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  • 1. Grabicova, Katerina
    et al.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Grabic, Roman
    Randak, Tomas
    Larsson, DG Joakim
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tissue-specific bioconcentration of antidepressants in fish exposed to effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 488, p. 46-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tissue-specific bioconcentration of selected antidepressants was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to undiluted effluent from a Swedish municipal sewage treatment plant for 13 days. Citalopram, sertraline and venlafaxine were found in the brains and livers of most fish, but not in blood plasma or muscle. Venlafaxine was the only drug found in plasma (3/20 fish). Fluoxetine was not detected in any fish tissue, in accordance with a low concentration in the effluent and a comparably high limit of quantification in tissues. Concentrations of citalopram, sertraline and venlafaxine in fish brain were up to 1/12, 1/8 and 1/26, respectively, of the lowest concentrations found in the brains of mammals treated with therapeutic doses. Thus, given coexposure to several antidepressants and an assumed similar potency in fish, the margin of safety for targetrelated effects in fish residing in effluent-dominated streams is relatively low. Furthermore, the non-detectable levels of these drugs in blood plasma suggest that analyses of concentrations in target tissues (brain) would be more informative in field studies and other studies with environmentally realistic exposure concentrations.

    (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Ulrika
    Grabic, Roman
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Occurrence and behaviour of 105 active pharmaceutical ingredients in sewage waters of a municipal sewer collection system2014In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 58, p. 221-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations and behaviour of 105 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aqueous phase of sewage water within a municipal sewer collection system have been investigated. Sewage water samples were gathered from seven pump stations (one of which was located within a university hospital) and from sewage water treatment influent and effluent. The targeted APIs were quantified using a multi-residue method based on online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method was thoroughly validated and complies with EU regulations on sample handling, limits of quantification, quality control and selectivity. 51 APIs, including antibiotics, antidepressants, hypertension drugs, analgesics, NSAIDs and psycholeptics, were found frequently within the sewer collection system. API concentrations and mass flows were evaluated in terms of their frequency of detection, daily variation, median/minimum/maximum/average concentrations, demographic dissimilarities, removal efficiencies, and mass flow profiles relative to municipal sales data. Our results suggest that some APIs are removed from, or introduced to, the aqueous phase of sewage waters within the studied municipal collection system.

  • 3.
    Ort, Christoph
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci andTechnol Eawag, Dubendorf, Switzerland.
    van Nuijs, Alexander L. N.
    Univ Antwerp, Toxicol Ctr, B-2610 Antwerp, Belgium.
    Berset, Jean-Daniel
    Water & Soil Protect Lab, Bern, Switzerland.
    Bijlsma, Lubertus
    Univ Jaume 1, Res Inst Pesticides & Water, Castellon De La Plana, Spain.
    Castiglioni, Sara
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Dept Environm Hlth Sci, Milan, Italy.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Univ Antwerp, Toxicol Ctr, B-2610 Antwerp, Belgium.
    de Voogt, Pim
    KWR Watercycle Res Inst, Nieuwegein, Netherlands. Univ Amsterdam, Inst Biodivers & Ecosyst Dynam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Emke, Erik
    KWR Watercycle Res Inst, Nieuwegein, Netherlands.
    Fatta-Kassinos, Despo
    Univ Cyprus, NIREAS Int Res Ctr, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Griffiths, Paul
    European Monitoring Ctr Drugs & Drug Addict, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Hernandez, Felix
    Univ Jaume 1, Res Inst Pesticides & Water, Castellon De La Plana, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Marino, Iria
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, IIAA Inst Food Anal & Res, Santiago De Compostela, Spain.
    Grabic, Roman
    Univ South Bohemia Ceske Budejovice, South Bohemian Res Ctr Aquaculture & Biodivers Hy, Fac Fisheries & Protect Waters, Vodnany, Czech Republic.
    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara
    Univ Bath, Dept Chem, Bath BA2 7AY, Avon, England.
    Mastroianni, Nicola
    IDAEA CSIC, Dept Environm Chem, Water & Soil Qual Res Grp, Barcelona, Spain.
    Meierjohann, Axel
    Abo Akad Univ, Organ Chem Lab, Turku, Finland.
    Nefau, Thomas
    Univ Paris Sud, Lab Sante Publ Environm, Chatenay Malabry, France.
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Pico, Yolanda
    Univ Valencia, Food & Environm Safety Res Grp, Valencia, Spain.
    Racamonde, Ines
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, IIAA Inst Food Anal & Res, Santiago De Compostela, Spain.
    Reid, Malcolm
    Norwegian Inst Water Res NIVA, Oslo, Norway.
    Slobodnik, Jaroslav
    Inst Environm, Kos, Slovakia.
    Terzic, Senka
    Rudjer Boskov Inst Bijenicka, Div Marine & Environm Res, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Thomaidis, Nikolaos
    Univ Athens, Dept Chem, Analyt Chem Lab, GR-10680 Athens, Greece.
    Thomas, Kevin V.
    Norwegian Inst Water Res NIVA, Oslo, Norway.
    Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis2014In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 109, no 8, p. 1338-1352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total population 24.74 million). Measurements Excretion products of five illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, cannabis) were quantified in wastewater samples using methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Findings Spatial differences were assessed and confirmed to vary greatly across European metropolitan areas. In general, results were in agreement with traditional surveillance data, where available. While temporal changes were substantial in individual cities and years (P ranging from insignificant to <10(-3)), overall means were relatively stable. The overall mean of methamphetamine was an exception (apparent decline in 2012), as it was influenced mainly by four cities. Conclusions Wastewater analysis performed across Europe provides complementary evidence on illicit drug consumption and generally concurs with traditional surveillance data. Wastewater analysis can measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than is the current norm for national surveys, and creates estimates where such data does not exist.

  • 4.
    Östman, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Näsström, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    A snapshot of illicit drug use in Sweden acquired through sewage water analysis2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 472, p. 862-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analytical measurements of sewage water have been used many times to estimate the consumption of specific drugs in an area. This study measured a large number of illicit drugs and metabolites (>30) at a large number of sewage treatment plants (STPs) distributed across Sweden. Twenty-four illicit and prescription drugs, classified as narcotic substances in Sweden, and seven selected metabolites were included in the study. A 24 hour composite sample of incoming sewage water was collected from 33 different municipalities at various geographic locations across Sweden. Species were analyzed using an on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method. The method proved to be rapid with minimum need for sample work up and was able to detect 13 compounds above their respective limits of quantification. The results for all compounds were presented as per capita loads. Multivariate data analysis was used to relate drug consumption to geographical location and/or population of cities. The results showed that geographical differences in drug consumption were apparent across the country. For the narcotic pharmaceuticals, the geographical differences suggested by the multivariate model were supported by prescription statistics. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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