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  • 1.
    Flodbring Larsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Karlsson, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Division of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Translational Medicine, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sarwar, Martuza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Miftakhova, Regina R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wang, Tianyan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Khaja, Azharuddin Sajid Syed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Semenas, Julius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Chen, Sa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Hedblom, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Division of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Translational Medicine, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Amjad, Ali
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Ekström-Holka, Kristina
    Simoulis, Athanasios
    Kumar, Anjani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Gjörloff Wingren, Anette
    Robinson, Brian
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Mongan, Nigel P.
    Heery, David M.
    Öhlund, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Grundström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Ødum, Niels
    Persson, Jenny L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Division of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Translational Medicine, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    FcγRIIIa receptor interacts with androgen receptor and PIP5K1α to promote growth and metastasis of prostate cancer2022In: Molecular Oncology, ISSN 1574-7891, E-ISSN 1878-0261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-A (FcγRIIIa) is a cell surface protein that belongs to a family of Fc receptors that facilitate the protective function of the immune system against pathogens. However, the role of FcγRIIIa in prostate cancer (PCa) progression remained unknown. In this study, we found that FcγRIIIa expression was present in PCa cells and its level was significantly higher in metastatic lesions than in primary tumors from the PCa cohort (P = 0.006). PCa patients with an elevated level of FcγRIIIa expression had poorer biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival compared with those with lower FcγRIIIa expression, suggesting that FcγRIIIa is of clinical importance in PCa. We demonstrated that overexpression of FcγRIIIa increased the proliferative ability of PCa cell line C4-2 cells, which was accompanied by the upregulation of androgen receptor (AR) and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase alpha (PIP5Kα), which are the key players in controlling PCa progression. Conversely, targeted inhibition of FcγRIIIa via siRNA-mediated knockdown or using its inhibitory antibody suppressed growth of xenograft PC-3 and PC-3M prostate tumors and reduced distant metastasis in xenograft mouse models. We further showed that elevated expression of AR enhanced FcγRIIIa expression, whereas inhibition of AR activity using enzalutamide led to a significant downregulation of FcγRIIIa protein expression. Similarly, inhibition of PIP5K1α decreased FcγRIIIa expression in PCa cells. FcγRIIIa physically interacted with PIP5K1α and AR via formation of protein-protein complexes, suggesting that FcγRIIIa is functionally associated with AR and PIP5K1α in PCa cells. Our study identified FcγRIIIa as an important factor in promoting PCa growth and invasion. Further, the elevated activation of FcγRIII and AR and PIP5K1α pathways may cooperatively promote PCa growth and invasion. Thus, FcγRIIIa may serve as a potential new target for improved treatment of metastatic and castration-resistant PCa.

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  • 2.
    Grundström, Christine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Kumar, Anjani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Priya, Anshu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Negi, Neema
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Grundström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    ETS1 and PAX5 transcription factors recruit AID to Igh DNA2018In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 1687-1697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    B lymphocytes optimize antibody responses by class switch recombination (CSR), which changes the expressed constant region exon of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH), and by somatic hypermutation (SH) that introduces point mutations in the variable regions of the antibody genes. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the key mutagenic enzyme that initiates both these antibody diversification processes by deaminating cytosine to uracil. Here we asked the question if transcription factors can mediate the specific targeting of the antibody diversification by recruiting AID. We have recently reported that AID is together with the transcription factors E2A, PAX5 and IRF4 in a complex on key sequences of the Igh locus. Here we report that also ETS1 is together with AID in this complex on key sequences of the Igh locus in splenic B cells of mice. Furthermore, we show that both ETS1 and PAX5 can directly recruit AID to DNA sequences from the Igh locus with the specific binding site for the transcription factor. Taken together, our findings support the notion of a targeting mechanism for the selective diversification of antibody genes with limited genome wide mutagenesis by recruitment of AID by PAX5 and ETS1 in a transcription factor complex.

