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  • 1.
    Fahlman, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Using laboratory incubations to predict the fate of pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems2018Ingår i: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 15, nr 8, s. 463-471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental contextEnvironmental persistence of excreted pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems is usually predicted using small-scale laboratory experiments assumed to simulate natural conditions. We studied five pharmaceuticals comparing their removal rates from water under laboratory conditions and under natural environmental conditions existing in a large pond. We found that the laboratory conditions did not fully capture the complexity within the pond, which led to different removal rates in the two systems. AbstractEnvironmental persistence is a key property when evaluating risks with excreted pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems. Such persistence is typically predicted using small-scale laboratory incubations, but the variation in aquatic environments and scarcity of field studies to verify laboratory-based persistence estimates create uncertainties around the predictive power of these incubations. In this study we: (1) assess the persistence of five pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, trimethoprim and oxazepam) in laboratory experiments under different environmental conditions; and (2) use a three-month-long field study in an aquatic ecosystem to verify the laboratory-based persistence estimates. In our laboratory assays, we found that water temperature (TEMP), concentrations of organic solutes (TOC), presence of sediment (SED), and solar radiation (SOL) individually affected dissipation rates. Moreover, we identified rarely studied interaction effects between the treatments (i.e. SOLxSED and TEMPxSOL), which affected the persistence of the studied drugs. Half-lives obtained from the laboratory assays largely explained the dissipation rates during the first week of the field study. However, none of the applied models could accurately predict the long-term dissipation rates (month time-scale) from the water column. For example, the studied antibioticum (trimethoprim) and the anti-anxiety drug (oxazepam) remained at detectable levels in the aquatic environment long after (similar to 150 days) our laboratory based models predicted complete dissipation. We conclude that small-scale laboratory incubations seem sufficient to approximate the short-term (i.e. within a week) dissipation rate of drugs in aquatic ecosystems. However, this simplistic approach does not capture interacting environmental processes that preserve a fraction of the dissolved pharmaceuticals for months in natural water bodies.

  • 2.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergman, Eva
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Drug-Induced Behavioral Changes: Using Laboratory Observations to Predict Field Observations2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 4, artikel-id 81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral assays constitute important research tools when assessing how fish respond to environmental change. However, it is unclear how behavioral modifications recorded in laboratory assays are expressed in natural ecosystems, a limitation that makes it difficult to evaluate the predictive power of laboratory-based measurements. In this study, we hypothesized that exposure to a benzodiazepine (i.e., oxazepam) increases boldness and activity in laboratory assays as well as in field assays – that is, laboratory results can be used to predict field results. Moreover, we expected the modified behavior to affect other important ecological measures such as habitat selection and home range. To test our hypothesis, we exposed European perch (Perca fluviatilis) to oxazepam and measured subsequent changes in behavioral trials both in laboratory assays and in a lake ecosystem populated with a predatory fish species, pike (Esox lucius). In the lake, the positions of both perch and pike were tracked every three minutes for a month using acoustic telemetry. In the laboratory assay, the oxazepam-exposed perch were bolder and more active than the non-exposed perch. In the lake assay, the oxazepam-exposed perch were also more bold and active, had a larger home range, and used pelagic habitats more than the non-exposed perch. We conclude that ecotoxicological behavioral assays are useful for predicting the effects of exposure in natural systems. However, although individual responses to exposure were similar in both the laboratory and field trials, effects were more obvious in the field study, mainly due to reduced variability in the behavior measures from the lake. Hence, short-term behavioral assays may fail to detect all the effects expressed in natural environments. Nevertheless, our study clearly demonstrates that behavior modifications observed in laboratory settings can be used to predict how fish perform in aquatic ecosystems. 

