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  • 1.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    De nationella proven som en arena för likvärdighetsfrågor2015In: Specialpedagogisk tidskrift, no 3, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Den flerspråkiga elevens nationella provdeltagande i matematik: diskursiva förutsättningar2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilingual students’ participation in national tests in mathematics – discursive prerequisites. This article explores discursive prerequisites in test-taking for second language learners with other mother tongues than Swedish. Four students were interviewed in 2016 during their final year of compulsory school. The results imply that multilingual students are positioned as disadvantaged within testing. This phenomenon is mainly situated in a competitive discourse with several subordinated discourses that further position the students: A discourse of justice positioned the students as being sorted or left behind, a discourse of handling the assessment positioned the students as caretakers and a discourse of future challenges positioned the students as struggling while learning, being capable to learn or facing positive challenges. The results imply that national testing is a personal and relational experience and gives rise to issues of legitimacy and equality. These issues should be considered in policy-making, the construction and the carrying out of tests as well as in the conclusions which are based on the results on individual, group and organisational levels.

  • 3.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    It is only a test: social aspectsof displaying knowledge in mathematics for second language learners2017In: CERME 10: Proceedings of the tenth congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education / [ed] Dooley, T., & Gueudet, G., European Society for Research in Methematic Education (ERME) , 2017, p. 1433-1440Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses social dimensions connected to assessment in mathematics for second language learners in Sweden. The data consist of two semi-structured interviews with students in the ninth grade of compulsory school. Foucault’s thinking on discourse and positioning was advocated as a frame for analysis. The units for analysis were students’ statements about caring and the other in connection to the display of knowledge in mathematics. Results show that caring of and for others are important resources in managing assessment and believing in the future.

  • 4.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Möjligheter till stöd och tillgång till lärande i matematik2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Pressure at stake: Swedish third graders' talk about national tests in mathematics2016In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 47-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Pressures and positions of need during the Swedish third-grade National Test in Mathematics2015In: Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education / [ed] Konrad Krainer, Naďa Vondrová, Prague: Charles University , 2015, p. 1558-1563Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and discusses parts of a large-scale [1] ethnographical and longitudinal study that has followed the process of implementing the National Test in Mathematics for third graders (Ntm3) in Sweden during its first three years (2010, 2011, and 2012). Pupil talk from 2011 about pressure and what is at stake was used to construe three positions of need that might characterize pupils during the National Test in Mathematics in their third school year: the position of shame, the position of unfamiliarity, and the position of stress. How these might be handled in educational practices is discussed briefly.

  • 7.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Prövningen av en skola för alla: nationella provet i matematik i det tredje skolåret2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the contribution to research that my doctoral education led to. My starting point was a large scale qualitative research project (here after called the VR-project) which reviewed the implementation of national tests in the third grade on the subject of mathematics. The VR-project investigated how the test affected the pupils with a special focus on pupils in need of special support. An urge to look further into issues concerning the support, the pupil in need and the test was revealed in he initial VR-project. These issues therefore constitutes the problem area of this thesis. The VR-project studied a total of 22 classrooms in two different municipalities' during 2010- 2012. The methodology used for this project was inspired by ethnography and discourse analysis. The raw data consisted of test instructions, video observations of the actual test subjects, interviews from teachers and pupils about the test, the support that was given throughout the testing as well as the observations and interviews of the pupils requiring special assistance. Activated discourses and positions of the participants were demarcated. The results revealed that a traditional testing discourse, a caring discourse and a competitive discourse are activated during the tests. The testing discourse is stable and traditional. Much of what was shown and said in classrooms, routines and rules regarding the test were repeated in all the schools and in all the classrooms. The discourse on support is affected by ambiguity, which is revealed especially when issues of pupils’ equity is put against the tests equality. This is connected to the teachers restricted agency to give support due to the teacher position as a test taker. The positions in need that are available to students are not the same in pupils, teachers and steering documents. The situation is especially troublesome for pupils that do not manage Swedish good enough to take the test and for pupils in need of special support. Some of the conclusions from this thesis is that the national test format: Disciplines not only the pupil, but also the teacher, the classroom and the school at large. Results indicate that the test:

    Activates a focus on achievementLeads attention away from learning Activates issues of accountability Influences pupils and teachers with stakes involved

    Besides evaluating knowledge, the test disciplines not only the pupil, but also the teacher, the classroom and the school at large. Discussing the national test as an arena for equity might be a way towards attaining equality in education for all pupils.