  • 3.
    Grundström, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Hauser, Jannek
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Grundström, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Kumar, Anjani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Priya, Anshu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Kumar, Ramesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Regulation of diversification and affinity maturation of antibodies2016In: International Journal of Molecular Medicine, ISSN 1107-3756, E-ISSN 1791-244X, Vol. 38, p. S43-S43Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Karlsson, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Division of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Malmö, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Miftakhova, Regina R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Genetics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia.
    Khaja, Azharuddin Sajid Syed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Sarwar, Martuza
    Semenas, Julius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Division of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Malmö, Sweden.
    Chen, Sa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Hedblom, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Division of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Malmö, Sweden.
    Wang, Tianyan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Ekström-Holka, Kristina
    Simoulis, Athanasios
    Kumar, Anjani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Ødum, Nils
    Grundström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Persson, Jenny L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Division of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Malmö, Sweden; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Establishment of Prostate Tumor Growth and Metastasis Is Supported by Bone Marrow Cells and Is Mediated by PIP5K1α Lipid Kinase2020In: Cancers, ISSN 2072-6694, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 2719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer cells facilitate growth and metastasis by using multiple signals from the cancer-associated microenvironment. However, it remains poorly understood whether prostate cancer (PCa) cells may recruit and utilize bone marrow cells for their growth and survival. Furthermore, the regulatory mechanisms underlying interactions between PCa cells and bone marrow cells are obscure. In this study, we isolated bone marrow cells that mainly constituted populations that were positive for CD11b and Gr1 antigens from xenograft PC-3 tumor tissues from athymic nu/nu mice. We found that the tumor-infiltrated cells alone were unable to form tumor spheroids, even with increased amounts and time. By contrast, the tumor-infiltrated cells together with PCa cells formed large numbers of tumor spheroids compared with PCa cells alone. We further utilized xenograft athymic nu/nu mice bearing bone metastatic lesions. We demonstrated that PCa cells were unable to survive and give rise to colony-forming units (CFUs) in media that were used for hematopoietic cell colony-formation unit (CFU) assays. By contrast, PC-3M cells survived when bone marrow cells were present and gave rise to CFUs. Our results showed that PCa cells required bone marrow cells to support their growth and survival and establish bone metastasis in the host environment. We showed that PCa cells that were treated with either siRNA for PIP5K1α or its specific inhibitor, ISA-2011B, were unable to survive and produce tumor spheroids, together with bone marrow cells. Given that the elevated expression of PIP5K1α was specific for PCa cells and was associated with the induced expression of VEGF receptor 2 in PCa cells, our findings suggest that cancer cells may utilize PIP5K1α-mediated receptor signaling to recruit growth factors and ligands from the bone marrow-derived cells. Taken together, our study suggests a new mechanism that enables PCa cells to gain proliferative and invasive advantages within their associated host microenvironment. Therapeutic interventions using PIP5K1α inhibitors may not only inhibit tumor invasion and metastasis but also enhance the host immune system.

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  • 5.
    Kumar, Anjani
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Do, Lan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Hellman, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Overexpression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and its relation to sex, inflammation and treatment2018In: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, ISSN 0392-856X, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 716-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multipotent cytokine involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. The present study aimed to investigate the MIF expression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared with controls and to examine associations between MIF and demographic and inflammation related factors in AS overall and stratified by sex.

    Methods: MIF in plasma was measured in a cohort of patients with AS from Northern Sweden (n= 155) and age- & sex-matched controls (n=151) using Human MIF Quantikine ELISA Kit (R&D). The patients were assessed with laboratory markers of inflammation, ASDAS-CRP, BASDAI, BASMI and BASFI. Comparisons were analyzed by T-test and associations by bivariate Pearson correlations.

    Results: The expression of MIF was significantly augmented in the AS patients (Mean 65.1 ng/ml±2.0 SEM) compared with the controls (Mean 42.0 ng/ml±2.1 SEM) (p<0.001), the difference was also found in sex stratified analyses. MIF had a weak negative correlation with age in AS (-0.144, p=0.07) but not in controls (-0.037, p=0.66). Stratified by sex, the inverse correlation with age was shown in the AS men only (-0.28, p=0.004). When analyzing MIF in different age-groups it was revealed that MIF was significantly higher in the men ≤50 years compared to the women with AS ≤50 years. Moreover, MIF was positively correlated with inflammation related variables; swollen joint count, ESR, hsCRP, thrombocytes and leukocytes. The expression of MIF was significantly increased in AS patients on cDMARDs with or without a biological drug, while NSAIDs, glucocorticosteriods or single therapy with a biological drug did not influence the MIF levels.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that MIF is overexpressed in AS patients. MIF was associated with inflammation and treatment and, in addition, sex seemed to have an impact on MIF plasma levels in the AS patients. MIF might be a potential biomarker for the development of new treatment-strategies in AS.