  • 3.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Leander, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Less anxious salmon smolt become easy prey during downstream migration2019Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 687, s. 488-493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hatchery-reared salmon smolt used for supplementary stocking often display poor migration behavior compared to wild smolt, which reduces the success of this management action. Oxazepam, an anxiolytic drug, has been shown to intensify salmon smolt migration in mesocosm experiments, and treatment with this drug has, therefore, been suggested as a management option to improve downstream smolt migration. In this study, we tested this by assessing migration performance of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt along a 21-km long natural river-to-sea migration route in a boreal river in Northern Sweden. Using acoustic telemetry, the migration rate and survival of smolt that had been exposed to oxazepam (200 mu g L-1, N = 20) was monitored and compared with a control group (N = 20) of unexposed smolt. Exposed smolt took significantly longer time to initiate migration after release compared to the control fish, but after that we observed no significant difference in downstream migration speed. However, exposed smolt had considerably higher probability of being predated on compared to control smolt. We attribute these results to increased risk-taking and higher activity in oxazepam-exposed smolt, which in turn increased initial non-directional exploratory behavior and decreased predator vigilance. These results are discussed based on current concerns for ecological implications of behavioral modifications induced by pharmaceutical pollution and climate change. We conclude that exposure to oxazepam is an unsuitable management option to prime migration of reared salmon in natural systems.

  • 4.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    No evidence of increased growth or mortality in fish exposed to oxazepam in semi-natural ecosystems2018Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 615, s. 608-614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of short-term laboratory studies on fish reports behavioral effects from exposure to aquatic contaminants or raised carbon dioxide levels affecting the GABAAreceptor. However, how such GABAergic behavioral modifications (GBMs) impact populations in more complex natural systems is not known. In this study, we induced GBMs in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) via exposure to a GABA agonist (oxazepam) and followed the effects on growth and survival over one summer (70 days) in replicated pond ecosystems. We hypothesized that anticipated GBMs, expressed as anti-anxiety like behaviors (higher activity and boldness levels), that increase feeding rates in laboratory assays, would; i) increase growth and ii) increase mortality from predation. To test our hypotheses, 480 PIT tagged perch of known individual weights, and 12 predators (northern pike, Esox lucius) were evenly distributed in 12 ponds; six control (no oxazepam) and six spiked (15.5 ± 4 μg l− 1 oxazepam [mean ± 1 S.E.]) ponds. Contrary to our hypotheses, even though perch grew on average 16% more when exposed to oxazepam, we found no significant difference between exposed and control fish in growth (exposed: 3.9 ± 1.2 g, control: 2.9 ± 1 g [mean ± 1 S.E.], respectively) or mortality (exposed: 26.5 ± 1.8 individuals pond− 1, control: 24.5 ± 2.6 individuals pond− 1, respectively). In addition, we show that reduced prey capture efficiency in exposed pike may explain the lack of significant differences in predation. Hence, our results suggest that GBMs, which in laboratory studies impact fish behavior, and subsequently also feeding rates, do not seem to generate strong effects on growth and predation-risk in more complex and resource limited natural environments.

  • 5.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bioaccumulation of five pharmaceuticals at multiple trophic levels in an aquatic food web: Insights from a field experiment2016Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 568, s. 208-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals derived from manufacturing and human consumption contaminate surface waters worldwide. To what extent such pharmaceutical contamination accumulates and disperses over time in different compartments of aquatic food webs is not well known. In this study we assess to what extent five pharmaceuticals (diphenhydramine, oxazepam, trimethoprim, diclofenac, and hydroxyzine) are taken up by fish (European perch) and four aquatic invertebrate taxa (damselfly larvae, mayfly larvae, waterlouse, and ramshorn snail), by tracing their bioconcentrations over several months in a semi-natural large-scale (pond) system. The results suggest both significant differences among drugs in their capacity to bioaccumulate and differences among species in uptake. While no support for in situ uptake of diclofenac and trimethoprim was found, oxazepam, diphenhydramine, and hydroxyzine were detected in all analyzed species. Here, the highest bioaccumulation factor (tissue:water ratio) was found for hydroxyzine. In the food web, the highest concentrations were found in the benthic species ramshorn snail and waterlouse, indicating that bottom-living organism at lower trophic positions are the prime receivers of the pharmaceuticals. In general, concentrations in the biota decreased over time in response to decreasing water concentrations. However, two interesting exceptions to this trend were noted. First, mayfly larvae (primarily grazers) showed peak concentrations (a fourfold increase) of oxazepam, diphenhydramine, and hydroxyzine about 30 days after initial addition of pharmaceuticals. Second, perch (top-predator) showed an increase in concentrations of oxazepam throughout the study period. Our results show that drugs can remain bioavailable for aquatic organism for long time periods (weeks to months) and even re-enter the food web at a later time. As such, for an understanding of accumulation and dispersion of pharmaceuticals in aquatic food webs, detailed ecological knowledge is required.

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