have provided some of the first data on the suitability and contaminant release kinetics from different implant types.

  • 4. Vossen, Laura E.
    et al.
    Cerveny, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Faculty of Fisheries and Protectionof Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Vodňany, Czech Republic.
    Österkrans, Marcus
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Jutfelt, Fredrik
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Winberg, Svante
    Chronic Exposure to Oxazepam Pollution Produces Tolerance to Anxiolytic Effects in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)2020In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 1760-1769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concentrations of the anxiolytic drug oxazepam have been found to disrupt antipredator behaviors of wild fish. Most experiments exposed fish for a week, while evidence from mammals suggests that chronic exposure to therapeutic concentrations of benzodiazepines (such as oxazepam) results in the development of tolerance to the anxiolytic effects. If tolerance can also develop in response to the low concentrations found in the aquatic environment, it could mitigate the negative effects of oxazepam pollution. In the current study, we exposed wild-caught zebrafish to oxazepam (similar to 7 mu g L-1) for 7 or 28 days and evaluated behavioral and physiological parameters at both time points. Females showed reduced diving responses to conspecific alarm pheromone after 7 days, but not after 28 days, indicating that they had developed tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of the drug. Zebrafish males were not affected by this oxazepam concentration, in line with earlier results. Serotonin turnover (ratio 5-HIAA/5-HT) was reduced in exposed females and males after 28 days, indicating that brain neurochemistry had not normalized. Post-confinement cortisol concentrations and gene expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) were not affected by oxazepam. We did not find evidence that chronically exposed fish had altered relative expression of GABA A receptor subunits, suggesting that some other still unknown mechanism caused the developed tolerance.

  • 5. Vossen, Laura E.
    et al.
    Červeny, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Umeå, Sweden; University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zátiší 728/II, 389 25 Vodňany, Czech Republic.
    Sen Sarma, Oly
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Jutfelt, Fredrik
    Fick, Jerker
    Brodin, Tomas
    Winberg, Svante
    Low concentrations of the benzodiazepine drug oxazepam induce anxiolytic effects in wild-caught but not in laboratory zebrafish2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 703, article id 134701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollution by psychoactive pharmaceuticals has been found to disrupt anti-predator behaviors of wild fish. The challenge is now to identify which of the many psychoactive drugs pose the greatest threat. One strategy is to screen for behavioral effects of selected pharmaceuticals using a single, widely available fish species such as zebrafish. Here, we show that although such high-throughput behavioral screening might facilitate comparisons between pharmaceuticals, the choice of strain is essential. While wild-caught zebrafish exposed to concentrations of the anxiolytic drug oxazepam as low as 0.57 μg L−1 showed a reduction in the response to conspecific alarm pheromone, laboratory strain AB did not respond to the alarm cue, and consequently, the anxiolytic effect of oxazepam could not be measured. Adaptation to the laboratory environment may have rendered laboratory strains unfit for use in some ecotoxicological and pharmacological studies, since the results might not translate to wild fish populations.

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