  • 6.
    Kumar, Anjani
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Manisha, --
    Sangha, Gurkamaljit Kaur
    Shrivastava, Anju
    Kaur, Jagdeep
    The immunosuppressive effects of a novel recombinant LipQ (Rv2485c) protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on human macrophage cell lines2017In: Microbial Pathogenesis, ISSN 0882-4010, E-ISSN 1096-1208, Vol. 107, p. 361-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), an intracellular pathogen, still represents a major global health challenge. A number of mycobacterial macromolecules have been shown to target biological processes within host macrophages; however, the exact mechanism for the majority of these host pathogen interactions is still poorly understood. Moreover, the lipid metabolic pathway is one of the most important physiologic pathways that plays a vital role in the survival and infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In present study, we investigated the effect of rLipQ from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv on macrophage functions invitro.Our results demonstrate that rLipQ significantly lowers the expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha& IFN-gamma) and augments the level of anti inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4 & IL-10as compared to LPS stimulated macrophages. An up-regulation of anti-inflammatory and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in rLipQ pretreated macrophages implies immuno-modulatory functions in TB patients. Interestingly, rLipQ also inhibited the expression of iNOS, TLR-2 and transcription factor NF-kB in LPS stimulated macrophages whereas the expression of TLR-4 remains unchanged. The inhibition in the expression of these signaling molecules has been correlated to the inhibition of NO production in macrophages. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that rLipQ is a novel lipase that is highly immunogenic and may play an important role in the virulence and pathogenesis of M.tuberculosis infection, by altering the balance of cytokines, which might help to assess prognosis and contribute to a better understanding against host-pathogen interactions.

  • 7.
    Kumar, Anjani
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Priya, Anshu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Ahmed, Tanzeel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Grundström, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Negi, Neema
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Grundström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Regulation of the DNA Repair Complex during Somatic Hypermutation and Class-Switch Recombination2018In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 200, no 12, p. 4146-4156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    B lymphocytes optimize Ab responses by somatic hypermutation (SH), which introduces pointmutations in the variable regions of the Ab genes and by class-switch recombination (CSR), which changes the expressed C region exon of the IgH. These Ab diversification processes are initiated by the deaminating enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase followed by many DNA repair enzymes, ultimately leading to deletions and a high mutation rate in the Ab genes, whereas DNA lesions made by activation-induced cytidine deaminase are repaired with low error rate on most other genes. This indicates an advanced regulation of DNA repair. In this study, we show that initiation of Ab diversification in B lymphocytes of mouse spleen leads to formation of a complex between many proteins in DNA repair. We show also thatBCR activation, which signals the end of successful SH, reduces interactions between some proteins in the complex and increases other interactions in the complex with varying kinetics. Furthermore, we show increased localization of SH-and CSR-coupled proteins on switch regions of the Igh locus upon initiation of SH/CSR and differential changes in the localization upon BCR signaling, which terminates SH. These findings provide early evidence for a DNA repair complex or complexes that may be of functional significance for carrying out essential roles in SH and/or CSR in B cells.

  • 8.
    Lejon, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hellman, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Do, Lan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Kumar, Anjani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Increased Proportion of TH17, TH22 and TC17 Cells and the Correlation to IL-22 and Clinical Parameters in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis from Northern Sweden2020In: Arthritis & Rheumatology, ISSN 2326-5191, E-ISSN 2326-5205, Vol. 72, article id 1858Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Purpose: Increased levels of TH17 and TH22 as well as TC17 and TC22 cells have previously been associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The correlation between these inflammatory T cell subsets and clinically relevant parameters as well as cytokines has also been reported. However, the status of these inflammatory cells in a well characterized AS cohort from northern Sweden has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to confirm the increased presence of inflammatory T cell subsets in peripheral blood of patients with AS from northern Sweden in relation to age and sex-matched controls. In addition, associations of clinically relevant parameters with the level of the inflammatory T cell subset(s) and cytokines of interest were performed.

    Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a cohort of 50 patients with AS from Region Västerbotten (Modif NY, mean age 52±9.1 years, 33 (66 %) men, 50 (100 %) HLAB27) and 50 pair wise matched blood donor controls (mean age 54±8.8 years, 33 (66 %) men) were stained with a combination of antibodies allowing for the detection of surface expressed CD45, CD3, CD4, CD8, intracellular IL-17 and IL-22 and analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, levels of IL-17 and IL-22 in plasma were determined by the Meso Scale Discovery platform. The patient with AS were examined with spinal x-ray for radiographic alterations assessed with mSASSS. CRP and ESR were measured and physical function and disease activity were registered with BASMI and BASFI respectively ASDAS-CRP and BASDAI.