  • 8.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Quality and equity in the era of national testing: the case of Sweden2017In: World yearbook of education 2017: assessment inequalities / [ed] Julie Allan, Alfredo J. Artiles, Oxon: Routledge, 2017, p. 68-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Student Equity vs Test Equality?: support during third graders' national tests in mathematics in Sweden2016In: Cursiv [publisher: Institut for Didaktik, Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitetsskole, Aarhus Universitet, DK], ISSN 1901-8878, E-ISSN 1901-8886, no 18, p. 123-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article throws light on the educational practice of teachers providing additional support to students during tests, more specifically during the national tests in mathematics for third graders in Sweden (hereafter called Ntm3) for the years 2010 and 2011. Both the test instructions and teacher talk related to these tests were taken into consideration. The results suggest that issues of equity and teachers’ agency arise when considering support. The dual purpose of the test, to evaluate the student and to evaluate the education, positions the teacher as both a test-giver and a test-taker and influences the discourse on support by ambiguity. I found that in such circumstances, when students´ equity comes into conflict with the test´s equality, the focus during the tests shifts from attention to learning to attention to controlling.

  • 10.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The discourse regarding the multilingual student in need of support in test- instructions2017In: ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities, Göteborg: Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning (NCM), 2017, Vol. 11, p. 151-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    The Liminal Space Between National Tests and ICT for Teaching and Learning: (Dis)Harmony of Teacher Roles2019In: ECER 2019 - European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg, Germany, 3-6 September, 2019: Education in an Era of Risk: the Role of Educational Research for the Future, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, a neo-liberal governing of public education has emerged and been enhanced throughout the school- systems in nations (Au, 2016). Following from this, the vehicle of development in the nordic education systems are anchored in a corporate-logic in which economic competition and technological change have taken central places (Antikainen, 2006). An orientation towards goal-management and a marketisation of the school has been displayed in reforms especially from the 1990s and forward, encompassing choice, efficiency and accountability (Rönnberg, 2011).

    Two examples of this is the very predominant practices of the increased use of ICT in teaching and learning and also, increased emphasis on national assessment (Verger, Lubienski & Steiner-Kamsi, 2017). Both of these practices are in the core of making education more efficient and holding higher quality, which is ultimately the teachers responsibility and something that the schools is held accountable for. Enhancement of knowledge and quality is assumed to be an engine for progress and are at the same time means for the state to govern a system that is imprinted by globalisation, decentrantralisation, privatization and local self-governing (Carlbaum, Hult, Lindgren, Novak, Rönnberg, Segerholm, 2014). Data-use in education have then become important tools for producing evidence, as quality indicators and for the settings of goals (Prøitz, Mausethagen & Skedsmo, 2017), which is seen both in the collection of results from the tests and in the use of ICT in the classroom.

    This contribution explores two of the most prominent reforms made in the Swedish school system the last decade, and that have connections to the above depicted global and neo-liberal logic of governing education. 1: Increased emphasis on the use of ICT in teaching and learning and 2: Increased and earlier national assessment and grading. The Swedish context in particular provides a large number of ICT initiatives, so called one-to-one computing, with both laptops and tablets for each student reported in almost all of the 290 Swedish municipalities (Becker & Taawo, 2018). In addition, national testing has been advanced and is now administered to preschool class, third grade, sixth grade and ninth grade in compulsory school.

    They are both very dominant as institutionalised practices in the Swedish school and we state that they carries with them disparate routines, rules and roles for how to be a teacher. At the same time, the nordic school model is characterized by “providing schooling of high and equal quality, regardless of children’s and young people’s resources, origin and location“ (Lundahl, 2016, p. 3). These elements of equity and quality is also a point of departure and argument for implementing changes in school policy. Although equity is not very well demarcated, and heavily weighted with the neo-liberal logic and in addition, depicted as something the schools and teachers are held accountable for (Bagger, Norén, Boistrup & Lundahl, 2019). Therefore, the teachers role become in the core of these changes and how their space of action within the dominant practices of national testing and use of ICT in teaching and learning, important to explore further.

