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  • 1.
    Byenfeldt, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Influence of postural changes on shear wave elastography of the liverManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Byenfeldt, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sex-based differences in shear wave elastography of the liverManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Byenfeldt, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ultrasound based shear wave elastography of the liver: a non-invasive method for evaluation of liver disease2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Detecting liver disease at an early stage is important, given that early intervention decreases the risk of developing cirrhosis and subsequently hepatocellular cancer (HCC). The non-invasive ultrasound-based shear wave elastography (SWE) has been used clinically for a decade to assess liver stiffness. This method is reliable, rapid and can be performed in an outpatient setting without known risks for the patient. However, increased variance in SWE results has been detected, without clear explanation. Factors that affect SWE results needs to be identified. Data are insufficient regarding the reliability of SWE with different body positions and probe pressures. Men have higher SWE results than women, also for unclear reasons. Increasing the reliability of SWE is crucial for understanding how factors such as overweight and obesity, cardiovascular and antiviral medication, age, sex, smoking habits, hepatic steatosis and cirrhosis affect SWE results.

    Aims: The overall aim of the studies included in this thesis was to increase the reliability of SWE liver. The specific aims were to investigate patient-related factors associated with increased uncertainty in SWE results. Another aim was to investigate the influence of increased intercostal probe pressure on liver stiffness assessment with SWE liver.  The final aims were to investigate the influence of postural changes, sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and skin-to-liver capsule distance (SCD) on SWE results, along with sex-based differences for SWE results and cardiovascular medication.

    Methods: All enrolled participants in these studies were consecutive patients with various liver diseases presenting at the radiology department Östersunds Hospital. The patients were examined using SWE liver method at the ultrasound unit between April 2014 and May 2018. Inclusion criteria were that participants be adults (age ≥18 years) who had provided written consent for participating in the study. The exclusion criterion was an inability to communicate. Current guidelines for SWE of the liver were used in the thesis with the following exceptions: In study II, increased intercostal probe pressure was used, and in study III, postural change was used. Study I included 188 patients; study II included 112 patients, and studies III and IV involved 200 patients. The four studies were conducted as cross-sectional and clinical trial, using quantitative methods.

    Results: Factors associated with low variance for SWE results were age, sex, and presence of cirrhosis, the use of antiviral and/or cardiovascular medication, smoking habits, and body mass index.  Factors associated with increased uncertainty in SWE results were increased SCD and the presence of steatosis. With increased probe pressure SCD decreased and the quality of shear wave increased. The results showed that the number of required measurements can be reduced. A postural change to left decubitus decreased SCD. For patients with increased SAD and increased SWE result in the supine position, SWE result decreased with a postural change to left decubitus.  The SWE results, SCD and SAD significantly differed between women and men. SWE results was higher in the presence of increased SAD (≥23 cm) among men, but not among women.

    Conclusions:  SWE of the liver is a reliable, non-invasive method for diagnosing liver disease. Results in this thesis suggest that for patients with SCD ≥2.5 cm, shear wave measures could be of poor quality and the SWE exam less reliable. In these cases, increased probe pressure may facilitate a reliable SWE exam. With such adjustments in probe pressure, the ultrasound-based SWE method can be superior for examination in patients with overweight or obesity. An effect of SAD ≥23 cm was seen for men with liver fibrosis only, which may explain the higher SWE result for men compared to women. Depending on the severity of liver disease and SAD, a postural change to left decubitus can produce a different outcome. As SAD increased, liver stiffness did, as well. Increased SAD thus is linked to increased liver stiffness, indicating that SAD should be taken into account when performing SWE of the liver.

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  • 4.
    Byenfeldt, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Elvin, Anders
    Fransson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Influence of Probe Pressure on Ultrasound-Based Shear Wave Elastography of the Liver Using Comb-Push 2-D Technology2019In: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0301-5629, E-ISSN 1879-291X, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 411-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been postulated that in the liver, applying increased probe pressure during ultrasound-based shear wave elastography (SWE) might lead to a false increase in the SWE result. We aimed to determine the influence of increased intercostal probe pressure when performing SWE of the liver. We also investigated the number of measurements required to achieve technically successful and reliable SWE examinations. This prospective, clinical study included 112 patients and 2240 SWE measurements of the liver. We applied probe pressure intercostally, to reduce the skin-to-liver capsule distance (SCD), which could stabilize the SWE signal and thus increase the number of technically successful measurements. We performed 10 measurements with maximum probe pressure and 10 with normal pressure in each patient. Thus, two analysis groups were compared for differences. Compared with normal pressure, maximum probe pressure significantly reduced the SCD (p < 0.001) and significantly increased the number of technically successful measurements from 981 to 1098, respectively (p < 0.001). The SWE results with normal and maximum probe pressure were 5.96 kPa (interquartile range: 2.41) and 5.45 kPa (interquartile range: 1.96), respectively (p < 0.001). In obese patients, a large SCD poses a diagnostic challenge for ultrasound SWE. We found that maximum intercostal probe pressure could reduce the SCD and increase the number of technically successful measurements, without falsely increasing the SWE result. Only three measurements were required to achieve technically successful and reliable SWE examinations.

