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  • 1.
    Quam, Vivian G M
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, USA.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Quam, Mikkel B M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lucas, Rebekah A I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK.
    Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Health Co-Benefits: A Structured Review of Lifestyle-Related Climate Change Mitigation Strategies2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 468Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first structured review to identify and summarize research on lifestyle choices that improve health and have the greatest potential to mitigate climate change. Two literature searches were conducted on: (1) active transport health co-benefits, and (2) dietary health co-benefits. Articles needed to quantify both greenhouse gas emissions and health or nutrition outcomes resulting from active transport or diet changes. A data extraction tool (PRISMA) was created for article selection and evaluation. A rubric was devised to assess the biases, limitations and uncertainties of included articles. For active transport 790 articles were retrieved, nine meeting the inclusion criteria. For diet 2524 articles were retrieved, 23 meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 31 articles were reviewed and assessed using the rubric, as one article met the inclusion criteria for both active transport and diet co-benefits. Methods used to estimate the effect of diet or active transport modification vary greatly precluding meta-analysis. The scale of impact on health and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) outcomes depends predominately on the aggressiveness of the diet or active transport scenario modelled, versus the modelling technique. Effective mitigation policies, infrastructure that supports active transport and low GHGE food delivery, plus community engagement are integral in achieving optimal health and GHGE outcomes. Variation in culture, nutritional and health status, plus geographic density will determine which mitigation scenario(s) best suit individual communities.

  • 2. Sang, Shaowei
    et al.
    Liu-Helmersson, Jing
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Quam, Mikkel B. M.
    Zhou, Hongning
    Guo, Xiaofang
    Wu, Haixia
    Liu, Qiyong
    The evolutionary dynamics of DENV 4 genotype I over a 60-year period2019In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 13, no 7, article id e0007592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV 4) has had a relatively low prevalence worldwide for decades; however, likely due to data paucity, no study has investigated the epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of DENV 4 genotype I (DENV 4-I). This study aims to understand the diversity, epidemiology and dynamics of DENV 4-I. We collected 404 full length DENV4-1 envelope (E) gene sequences from 14 countries using two sources: Yunnan Province in China (15 strains during 2013-2016) and GenBank (489 strains up to 2018-01-11). Conducting phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses, we estimated the virus spread, population dynamics, and selection pressures using different statistical analysis methods (substitution saturation, likelihood mapping, Bayesian coalescent inference, and maximum likelihood estimation). Our results show that during the last 60 years (1956-2016), DENV 4-I was present in mainland and maritime Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, the southern provinces of China, parts of Brazil and Australia. The recent spread of DENV 4-I likely originated in the Philippines and later spread to Thailand. From Thailand, it spread to adjacent countries and eventually the Indian subcontinent. Apparently diverging around years 1957, 1963, 1976 and 1990, the different Clades (Clade I-V) were defined. The mean overall evolution rate of DENV 4-I was 9.74 (95% HPD: 8.68-10.82) x 10(-4) nucleotide substitutions/site/year. The most recent common ancestor for DENV 4-I traces back to 1956. While the demographic history of DENV 4-I fluctuated, peaks appeared around 1982 and 2006. While purifying selection dominated the majority of E-gene evolution of DENV 4-I, positive selection characterized Clade III (Vietnam). DENV 4-I evolved in situ in Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Thailand and Indian acted as the main and secondary virus distribution hubs globally and regionally. Our phylogenetic analysis highlights the need for strengthened regional cooperation on surveillance and sharing of sample sequences to improve global dengue control and cross-border transmission prevention efforts. Author summary Dengue virus (DENV) can be classified into four serotypes, DENV 1, 2, 3 and 4. Although DENV 4 is the first dengue serotype to diverge in phylogenetic analyses of the genus Flavivirus, this serotype occurs at a low prevalence worldwide and spreads the least rapidly. Similar to other serotypes, DENV 4 can also cause severe dengue (SD) disease manifestations, such as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). To date, no study has investigated the epidemiology and dynamics of DENV 4 genotype I comprehensively. In this study, we seek to address this gap. Our study shows that the distribution of DENV 4-I is mainly restricted to Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The most recent spread of DENV 4-I likely originated from Southeast Asia-initially circulating in the Philippines, then Thailand and later on the Indian subcontinent. Viruses evolved in situ in Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent, respectively. Although DENV 4-I occasionally spread elsewhere, this genotype did not become widely established. The overall evolution rate of DENV 4-I was comparable with that of DENV 2-4. The nucleotide sequences indicates that the demographic history of DENV 4-I fluctuated with peaks apparent during parts of the 1980s and 2000s. Although a weak positive selection existed in Clade III -predominately in Vietnam, purifying selection dominated the E-gene evolution of DENV 4-I.

  • 3. Thi Tuyet-Hanh, Tran
    et al.
    Nhat Cam, Nguyen
    Thi Thanh Huong, Le
    Khanh Long, Tran
    Mai Kien, Tran
    Thi Kim Hanh, Dang
    Huu Quyen, Nguyen
    Nu Quy Linh, Tran
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Quam, Mikkel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Climate Variability and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Hanoi, Viet Nam, During 2008 to 20152018In: Asia Pacific journal of public health, ISSN 1941-2479, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 532-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) has been an important public health challenge in Viet Nam and worldwide. This study was implemented in 2016-2017 using retrospective secondary data to explore associations between monthly DF/DHF cases and climate variables during 2008 to 2015. There were 48 175 DF/DHF cases reported, and the highest number of cases occurred in November. There were significant correlations between monthly DF/DHF cases with monthly mean of evaporation (r = 0.236, P < .05), monthly relative humidity (r = −0.358, P < .05), and monthly total hours of sunshine (r = 0.389, P < .05). The results showed significant correlation in lag models but did not find direct correlations between monthly DF/DHF cases and monthly average rainfall and temperature. The study recommended that health staff in Hanoi should monitor DF/DHF cases at the beginning of epidemic period, starting from May, and apply timely prevention and intervention measures to avoid the spreading of the disease in the following months. A larger scale study for a longer period of time and adjusting for other potential influencing factors could better describe the correlations, modelling/projection, and developing an early warning system for the disease, which is important under the impacts of climate change and climate variability.

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