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  • 1.
    Grönberg, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Lundh Nilsson, Fay
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Desirable skills?: Non-Nordic citizens applying for work permits in Sweden, 1947–19502015In: Labor history, ISSN 0023-656X, E-ISSN 1469-9702, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 481-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's rapid economic growth after the Second World War meant that the native labour supply was incapable of meeting the high demand, especially for industrial labourers. Three agreements on organised collective transfers were signed, but a large majority of the labour migrants came on their own initiative. Not all applicants were equally welcomed. In this article, logistic regressions are used to investigate a sample of 2830 (every fifth) applications to the National Labour Market Board (AMS) from the years 1947–1950; 1367 had an arrangement with a future Swedish employer, while 1463 applicants lacked such an arrangement. The likelihood of being granted a permit was 11 times higher for the first category. Our hypothesis that the chances were better for high-skilled workers proved true only in part; it was valid if they had an employer agreement. Contrary to our assumptions, women had a better chance than men, partly because domestic servants were always permitted and partly because women did not compete with male labour. However, our assumptions with regard to better chances for the young but experienced, and for those applying for the occupation wherein they had their experience held true. A number of official documents revealed the desirability of Sudeten German labourers. They were viewed as skilled, reliable and loyal by employers, labour unions and governmental authorities. This assumption only held true for applicants lacking an employer. This can be viewed as a prolongation of the practice of helping Sudeten German Social Democrats, established in 1938. The intention to help refugees was, however, also evident in the treatment of Baltic and Polish applicants.

  • 2.
    Reher, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Ciencas Politicas y Sociología, Universidad Complutense, Madrid.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Dimensions of Rational Decision-making During the Demographic Transition; Aranjuez (Spain) Revisited2015In: Historical Life Course Studies, ISSN 2352-6343, Vol. 2, p. 20-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of linked reproductive histories taken from the Spanish town of Aranjuez during the demographic transition is used to address key issues regarding reproductive change and reproductive choice. This paper builds on the existing literature and especially on the findings first shown in Reher & Sanz-Gimeno (2007) and in Van Poppel et al. (2012) where the links between childhood survival and reproductive decision-making were specified. This paper goes beyond the original ones in two  important ways: (a) the sex composition of the surviving sibset is included in the analysis and (b) behavior is modeled by means of event history analysis. In these models, controls for the survival status of the previous child are introduced so as to distinguish between biological factors related to the cessation of breastfeeding and both short term (child replacement) and more long-term reproductive strategies. The results offer convincing proof that couples were continually regulating their fertility in order to achieve reproductive goals both in terms of net fertility and of the sex composition of the resulting sibset. Here results show that both sexes were desired by parents but that lack of surviving males had greater influence on fertility behavior. As expected, controls for the survival status of the previous-born child were important though they did not diminish appreciably the overall effect of the number of surviving offspring. This article offers strong proof for the existence of active decision-making during the demographic transition and applies a method to model these behaviors over the full reproductive history of the couple.

  • 3. Reher, David Sven
    et al.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sanz-Gimeno, Alberto
    van Poppel, Frans W. A.
    Agency in Fertility Decisions in Western Europe During the Demographic Transition: A Comparative Perspective2017In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a set of linked reproductive histories taken from Sweden, the Netherlands, and Spain for the period 1871–1960 to address key issues regarding how reproductive change was linked specifically to mortality and survivorship and more generally to individual agency. Using event-history analysis, this study investigates how the propensity to have additional children was influenced by the number of surviving offspring when reproductive decisions were made. The results suggest that couples were continuously regulating their fertility to achieve reproductive goals. Families experiencing child fatalities show significant increases in the hazard of additional births. In addition, the sex composition of the surviving sibset also appears to have influenced reproductive decisions in a significant but changing way. The findings offer strong proof of active decision-making during the demographic transition and provide an important contribution to the literature on the role of mortality for reproductive change.

