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  • 1.
    Jakobsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Commentary: Greek Yogurt and 12 Weeks of Exercise Training on Strength, Muscle Thickness and Body Composition in Lean, Untrained, University-Aged Males2019In: Frontiers in Nutrition, ISSN 2296-861X, Vol. 6, article id 137Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Jakobsson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Maximal Lactate Steady State and Lactate Thresholds in the Cross-Country Skiing Sub-Technique Double Poling2019In: International Journal of Exercise Science, ISSN 1939-795X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 57-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The response of blood lactate concentration (BLC) to exercise is a commonly used approach to set training intensities and to determine the anaerobic threshold, which are important in evaluation of endurance exercise performance. The maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) is defined as the highest workload or BLC that can be maintained without continual lactate accumulation over time. The aim of this study was to investigate MLSS in the cross-country skiing sub-technique double poling and to assess the validity of a fixed blood lactate threshold (OBLAand the 45° tangent of the lactate curve). Eight well-trained cross-country skiers (age = 27.6±8.8 years [mean±SD], body mass = 73.9±6.2 kg, height = 179.3±7.0 cm) performed an incremental test to determine OBLA and Individual Anaerobic Threshold (IAnT) and several constant workload tests of 30 min to determine the MLSS. Lactate concentration at MLSS in double poling was 6.7±1.3 mmol·L-1 which was significantly higher compared to OBLA(p<0.001) and IAnT (p<0.01). Despite significant correlations in velocities between MLSS-IAnT and MLSS-OBLA(r=0.95/0.95, p<0.001), significant (p<0.01) differences between MLSS (21.4±2.8 km·h-1) versus IAnT (20.6±3.6 km·h-1) and OBLA(19.9±3.0 km·h-1) was observed. It was concluded that both OBLA and IAnT underestimate MLSS in double poling. A fixed value of 7 mmol·L-1 would be more appropriate in lactate testing of cross-country skiers using the double poling technique, yet dissuaded because of intra-individual variations. Direct determination of MLSS is the recommended approach for useful exercise thresholds, important for training interventions in elite cross-country skiers.

  • 3.
    Malm, Christer B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Jakobsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Isaksson, Andreas
    Physical Activity and SportsReal Health Benefits: A Review with Insight into the Public Health of Sweden2019In: Sports, ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 127Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive effects from sports are achieved primarily through physical activity, but secondary effects bring health benefits such as psychosocial and personal development and less alcohol consumption. Negative effects, such as the risk of failure, injuries, eating disorders, and burnout, are also apparent. Because physical activity is increasingly conducted in an organized manner, sport's role in society has become increasingly important over the years, not only for the individual but also for public health. In this paper, we intend to describe sport's physiological and psychosocial health benefits, stemming both from physical activity and from sport participation per se. This narrative review summarizes research and presents health-related data from Swedish authorities. It is discussed that our daily lives are becoming less physically active, while organized exercise and training increases. Average energy intake is increasing, creating an energy surplus, and thus, we are seeing an increasing number of people who are overweight, which is a strong contributor to health problems. Physical activity and exercise have significant positive effects in preventing or alleviating mental illness, including depressive symptoms and anxiety- or stress-related disease. In conclusion, sports can be evolving, if personal capacities, social situation, and biological and psychological maturation are taken into account. Evidence suggests a dose-response relationship such that being active, even to a modest level, is superior to being inactive or sedentary. Recommendations for healthy sports are summarized.

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