    The purpose of this article is to contribute with knowledge on the teacher role in the practice of using ICT in education and the practice of giving national tests. Three research questions have guided the investigation: RQ1: What does the teachers role include in the practice of giving tests appear. RQ2: What does the teachers’ role include in the practice of using ICT in teaching and learning? RQ3: What differences and similarities are there in the two settings regarding demands, expectations, norms and routines - what “is” it to be a teacher and go between these contexts.

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used: Van Leeuwens (2008) theories was the point of departure in our exploration of the teachers’ role in relation to the practice at hand. Therefore, both of these investigated practices are understood as social practices. We then draw on Van Leeuwens (2008) understanding of social practices and how they shape and contribute to the role of the teachers. Van Leeuwen define social practice from 10 different elements: participants, actions, performance modes, eligibility conditions (participants), presentations style, times, locations, eligibility conditions (locations), resources: tools and materials, eligibility conditions (resources). All these concepts shall be understood in relation to the social practice. Thus, the concept of participant concern a specific role of, for example, teachers and students in the two contexts.The actions were then framed as performed in sequences which includes, for example, the pace of an action, performance modes, time and location (Van Leeuwen, 2008). Teachers are within these assumed to construct specific knowledge situated within legitimate perspectives. Hence, prevalent social discursive practices shapes and contributes to the role of the teachers whilst creating a possible space for action at the same time as the teachers shapes and contributes to the social discursive practice. The empirical material originates from two larger research projects (dnr:721-2013-774; drn: 721-208-4646) founded by the Swedish research council. The data comprise 21 teachers in the national test project and 26 teachers in the ICT project. The material contains classroom observations assisted with video, audio and field note documentation and retrospective teacher interviews individually and in groups. In both projects, teachers were interviewed and observed with the purpose of exploring the role of the teacher in the social practice at hand - but with different focus areas. In the NP project the aim was to look into if and how the student was affected by testing and in the ICT project the aim was to examining the kinds of enacted practices that arise from teachers’ organisation of the physical space, including ICTs, and teachers’ communication. We have in this article revisited the data from both projects, with a common methodology which makes the two social practices and their effect on the teachers’ role, comparable. The analytical procedure was to explore which specific participants (teachers) take which particular actions and in which performance modes they are performed, to which time-aspects and locations for the two practices and thereafter compare the teacher's role. 

    Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings: The roles in the national test practice and the ICT practice are here considered as a liminal space between two different social practices. Individually, these bear with them significantly different spaces, times for action, levels of creativity, kinds of questions, answers and support and essentially how the teacher approaches the students and the tasks. The major differences indicate that in the social practice of ICT, the teacher's role is supposed to promote creativity and stimulate curiosity, creativity and activity. Activity is also crucial in the situation of national tests, but the teacher role is in essence supposed to promote students listening, following and focusing on individual achievement. Further, order issues as sound level and how and where to sit, differs greatly. A conclusion is that between these practices, there is a (dis)harmony of acting as a teacher. When we reflect on the outcome, these practices are significantly different in a way that makes us to consider them as a liminal space. Still, the teacher has to move effortless and presumably seamless between these two systems of norms regarding teaching and learning. In periods, it is not very unlikely that the half of the school day is national tests and the other half consists of some kind of collaborative and creative ICT supported learning activity. The liminal space is crucial to acknowledge in terms of the energy involved in changing role, and also that it might be had for some students to understand the changed appearance of their teacher and the changed demands of the situation. The contrasts between these practices highlight probably deeper questions about what knowledge is in today’s school and society, as well as, for whom education is aimed for, and whose interest it is supposed to serve?

