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  • 1.
    Gebel, Michael
    et al.
    Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Institute of Social Sciences, Oldenburg, Germany.
    Vossemer, Jonas
    Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Institute of Social Sciences, Oldenburg, Germany.
    The impact of employment transitions on health in Germany: A difference-in-differences propensity score matching approach2014In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 108, p. 128-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the effects of transitions between employment and unemployment on health. It also addresses the question of whether or not the widespread use of temporary employment has altered the positive health effects of employment. Drawing on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 1995–2010, we apply difference-in-differences propensity score matching to identify the direct causal effects of unemployment and reemployment on psychological and physical health. This combination of two approaches towards causal inference controls for both unobserved fixed effects and observable differences in a flexible semi-parametric specification. Our sample includes persons between the ages of 16–54 who have at least experienced one respective employment transition (treatment groups) or are continuously employed or unemployed (control groups). The results show that only psychological but not physical health is causally affected by the respective employment transitions. Specifically, the effects of unemployment and reemployment are of similar size, highlighting the importance of reemployment in compensating unemployment's negative impact on psychological health. In contrast, health selection and confounding seem to be important determinants of the cross-sectional association between unemployment and physical health. Carrying out separate analyses for permanent and temporary workers, we shed new light on the health effects of temporary employment. It has been argued that the rise of temporary employment has introduced a new inequality in the world of work, blurring the line between employment and unemployment. However, contrary to our expectations we find that both employment transitions have effects of a similar size for permanent and temporary workers. In sum, our results highlight two points. First, longitudinal research is needed to properly evaluate the health effects of unemployment, reemployment, and temporary employment. Second, compared to temporary employment, unemployment is still the greater threat to individuals' psychological health.

  • 2.
    Högberg, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gebel, Michael
    Vossemer, Jonas
    Unemployment, well-being, and the moderating role of education policies: A multilevel study2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Vossemer, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Losing standard employment in Germany: The consequences of displacement and dismissal for workers’ subsequent careers2019In: Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, ISSN 0276-5624, E-ISSN 1878-5654, Vol. 63, article id 100420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects of job loss on workers’ subsequent careers in Germany. To provide a comprehensive picture, I distinguish between displacement due to plant closure and dismissal and simultaneously analyze the effects on workers’ subsequent labor market statuses, labor incomes, and non-standard employment risks. The results show that both events have lasting negative effects. Five years after job loss, displaced and dismissed workers have 12 and 15 percentage point lower employment chances respectively. Although this is mostly explained by higher unemployment risks, more than a third is due to displaced and dismissed workers leaving the labor force entirely, especially via (early) retirement. Moreover, I find large short-term total labor income losses which are mainly explained by lower employment chances and reduced working hours but falls in hourly wages become relatively more important as time passes. Five years after job loss, the negative effects on hourly wages still amount to 6 percent for displaced workers and 8 percent for workers who were dismissed. With respect to non-standard employment, I show that both displacement and dismissal increase the risks of self-employment, part-time employment, and temporary employment with only the latter being transitional in nature.

  • 4.
    Vossemer, Jonas
    Department of Sociology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany.
    The Effects of Unemployment on Non-monetary Job Quality in Europe: The Moderating Role of Economic Situation and Labor Market Policies2019In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 144, no 1, p. 379-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has illustrated that unemployment not only has short-term, but also medium-term negative effects on workers’ careers. While most studies have focused on employment chances and earnings losses, this article examines the effects of unemployment on four different facets of non-monetary job quality in Europe. Specifically, I take a comparative perspective investigating to what extent the effects of unemployment on subsequent occupational status, autonomy, authority, and job security are moderated by countries’ economic situation and institutions, including active and passive labor market policies in addition to employment protection legislation. The analyses draw on micro data from round 1–7 (2002–2014) of the European Social Survey including harmonized information about 125,000 workers nested in 34 countries for up to 7 rounds. Using two-stage multi-level models, the first-stage micro-level analyses reveal that unemployment has negative effects on all four facets of non-monetary job quality in the majority of the 164 country-rounds examined. Specifically, job security is negatively affected by experiences of unemployment within the last 5 years. However, at odds with the theoretical predictions, the second-stage macro-level analyses do not provide consistent empirical evidence for the moderating role of economic situation and labor market policies.