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  • 5.
    Byenfeldt, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Elvin, Anders
    Fransson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    On patient related factors and their impact on ultrasound-based shear wave elastography of the liver2018In: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0301-5629, E-ISSN 1879-291X, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 1606-1615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate patient-related factors associated with either reliable or poorly reliable measurement results of ultrasound-based shear wave elastography (SWE) of the liver. A total of 188 patients were analyzed prospectively with binary logistic regression using the interquartile range/median as cutoff to define two groups based on reliable and poorly reliable SWE results. SWE results correlated significantly with liver biopsy. Factors associated with reliable SWE results (i.e., no negative impact on measurements) were age, sex, cirrhosis, antiviral and/or cardiovascular medication, smoking habits and body mass index. Factors associated with poorly reliable SWE results were increased skin-to-liver capsule distance (odds ratio = 3.08, 95% confidence interval: 1.70-5.60) and steatosis (odds ratio =2.89, 95% confidence interval: 1.33-6.28). These findings indicate that the interquartile range/median as a quality parameter is useful in avoiding poorly reliable SWE results. How best to examine patients with increased skin-to-liver capsule distance is a matter of some controversy, as the incidences of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome are increasing worldwide; however, our results indicate that reliable SWE results can be obtained in this group of patients by using ultrasound-based SWE. (Email: marie.byenfeldt@umu.se, Marie.byenfeldt@aleris.se ) 

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  • 6.
    Byenfeldt, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Department of Radiology in Östersund, Östersund, Sweden; Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kihlberg, Johan
    Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Radiology in Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nasr, Patrik
    Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Grönlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Lindam, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Bartholomä, Wolf C
    Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Radiation Physics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Medical and Health Science in Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Altered probe pressure and body position increase diagnostic accuracy for men and women in detecting hepatic steatosis using quantitative ultrasound2024In: European Radiology, ISSN 0938-7994, E-ISSN 1432-1084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of ultrasound guided attenuation parameter (UGAP) for evaluating liver fat content with different probe forces and body positions, in relation to sex, and compared with proton density fat fraction (PDFF).

    Methods: We prospectively enrolled a metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) cohort that underwent UGAP and PDFF in the autumn of 2022. Mean UGAP values were obtained in supine and 30° left decubitus body position with normal 4 N and increased 30 N probe force. The diagnostic performance was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

    Results: Among 60 individuals (mean age 52.9 years, SD 12.9; 30 men), we found the best diagnostic performance with increased probe force in 30° left decubitus position (AUC 0.90; 95% CI 0.82–0.98) with a cut-off of 0.58 dB/cm/MHz. For men, the best performance was in supine (AUC 0.91; 95% CI 0.81–1.00) with a cut-off of 0.60 dB/cm/MHz, and for women, 30° left decubitus position (AUC 0.93; 95% CI 0.83–1.00), with a cut-off 0.56 dB/cm/MHz, and increased 30 N probe force for both genders. No difference was in the mean UGAP value when altering body position. UGAP showed good to excellent intra-reproducibility (Intra-class correlation 0.872; 95% CI 0.794–0.921).

    Conclusion: UGAP provides excellent diagnostic performance to detect liver fat content in metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver diseases, with good to excellent intra-reproducibility. Regardless of sex, the highest diagnostic accuracy is achieved with increased probe force with men in supine and women in 30° left decubitus position, yielding different cut-offs.

    Clinical relevance statement: The ultrasound method ultrasound-guided attenuation parameter shows excellent diagnostic accuracy and performs with good to excellent reproducibility. There is a possibility to alter body position and increase probe pressure, and different performances for men and women should be considered for the highest accuracy.

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