    Results: Pair wise comparison of AS patients and controls showed a 1,5 to 2-fold increase of TH17, TH22 and TC22 cells among CD45+CD3+ lymphocytes in PBMCs of male patients (p=0,013, p=0,003 and p=0,024 respectively). Levels of IL-22 in plasma and proportion of TC17 correlated in male patients (Rs=0,499 p=0,003) and plasma levels of IL10 showed an inverse correlation in relation to TC17 in all patients (Rs=-0,276 p=0,05). In female AS patients there was a negative correlation between TC22 and CRP (Rs = -0,573, p=0,016). In addition, after splitting the group of female into pre- and postmenopausal correlation between TC17 and mSASSS (Rs = 0,845, p=0,034), TC22 and BASFI (Rs = 0,986, p=0,0003) (premenopausal) and TC22 and BASMI (Rs = 0,764, p=0,006) (postmenopausal) was observed.

    Conclusion: We confirm an increased proportion of TH17, TH22 and TC17 cells in blood in AS male patients from northern Sweden. In addition, positive correlation of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-22 and negative correlation of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in relation to TC17 corroborate the influence of these cells in the disease process. Interestingly, in female AS patients there was a correlation between clinical relevant parameters to particular inflammatory T cell subset dependent on the menopausal status, suggesting a role of female sex hormones in AS pathogenesis.

  • 9.
    Lejon, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Hellman, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Do, Lan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Kumar, Anjani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg Gothenburg Sweden.
    Increased proportions of inflammatory T cells and their correlations with cytokines and clinical parameters in patients with ankylosing spondylitis from northern Sweden2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 96, no 3, article id e13190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune disease affecting parts of the skeletal structure in particular. Previously increased levels of the inflammatory cell types Th17, Th22, Tc17 and Tc22 cells have been shown to be associated with AS. Here, we analysed the levels of inflammatory T cell subsets, related cytokines and clinical characteristics of AS patients vs controls from northern Sweden. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 50 AS patients and 50 matched controls were short term stimulated with PMA/Ionomycin, stained and analysed by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of Interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, IL-10 as well as clinically relevant markers were determined. Compared to male controls, male AS patients showed 1.5- to 2-fold increases of Th17 (P = .013), Th22 (P = .003) and Tc22 (P = .024) among CD45+CD3+ lymphocytes. Plasma IL-22 levels correlated with the Tc17 proportion in male patients (Rs = 0.499, P = .003) and plasma IL-10 levels were inversely correlated with Tc17 among all patients (Rs = −0.276, P = .05). Male patients with syndesmophytes showed significantly higher Th17 proportions (P = .038). In female AS patients, Tc22 was negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (high sensitivity) (hsCRP) (Rs = −0.573, P = .016). We confirmed increased proportions of inflammatory T cells and correlations with relevant cytokines from male AS patients. The correlation between Th17 and syndesmophytes supports a role of Th17 in the pathogenic process.

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  • 10.
    Lejon, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Hellman, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Kumar, Anjani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Decreased levels of T follicular helper (CD4+CXCR5+) cells and CD27+CD38+ and CD27+CD38− B cells in ankylosing spondylitis patients correlate with markers of inflammation2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 97, no 1, article id e13235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to study CD4+CXCR5+ T follicular helper (TFH) cells, CD27+CD38+ plasmablasts and CD27+CD38− memory B cells, as well as disease-related factors in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) from northern Sweden. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 50 patients with AS (mean age 52 ± 9 years, 66% men, 100% HLA-B27 positive) and 50 pairwise matched blood donor controls (mean age 54 ± 9 years, 66% men) were stained with antibodies for CD27, CD38, CD19, CD3, CD4 and CXCR5 markers and analysed by flow cytometry. Patients with AS were examined with spinal x-ray for radiographic alterations (mSASSS), and plasma levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, as well as selected proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines were determined. Physical mobility, function and disease activity were registered by BASMI, BASFI and ASDAS-CRP, BASDAI, respectively. Comparing AS patients and controls pairwise, we observed a 56% reduction of TFH cells in PBMCs from AS patients (P =.000008). Furthermore, a 20%-30% reduction in plasmablasts and B memory cells (P ≤.002 and P ≤.007, respectively) was observed. In female patients, negative correlations between ESR and TFH, plasmablasts and B memory cells were observed; Rs = −0.551, P ≤.02; Rs = −0.476, P ≤.05 and Rs = −0.522, P ≤.03, respectively. In addition, positive correlations between the regulatory cytokine IL-10 and the proportion of B cells, IL-22, and the proportion of plasmablasts as well as a negative correlation between levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and TFH were detected. Our observations indicate a role of an aberrant humoral immune response related to inflammation in AS.

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