  • 12.
    Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Björklund Boistrup, Lisa
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Norén, Eva
    Stockholms Universitet.
    The governing of three researchers' technologies of the self2018In: The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, ISSN 1551-3440, E-ISSN 1551-3440, Vol. 15, no 1-2, p. 278-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article sheds light on a number of discursive conditions relating to being researchers in mathematics education and with an interest in diversity. The data derived from a self-reflective trialogue (dialogue of three people) between the three authors, three researchers. Two of Foucault’s governing technologies were adopted: technologies of power and technologies of the self. By exploring regularities between these in our trialogue we construed formations of governing technologies in relation to subjectification and subjectivation. We uncovered five formations: “Tensions between mathematics education (ME) researchers from different traditions through processes of normalization and othering”, “Limiting space between ME researchers within the socio- political through dismissal of knowledge”, “The socio-political tradition of a need for theory connects theory and ME researcher's’ self-cultivation”, “The researchers’ processes of self-cultivation connect theory and compassionate research practices”. and “Research on policy statements as resistance towards technologies of domination in society”. 

  • 13.
    Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Performance, anxiety and the mathematical self image2014In: Special Needs Education in Mathematics: New Trends, Problems and Possibilities / [ed] Anne Berit Fuglestad, Kristiansand: Portal forlag, 2014, p. 86-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In present pilot study the relation between mathematical performance, test anxiety and mathematical self image is being examined in two Swedish grade 3 pupils. A difference between the high achieving and the low achieving pupils is possible to discern. A negative or uncertain mathematical self image seems to be connected to test anxiety, but not to performance when we look at these two young pupils. The experience of taking the test is affecting the high and low achiever differently. There are indications that the context and the kind of information given about the tests and the pupil's abilities affect both the level of test anxiety and the pupil’s evolving mathematical self image. Educational implications are being discussed.

  • 14.
    Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Roos, Helena
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    How Research Conceptualises the Student in Need of Special Education in Mathematics2015In: Development of Mathematics Teaching: Design, Scale, Effects. Proceeding of MADIF 9. The Ninth Swedish Mathematics Education Research Seminar Umeå February 4-5, 2014 / [ed] O. Helenius, A. Engström, T. Meaney, P. Nilsson, E. Norén, J. Sayers, M. Österholm, Linköping: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2015, p. 27-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is the conceptualisation of students in special educationalneeds in mathematics (SEM students) in the research fields of mathematics andspecial education. A difference between fields regarding the perspectives takenon the SEM student is obvious in the reviewed articles. Those in the specialeducational field were individual oriented in their view of the difficulties, whilstreviewed articles from the field of mathematics education more often discusssocio-cultural settings. The content in the selected 28 articles reveals that theoverall conceptualisation of SEM student has to do with the social construct ofthe SEM student, as well as with students’ experiences, affects, andprerequisites; with the specific training methods or interventions applied; withspecial areas in the subject of mathematics; with special groups of students; andwith teachers’ knowledge about all these factors.

  • 15.
    Lindfors, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Roos, Helena
    Linneus university, Sweden.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    The nature of knowing and students in need of special education2019In: Book of abstracts: EARLI 2019, RWTH Aachen University , 2019, p. 142-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to explore teachers’ mathematical epistemic beliefs in relation to students in need of special education in mathematics (SEM-students). Teachers’ views on the subject and the students in need are central aspects for the support (Scherer, Beswick, DeBlois, Healey & Opitz, 2016). In more detail, the interest lies in revealing the epistemologies of teachers’ beliefs on the nature of knowing in two very different educational practices: the general situation of the teaching and learning and in the practice of national testing. The research process is guided by four steps: 1; The identification of statements regarding the justification of and source of knowledge 2; The explanatory paraphrasing into groups of statements. 3; A search for concurrence, differences and patterns within and between groups. 4. Finally, a summary of what is characteristic for the nature of knowing in mathematics in relation to SEM-students in these two practices is given.