  • 4.
    Reher, David Sven
    et al.
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sanz-Gimeno, Alberto
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
    van Poppel, Frans W. A.
    Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI).
    Agency in Fertility Decisions in Western Europe during the Demographic Transition: The Role of Childhood Mortality and Sex-Composition2015In: Popoulation Association of America 2015 Annual Meeting: Session 150: Sex Preferences and Sex Composition Effects on Fertility Intentions, San Diego, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of linked reproductive histories taken from Sweden, the Netherlands and Spain for the period 1871-1960 is used to address key issues regarding reproductive change and reproductive choice. Using event history analysis the paper investigates how the hazard of additional births was influenced by childhood mortality and the sex-composition among the surviving children when the reproductive decisions were made. The preliminary results show that couples were continuously regulating their fertility to achieve reproductive goals even during the early stages of the fertility transition. Couples experiencing child fatalities as well as gender imbalance in the surviving sibset show significant increases in the hazard of additional births net of any biological impact of terminated breastfeeding. The findings offers strong proof for the existence of active decision-making during the demographic transition and applies a method to model these behaviors over the full reproductive history.

  • 5.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    A reversal of the socioeconomic gradient of nuptiality during the Swedish mid-20th-century baby boom2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 37, no 50, p. 1625-1658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Research into the causes of the mid-twentieth-century baby boom has concluded that the main proximate cause of the fertility increase during the 1940s was earlier and more universal marriage in the cohorts born after 1910, and that this association between nuptiality trends and fertility was particularly strong in Sweden.

    OBJECTIVE However, we do not know whether this was a general trend or if certain socio-economic groups spearheaded the change towards earlier marriage.

    METHODS The present study uses event history analysis to investigate the marital histories of approximately 100,000 men and women in Sweden, born 1880-1934, to determine how socio-economic differentials in nuptiality developed during the period 1900-1960.

    CONCLUSIONS The analysis shows that the sharp increase in nuptiality was not driven uniformly across different social strata, but rather took the form of earlier and more universal marriage among men in the mid and upper social strata and among economically active women, while male unskilled workers and women outside the labor market did not participate in the nuptiality boom during the peak baby boom years and even showed some signs of decreased marriage probabilities compared to earlier cohorts.

    CONTRIBUTION The results indicate that sector-specific economic growth after the depression and the breakthrough of the Swedish welfare state benefitted couples who could aspire to a middle-class identity, and that pronatalist policies made female economic activity more compatible with marriage. The results show that the shift towards a positive female socio-economic gradient of marriage and family formation that can be observed in contemporary Sweden, had its beginnings already with the cohorts that participated in the mid-twentieth-century baby boom.

  • 6.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Stretching from the past to the present: using historical demography to understand current trends2016In: The future of historical demography: upside down and inside out / [ed] Koen Matthijs, Saskia Hin, Jan Kok and Hideko Matsuo, Leuven: Acco, 2016, p. 28-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    The breakthrough of a post-materialistic marital ideology: the discussion of divorce in Swedish newspapers during the 1960s2016In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 161-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1960s and 1970s in Sweden, both the labour force participation rate of married women and the divorce rate increased more than any other period of the 20th century. Higher levels of extramarital fertility, non-marital cohabitation, and increasing age at first birth accompanied the rise of these two rates. These developments exemplify phenomena associated with the second demographic transition (SDT), and were markedly evident in Sweden during the 1960s and 1970s. By investigating the debate on divorce in national newspapers during the 1960s, this study traces the impact of these demographic and socioeconomic changes prior to the implementation of the permissive 1974 divorce law in Sweden. The main finding of the study is that a normative shift occurred in Sweden during the 1960s. From 1964 to 1969, publicly expressed attitudes towards divorce were increasingly characterized by post-materialist and individualistic values and a marital ideology prioritizing individual autonomy and emotional fulfilment started to dominate the debate. Conversely, representatives expressing a conservative view on marriage that framed the conjugal family rather than the individual as the most important social unit were increasingly marginalized in public discussions.