  • 5.
    Vossemer, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Bamberg, Department of Sociology, Bamberg, Germany.
    Gebel, Michael
    University of Bamberg, Department of Sociology, Bamberg, Germany.
    Nizalova, Olena
    University of Kent, School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research/School of Economics, Canterbury, UK.
    Nikolaieva, Olga
    Kyiv School of Economics, Kyiv Economic Institute, Kyiv, Ukraine.
    The effect of an early-career involuntary job loss on later life health in Europe2018In: Advances in Life Course Research, ISSN 1569-4909, E-ISSN 1879-6974, Vol. 35, p. 69-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have witnessed an increase in interest towards the long-term health consequences of early-career job loss and youth unemployment. Relying on detailed retrospective data from the third wave (2008/09) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) this paper investigates whether an involuntary job loss in the first 10 years after labour market entry has lasting negative effects on health more than 30 years later. The results show that an early-career involuntary job loss due to a layoff or plant closure increases the probability of fair or poor self-rated health in late life by about 6 percentage points. Moreover, examining the mechanisms behind this relationship, the analysis reveals that the subsequent unemployment risks and employment instability only explain a small share of the total effect. In line with previous studies, these findings highlight the importance of early career experiences for workers’ later life health.

  • 6.
    Vossemer, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany.
    Gebel, Michael
    Department of Sociology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany.
    Täht, Kadri
    Institute of International Social Studies, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Unt, Marge
    Institute of International Social Studies, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Högberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The effects of unemployment and insecure jobs on well-being and health: the moderating role of labor market policies2018In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 138, no 3, p. 1229-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Labor market insecurities have been growing in Europe and previous research has illustrated that unemployment and insecure jobs negatively affect individuals’ well-being and health. Although empirical evidence suggests that these effects vary substantially across different welfare states, we still know little about the moderating role of specific labor market policies. Taking a cross-national comparative perspective, this article investigates how passive and active labor market policies (PLMP, ALMP) as well as employment protection legislation (EPL) shape the experience of unemployment and insecure jobs. We complement micro data of round 1–6 (2002–2012) of the European Social Survey with time-varying macro indicators of PLMP, ALMP, and EPL. The data include about 89,000 individuals nested in 112 country-rounds and 26 countries respectively. We apply three-level random intercept models as well as pooled linear regression models including country fixed effects. The results show that labor market policies are important in shaping the experience of unemployment, but are less relevant for workers in insecure jobs. Specifically, higher unemployment benefit generosity buffers the negative effects of unemployment on well-being but not health. Moreover, we discuss different interpretations for the finding that higher ALMP expenditures are associated with more negative effects of unemployment on well-being and health. With respect to EPL it is found that in countries with high insider protection, deregulating the restrictions on the use of temporary employment increases the negative effects of unemployment on well-being and health.

  • 7.
    Vossemer, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Heyne, Stefanie
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Department of Sociology.
    Unemployment and Housework in Couples: Task-Specific Differences and Dynamics Over Time2019In: Journal of Marriage and Family, ISSN 0022-2445, E-ISSN 1741-3737, Vol. 81, no 5, p. 1074-1090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The authors tested competing hypotheses about the effects of unemployment on couples' division of housework and total household production.

    Background: Gender-neutral and gender-based theories make opposing predictions on the reactions of couples. Few previous studies have tested these predictions using longitudinal data. This study extends research by examining how the effects of unemployment vary with gender, specific tasks, and over time.

    Method: Fixed effects models were applied to estimate the associations of unemployment with both partners' total, neutral, female-typed, and male-typed housework hours. The analyses were based on 12,183 couples from the Socio-Economic Panel, 1991 to 2015. The Socio-Economic Panel is a nationally representative household panel survey of the German adult population.

    Results: This study found stronger associations for unemployment of husbands than wives with own and spouses' total housework hours and an expansion of the total household production. The changes were immediate and remained constant over time. The patterns for specific tasks resembled the main results, but for wives, the associations were stronger with female-typed tasks whereas for husbands they were stronger with male-typed tasks.

    Conclusion: The authors conclude that the division of housework following unemployment is better explained by gender-neutral theories of time availability or relative resources. Whereas the task-specific findings are also consistent with a gender-based perspective, the finding that men increased their routine chores immediately and substantially is at odds with strict interpretations of gender display or deviance neutralization.

  • 8.
    Vossemer, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, Methods of Empirical Social Research, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany .
    Schuck, Bettina
    Institute of Political Science, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Better Overeducated than Unemployed?: The Short- and Long-Term Effects of an Overeducated Labour Market Re-entry2016In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 251-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that overeducation is inferior to adequate employment. For example, overeducated workers have lower earnings, participate less often in continuing education and training, and are less satisfied with their jobs. This article changes perspectives by asking whether it is better for the unemployed to take up a job for which they are overeducated or to remain unemployed and continue the search for adequate employment. Theoretically, we rely on the established confrontation of the stepping-stone and trap hypotheses, which make opposing predictions in terms of long-term employment chances and job quality. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel (1984–2012) and applying a dynamic propensity score matching approach, the analyses reveal an interesting trade-off. Although an overeducated re-entry increases the long-term employment chances persistently, it also implies strong lock-in effects into overeducation for up to 5 years after re-employment. In sum, the results support the stepping-stone hypothesis in terms of future employment chances, but also highlight non-negligible risks of remaining trapped in a job that is below one’s level of educational qualification.

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