  • 16.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå School of Education (USE). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Exploring the presence of test anxiety and its relation to mathematical achievement in a sample of grade 32012In: Skrifter från Svensk matematikdidaktisk forskning, MADIF, ISSN 1651-3274, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims at exploring if a sample of Swedish grade 3 pupils reported any test anxiety and whether there were any relations to performance in different mathematical areas. Overall, test anxiety explained 20% of the variance for the total mathematical score, with the subscale “thoughts” as the significant predictor. The model of test anxiety also explained Number understanding, Mass and Time, Patterns, and Mathematical problems; however Mental arithmetic and Written arithmetic algorithms were not significantly explained by the model. Test anxiety seems not to be a major problem in this sample; still, significant negative correlations were found, which likely might influence the pupils in some aspects.

  • 17.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Peng, Aihui
    Faculty of Education, Southwest University, China/School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Linnanmäki, Karin
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Svens-Liavåg, Camilla
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    A cross-cultural analysis of test anxiety among Chinese, Finnish and Swedish pupilsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Peng, Aihui
    Faculty of Education, Southwest University, China/School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Linnanmäki, Karin
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Svens-Liavåg, Camilla
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Cultural and Gender Differences in Experiences and Expression of Test Anxiety Among Chinese, Finnish, and Swedish Grade 3 Pupils2015In: International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, ISSN 2168-3603, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While test anxiety has been studied extensively, little consideration has been given to the cultural impacts of children's experiences and expressions of test anxiety. The aim of this work was to examine whether variance in test anxiety scores can be predicted based on gender and cultural setting. Three hundred and ninety-eight pupils in Grade 3 in China, Finland, and Sweden, each of which has different testing realities, completed the Children's Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS). Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) results indicated that the Chinese sample scored more highly on the autonomic reactions component, whereas the Nordic sample scored higher on the off-task behaviors component. Significant interaction effects between gender and culture were also observed: The Nordic girls exhibited higher levels of autonomic reactions, but the opposite was seen in the Chinese sample, with boys reporting higher levels of the cognitive component. The conceptualization of test anxiety encompassing the off-task behaviors component does not appear to be universal for children. It is also suggested that gender differences vary as a function of culture.

  • 19.
    Silfver, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    An 'appropriate' test taker: the everyday classroom during the national testing period in school year three in Sweden2016In: Ethnography and Education, ISSN 1745-7823, E-ISSN 1745-7831, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 237-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws on data from a bigger project where we explore what is taking place in the daily life of classrooms during the national testing period in mathematics for nine- to ten-year-old children in Sweden. Data was produced by observations, video-recordings, and interviews with children. The article shows on a micro level how assessment trends, on a macro level, affect children. It further focuses how children through different repertoires of time position themselves as 'appropriate' test takers

  • 20.
    Silfver, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Changing Our Methods and Disrupting the Power Dynamics: National Tests in Third-Grade Classrooms2013In: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, ISSN 1609-4069, E-ISSN 1609-4069, Vol. 12, p. 39-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a research project relating to the newly implemented mandatory Swedish national mathematics tests for third-grade students (aged nine and ten). The project’s main research concerns the students’ ideas about and reactions towards these tests and how the specific test situation affects their perception of their own mathematical proficiency. Drawing on theories which suggest that identities are more fluid than static, we want to understand how students with special needs are ‘created’. The specific aim of this paper is to discuss how our research methods have been refined during the various phases of data collection and the resulting implications. It discusses issues surrounding child research and how methods involving video recording and video stimulated recall dialogue (VSRD) can contribute to research on children’s experiences. Particular attention is given to methodological and ethical issues; how to disrupt power relations, for example. In this paper we argue that the context of the test situation not only impacted upon the students but also affected how we changed, developed and adapted our approaches as the project evolved.

  • 21.
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Disciplined by tests2015In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, NOMAD: [Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education], ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 55-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on a Swedish research project on the reintroduction of national tests in mathematics for nine- to ten-year-old pupils. Data were collected over a period of three years (2010-2012) by video recording test situations in different classrooms and by conducting video-stimulated recall interviews with children. The aim is to explore and analyse the testing situation and how it creates different positions for children. We conclude that discourses of testing, caring and competition, sometimes strengthening and sometimes shadowing each other and thereby, produce knowledge in children about success and failure in mathematics, positioning children as ‘winners’ or ‘losers’. The tests are interpreted as a technology – a form of disciplinary power that functions at the level of the body (Foucault, 1980).

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