  • 8.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Garðarsdóttir, Ólöf
    Long-Term Perspectives on Divorce in the Nordic Countries: Introduction2018In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries are often put forward as forerunners in the acceptance of permissive divorce practices and in the shift away from a patriarchal family system during the twentieth century. This special issue focuses on the long term historical path dependencies that make Nordic institutions and norms regarding divorce stand out as liberal and individualistic in an international comparison, but also shed new light on the differences that exist between the countries. Specific traits that are raised is the role played by the shared Lutheran culture that facilitated the breakthrough of a secular notion of marriage as a civil contract, but also the important role played by the first wave feminist movement in all of the Nordic countries for the early breakthrough of liberal divorce laws. However, it is clear that permissive norms and institutions have tended to spread in two distinct waves with leaders and laggards within the Nordic context. In the early twentieth century, Denmark and Norway spearheaded the shift to bi-lateral no-fault divorce. In the 1970s, Sweden took over as the leader when the country adopted unilateral no-fault divorce while Finland consistently has tended to stand out as the conservative laggard within the Nordic context.

  • 9.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Fertility differentials in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century: the changing effect of female labor force participation and occupational field2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the expected negative link between rising female education and fertility it has been shown that in Sweden (Sandström, 2014a) and many other Western countries (Van Bavel, 2014a; Van Bavel et al., 2015) fertility differentials across educational strata decreased sharply during the baby boom. Studies on contemporary data find that the field of education/occupation has a larger net effect than the level of education (Hoem, Neyer, & Andersson, 2006a; e.g. Michelmore & Musick, 2014a; Van Bavel, 2010). Little is however know about the fertility patterns among economically active women prior to the 1960s and how they changed over time. Using individual level data this paper investigates the fertility of women in different sectors of the economy in Sweden during the early expansion of female labor force participation and higher education during the first half of the 20th century. The analysis reaches three main findings. Firstly, there is a marked shift in the effect of female economic activity on fertility in the 1940s and 1950s in Sweden. During this period a strong convergence of fertility behavior across female economic strata occurs and a two child norm is established that has persisted in Sweden since then. Secondly, the negative impact of female economic activity especially for upper strata women is strongly reduced among women that came of age during the 1940s and 1950s. Thirdly, this was especially the case for upper strata women engaged in the so called ‘caring professions’ that exhibit by far the largest changes in behavior. The pattern found in contemporary Western contexts where women in healthcare and education have substantially higher fertility formed already during the 1940s and 1950s in Sweden. The finding of the study illustrates how the mid-twentieth century baby boom works as a ”hinge” between contemporary fertility patterns and those that prevailed during the historical decline up until the 1930s.

  • 10.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Fertility differentials in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century: the effect of female labor force participation and occupational field2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the expected negative link between rising female education and fertility it has been shown that in Sweden (Sandström, 2014a) and many other Western countries (Van Bavel, 2014a; Van Bavel et al., 2015) fertility differentials across educational strata decreased sharply during the baby boom. Studies on contemporary data find that the field of education/occupation has a larger net effect than the level of education (Hoem, Neyer, & Andersson, 2006a; e.g. Michelmore & Musick, 2014a; Van Bavel, 2010). Little is however know about the fertility patterns among economically active women prior to the 1960s and how they changed over time. Using individual level data this paper investigates the fertility of women in different sectors of the economy in Sweden during the early expansion of female labor force participation and higher education from the 1920s up until the end of the baby boom.

