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  • 1.
    Khodabakhsh, Amir
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Rutkowski, Lucile
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Morville, Jerome
    Johansson, Alexandra C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Soboń, Grzegorz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Faculty of Electronics, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław, Poland.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Cavity-Enhanced Continuous-Filtering Vernier Spectroscopy at 3.3 mu m using a Femtosecond Optical Parametric Oscillator2017In: 2017 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS EUROPE & EUROPEAN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS CONFERENCE (CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC), IEEE , 2017, p. CH_2_2-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared fingerprint region combines broad spectral bandwidth with high detection sensitivity and allows simultaneous detection of trace amounts of many molecular species. We have recently demonstrated a continuous-filtering Vernier spectrometer based on a mid-infrared optical frequency comb and an enhancement cavity for fast and sensitive detection of CH4 [1]. Here we present an improved, fully automatized and frequency calibrated continuous-filtering Vernier spectrometer, schematically shown in Fig. 1(a). The comb source is a doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (DROPO) based on an orientation-patterned GaAs crystal synchronously pumped by a Tm:fiber femtosecond laser (125 MHz repetition rate, frep). The signal comb (3.1–3.4 µm, 30 mW) is mode matched to a 60-cm long Vernier enhancement cavity with a finesse of ~350 at 3.25 μm, placed in an enclosure that can be filled with the gas sample. The output mirror is attached to a PZT and mounted on a translation stage. When the cavity free spectral range is perfectly matched to twice the frep (250 MHz) every other signal comb mode is transmitted through the cavity. By detuning the cavity length from this perfect match position the cavity resonances act as a filter and transmit groups of comb modes called Vernier orders [2]. A diffraction grating mounted on a galvo-scanner separates these orders after the cavity and the chosen order is sent to the detection system. The Vernier order is tuned across the signal comb spectrum by scanning the cavity length (at 20 Hz) and the grating is rotated synchronously to fix the order in space and allow acquisition of the entire spectrum in 25 ms. Any residual mismatch between the cavity length scan and the grating rotation is compensated by a feedback loop acting on the frep of the pump laser and the PZT of the Vernier cavity [2]. A Fabry-Perot etalon is used for frequency calibration of the spectrometer. Figure 1(b) shows in black the normalized transmission spectrum of a sample containing 5.0 ppm CH4 and 160 ppm water. The red and blue curves show the corresponding fit of the Vernier spectrum [3] of CH4 and water, respectively, calculated using Voigt profiles, line parameters from the HITRAN database, and the experimentally determined cavity finesse. The figure of merit of the spectrometer is 1×10−9cm−1 Hz−1∕2 per spectral element and multiline fitting yields minimum detectable concentration of CH4 of 2 ppb in 25 ms, translating into 400 ppt Hz−1∕2 Since the spectrum of the signal comb covers the fundamental C-H stretch transitions we expect low detection limits for other hydrocarbons as well. In conclusion, mid-infrared comb-based continuous-filtering Vernier spectroscopy allows fast and highly sensitive measurement of broadband absorption spectra using a robust and compact detection system.

  • 2.
    Khodabakhsh, Amir
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Rutkowski, Lucile
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Morville, Jérôme
    Johansson, Alexandra C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Soboń, Grzegorz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Faculty of Electronics, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław, Poland.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Continuous-Filtering Vernier Spectroscopy at 3.3 mu m Using a Femtosecond Optical Parametric Oscillator2017In: 2017 conference on lasers and elecro-optics (CLEO): Science and innovations, IEEE , 2017, article id SW1L.5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a cavity-enhanced continuous-filtering Vernier spectrometer based on a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator we measure broadband spectra of atmospheric water and CH4 around 3.3 mu m reaching 4 ppb detection limit for CH4 in 15 ms.

  • 3.
    Sobon, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Laser & Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electronics, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland.
    Martynkien, Tadeusz
    Mergo, Pawel
    Rutkowski, Lucile
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    High-power frequency comb source tunable from 2.7 to 4.2 mu m based on difference frequency generation pumped by an Yb-doped fiber laser2017In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 1748-1751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a broadband mid-infrared (MIR) frequency comb source based on difference frequency generation (DFG) in periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. MIR radiation is obtained via mixing of the output of a 125 MHz repetition rate Yb-doped fiber laser with Raman-shifted solitons generated from the same source in a highly nonlinear fiber. The resulting idler is tunable in the range of 2.7-4.2 mu m, with average output power reaching 237 mW and pulses as short as 115 fs. The coherence of the MIR comb is confirmed by spectral interferometry and heterodyne beat measurements. Applicability of the developed DFG source for laser spectroscopy is demonstrated by measuring absorption spectrum of acetylene at 3.0-3.1 mu m. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America

  • 4.
    Soboń, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Faculty of Electronics, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland .
    Martynkien, Tadeusz
    Mergo, Pawel
    Marangoni, Marco
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    High-power broadband source tunable from 2.8 to 4 μm based on difference frequency generation2017In: 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC), IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mid-infrared (MIR) frequency comb sources enable high-speed and accurate detection of various species, since many molecules possess their fingerprints in this wavelength range. Usually, broadband radiation in this spectral region is obtained from optical parametric oscillators (OPOs), which provide high output power and broad tuning capabilities [1]. However, OPO sources require locking of the cavity to the pumping oscillator, which increases the complexity. MIR sources based on difference frequency generation (DFG) are interesting alternatives to OPOs, due to their simplicity, single-pass configuration, broad tunability, and fully passive cancellation of the carrier-envelope offset in the generated idler pulses. However, the conversion efficiency of the DFG process is usually insufficient to reach the output power levels easily achieved in OPO systems. Here, we demonstrate a widely tunable DFG source based on a mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser, with average MIR output power reaching 165 mW, which is more than in previous reports on similar DFG systems [2,3].

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