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  • 1.
    Boldis, Beáta Vivien
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Northern Swedish midwives’ views towards midwife-led antenatal care for low-risk women: An impulse to Hungary2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Implementation of midwife-led antenatal care for low-risk women is getting a growing attention worldwide. In 2014, a new decree was entered into force in Hungary, whereby midwives are allowed to conduct antenatal care, under regulated conditions, but nothing changed in practice during the past two years. The purpose of this study was to gain an insight of Swedish midwives’ perceptions on their well-established antenatal care, in order to get an impulse to steer the Hungarian midwives’ roles to an improving direction.

    Methods: Semi-structured individual interviews were contacted with three midwives, recruited from primary health-care centers in Umeå, Sweden. Qualitative content analysis was carried out.

    Results: The ultimate findings of the thesis were encapsulated in a main theme as "Midwife-led continuity care in interprofessional collaboration against the challenges of modern world". Swedish midwives consider themselves competent to establish midwife-led continuity care, and they do not even question their role and autonomy in midwife-led antenatal care. Equality is the cornerstone of Swedish antenatal care, both in midwife-obstetrician and midwife-patient collaboration. As in all segments of health care, interprofessional collaboration is indispensable to antenatal care, in order to maintain quality of care in our constantly changing world.

    Conclusions: Numerous elements of the Hungarian antenatal care need to be changed, by following the Swedish successful example to fulfil their midwifery competencies and take the leader caregiver role in the antenatal care. By this, lifting the Hungarian antenatal care to an esteemed Western European level.

  • 2.
    Boldis, Beáta Vivien
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Unsafe and unequal: A decomposition analysis of income inequalities in fear of crime in northern Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3.
    Boldis, Beáta Vivien
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Unsafe and unequal: a decomposition analysis of income inequalities in fear of crime in northern Sweden2018In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, article id 110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Fear of crime is not solely an individual concern, but as a social determinant of health structured by gender it also poses a threat to public health. Social inequalities are thought to represent a breeding ground for fear of crime, which subsequently may contribute to social inequalities in health. However, little research has focused on social inequalities in fear of crime, particularly in Sweden where the level of fear of crime and income and gender inequalities are comparatively low. With a conceptual model as a point of departure, the present study aimed to estimate and decompose income-related inequalities and explore gender differences in fear of crime in northern Sweden.

    METHODS: Participants (N = 22,140; 10,220 men and 11,920 women aged 16 to 84 years) came from the Health on Equal Terms cross-sectional survey with linked register data, carried out in the four northernmost counties of Sweden in 2014. Disposable income was used as the socio-economic indicator, fear of crime as the binary outcome variable, and sociodemographic characteristics, residential context, socio-economic and material conditions and psychosocial conditions as explanatory factors. Concentration curve and concentration index were used to estimate the income inequality in fear of crime, and decomposition analysis to identify the key determinants of the inequalities, in collapsed and gender-stratified analyses.

    RESULTS: Substantial gender differences were found in the prevalence of fear of crime (20.8% in women and 3.5% and men) and among the contributing factors to fear of crime. Additionally, the analyses revealed considerable income inequalities in fear of crime in the northern Swedish context (C = - 0.219). Gender, socio-economic and material, and psychosocial conditions explained the most in income inequalities of fear of crime in the total population.

    CONCLUSIONS: The existing gender and socio-economic inequities need to be approached as a greater structural problem to mitigate inequalities in fear of crime. Further research is needed to reveal more aspects of income inequalities in fear of crime and to develop efforts to create safe environments for all.

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