  • 11.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Socio-economic determinants of divorce in Sweden 1960-19652014In: Social science history, ISSN 0145-5532, E-ISSN 1527-8034, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 127-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1960s in Sweden, socio-economic differentials decreased sharply at the same time as the labor force participation of married women and aggregate divorce rates increased more rapidly than during any other period of the twentieth century. The aim of this paper is to investigate how the socio-economic composition of the couple influenced the probability of divorce during this period of rapid restructuring. The study uses a large dataset covering the entire married population of Sweden in 1960 and applies a binary model whereby the couples are analyzed as units rather than separate individuals to model divorce during the period 1960-1965. The main results show that the equalization process between genders and social classes during this period contributed to the decrease in marital stability. Dual-provider families exhibit substantially higher probabilities of divorce as compared to traditional single-provider families. We also find that the socio-economic gradient of divorce had become negative by the early 1960s and that couples with low socio-economic status contributed more to the increase in divorce than did couples in the higher strata. A difference between the results reached in this study and those from divorce research covering later decades is that children do not reduce the probability of divorce when the wife's labor force participation is controlled for. The results indicate that the determinants of divorce have varied across different phases of the divorce transition during the twentieth century and that a historical perspective is necessary if we are to understand the long-term process that has produced current marital behavior.

  • 12.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sex preference for children in German villages during the fertility transition2015In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 57-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, parents' sex preferences for their children have proved difficult to verify. This study used John Knodel's German village genealogies of couples married between 1815 and 1899 to investigate sex preferences for children during the fertility transition. Event history analyses of couples' propensity to progress to a fifth parity was used to test whether the probability of having additional children was influenced by the sex composition of surviving children. It appears that son preference influenced reproductive behaviour: couples having only girls experienced significantly higher transition rates than those having only boys or a mixed sibset. However, couples who married after about 1870 began to exhibit fertility behaviour consistent with the choice to have at least one surviving boy and girl. This result represents a surprisingly early move towards the symmetrical sex preference typical of modern European populations.

  • 13. Van Bavel, Jan
    et al.
    Klesment, Martin
    Beaujouan, Eva
    Brzozowska, Zuzanna
    Puur, Alan
    Reher, David
    Requena,, Miguel
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sobotka, Tomas
    Zeman, Krystof
    Women's Education and Cohort Fertility during the Baby Boom2015In: Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America 2015: Presented in Session 48. Families and Households in Comparative and Historical Perspective, San Diego, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While today, women exceed men in terms of participation in advanced education, female enrollment rates beyond primary education were still very low in the first half of the 20th century. In many Western countries, this started to change around mid-century, with the proportion of women obtaining a degree in secondary education and beyond increasing steadily. The expected implication of rising female education was fertility decline andthepostponement of motherhood. Yet, many countries experienced declining ages at first birth and increasing total fertility instead. How can we reconcile these fertility trends with women’s increasing participation in education? Using census and large survey data for the USA  and  fourteen  European  countries,  this  paper  analyzes  trends  in  cohort  fertility underlying the Baby Boom and how they relate to women’s educational attainment. The focus is on quantum components of cohort fertility and parity progression, and their association with the age at first childbearing. We find that progression to higher parities continued to decline in all countries, in line with fertility transition trends that started back in the nineteenth century. However, in countries experiencing a Baby Boom, this was more than compensated  by  decreasing childlessness  and  parity  progression  after  the  first  child, particularly among women with education beyond the primary level. As a result, the proportions having exactly two children went up steadily in all countries and all educational groups.

  • 14.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Demographic outcomes during colonisation: Migration and mortality among indigenous and non-indigenous populations in nineteenth-century Sweden2016In: Journal of Migration History, ISSN 2351-9916, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 148-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to insufficient historical population data, there is limited knowledge about the demographic outcomes of colonisation. This study provides demographic evidence of the difficulties faced by the Sami – an indigenous population in Sweden – during nineteenth-century colonisation, as indicated by (1) high risks of migration and (2) low survival rates compared to non-Sami. The digitised parish registers of the Demographic Data Base (Umeå University) provide longitudinal, individual-level data on migration, mortality, and ethnic origin. Event history analysis reveals that the Sami were vulnerable, with a higher mortality rate than non-Sami, and that they were more prone to migrate from areas overcrowded due to an increased competition for land. However, regardless of ethnic origin, it was primarily the settlers who migrated, and who ran the lowest mortality risks. This result suggests a ‘healthy settler effect’, and diverse consequences of colonisation that did not always follow ethnic lines.

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