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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Växande Regionala Obalanser2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 52-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska ekonomiska geografin genomgår en snabb förändring. Allt fler tjänstejobb skapas i storstäderna. I takt med att industrijobben minskar bidrar det till färre jobb totalt sett utanför storstäderna. Det hänger samman med storstädernas ekonomiska mångfald: att tjänsterna växer fram i nära koppling till andra relaterade verksamheter. Många tjänster kräver specialkompetenser och hög utbildning, resurser som främst finns i storstäder. Därtill finns starkare efterfrågan kopplad till högre privat köpkraft och offentlig konsumtion. Då dessa processer i hög grad är självförstärkande, spelar politiken en viktig roll för att hantera omvandlingens negativa effekter.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    How do regional economies respond to crises?: The geography of job creation and destruction in Sweden (1990–2010)2017In: European Urban and Regional Studies, ISSN 0969-7764, E-ISSN 1461-7145, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 87-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By means of Swedish longitudinal micro-data, the aim of this paper is to analyse how regional economies respond to crises. This is made possible by linking gross employment flows to the notion of regional resilience. Our findings indicate that despite a steady national employment growth, only the three metropolitan regions have fully recovered from the recession of 1990. Further, we can show evidence of high levels of job creation and destruction in both declining and expanding regions and sectors, and that the creation of jobs is mainly attributable to employment growth in incumbent firms, while job destruction is primarily due to exits and micro-plants. Although the geography of resistance to crises and the ability of adaptability in the aftermath vary, our findings suggest that cohesive (i.e., with many skill-related industries) and diverse (i.e., with a high degree of unrelated variety) regions are more resilient over time. We also find that resistance to future shocks (e.g., the 2008 recession) is highly dependent on the resistance to previous crises. In all, this suggests that the long-term evolution of regional economies also influences their future resilience.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Henning, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Sectoral and geographical mobility of workers after large establishment cutbacks or closures2018In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 1071-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies redundant workers’ industrial and geographical mobility, and the consequences of post-redundancy mobility for regional policy strategies. This is accomplished by means of a database covering all workers who became redundant in major shutdowns or cutbacks in Sweden between 1990 and 2005. Frequencies of industrial and geographical mobility are described over time, and the influence of some important characteristics that make workers more likely to be subject to particular forms of mobilities are assessed. We find that re-employment rates vary extensively across industries and time. Whereas going back to the same or related industries is the most common re-employment strategy among workers who find a new job in the first year, workers who do not benefit from quick re-employment are increasingly squeezed out to new job fields and regions. Older workers and workers with high vested interest in their original industries usually employ a “same-industry/same-region” strategy. This most frequent, and perhaps often most attractive, same-industry strategy comes at a cost, however. Individuals who instead pursue other mobility strategies have a lower risk of suffering from another major redundancy in the future. Thus, in terms of regional policy, strategies promoting diversification to related industries after major redundancies seem to be much more important than trying to retain workers in their old industry. In this case the route via education (university or vocational training) is important, as it increases the likelihood of successfully changing industry at time of re-employment. 

  • 4.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Returning to Work: geographies of Employment in Turbulent Times2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis adds to theorizations of resilience, by placing workers and employment on the center stage. This has been addressed by contextualizing gross employment changes and workers’ way back to employment after redundancy. Swedish longitudinal microdata from 1990-2010 were used. This made it possible to study employer-employee links that disappeared and appeared, and to follow redundant workers over time and space. 

    The empirical findings conclude there are big regional differences in resilience, absorptive capacity and employment growth. The trajectories of regional net employment growth are diverging – an unequal spatial development that might become reinforced with time as the empirical results show that resilience is a path-dependent phenomenon. Moreover, industry proximity is an important factor when analyzing both regional absorptive capacity and labour matching, thus significantly affecting worker adaptability in times of turbulence.

    This is explained by the frictions and skill (mis)matching that arise in the labour market and in new employment positions due to industry proximities. A cohesive and diverse region is more resistant to shocks as well as adaptable in the aftermath of the crisis, while a specialized region is more sensitive and less resilient in general. In addition, a worker facing redundancy in a region where there is a big share of the same or related industries to the industry she became redundant from decreases the time to re-employment as there is a big supply of jobs that need similar skills and competences. However, there are significant differences in the mobilities of redundant workers, where some groups are more inclined to diversify into new regions and industries, while some have more invested in the industry and region. However, staying in the same industry that experienced the major lay-off means a less stable employment, but moving into unrelated industries increases the workers’ chances of experiencing skill mismatch and becoming underemployed. Finding a new job in related industries means a more stable employment and increases the chances of upward mobility. 

    In conclusion, based on these findings, it is argued in the thesis that regional branching into related industries is a good regional resilience strategy. However, it needs to be combined with policies aiming for related labour branching as well in order to be able to reallocate skills into new parts of the economy while avoiding skill mismatch. This provides a good base for regional diversification that can result in path re-orientation and renewal.

  • 5.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Skill matching and mismatching: spatial and industrial frictions among redundant manufacturing workersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Henning, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Returning to work: regional determinants of re-employment after major redundancies2018In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 768-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using matched employer-employee data on roughly 429,000 workers made redundant from large plant closures or major downsizing in Sweden between 1990-2005, this paper analyses the role of the regional industry mix (specialization, related and unrelated variety) in the likelihood of returning to work. Our results show that a high presence of same or related industries speeds up the re-employment process, while high concentrations of unrelated activities do not. The role of related activities is particularly evident in the short run and in regions with high unemployment. Consequently, the prospect of successful diversification is enhanced in regions with related industries.

  • 7.
    Korang Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Kompetensförsörjning i Skellefteå: Studie av yrkesstruktur och flyttmönster2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten syftar till att analysera Skellefteå kommuns kompetensstruktur under perioden 2002-2013 samt de övergripande strukturerna i flyttmönster till och från Skellefteå.

    När det gäller den befintliga kompetensstrukturen, definierat som de yrken som finns i regionen idag, återfinns de tydligaste yrkesspecialiseringarna inom de huvudsakliga kategorierna anläggning och maskinoperatör (8) samt bygg och konstruktion (7). Jämfört med övriga regioner i Sverige är det alltså inom ett relativt tydligt industriellt kompetensområde som Skellefteå har en hög specialisering. Storleksmässigt (utan hänsyn till sammansättningen i övriga regioner) är det dock inom restaurang och handel som både många arbetar samt där många inflyttare har sina kompetenser. Dock är det tydligt att en relativt hög andel av inflyttarna till Skellefteå sedan 2002 jämfört med den befintliga arbetskraften antingen har yrken som inte kräver någon specialistkompetens, eller består av tjänstemän och personaladministration. De yrken regionen i huvudsak är specialiserad inom verkar inte utgöra ett typiskt yrke bland inflyttare. Med andra ord har den kompetensförsörjningen en tydligt lokal dimension.

    Vad gäller inflyttare kommer en klar majoritet från övriga norra Sverige, framförallt från övriga Västerbotten. Utöver detta skiljer sig också inflyttarna utifrån vilka yrkesgrupper som kommer från olika regioner. Personer med yrken som kräver universitetsexamen (inklusive chefer) kommer framförallt från Stockholmsregionen. Detta är särskilt tydligt vad gäller tjänstemän och olika former av administratörer. Mer industriellt kopplade yrken (tex anläggning-, process- och maskinoperatörer) kommer i högre utsträckning från norra Sverige. Detta är särskilt tydligt bland hemvändare som i högre utsträckning har mer industriellt kopplade yrken, särskilt om de kommer från norra Sverige. Från södra Sverige (framförallt Stockholm och Västsverige) dominerar hemvändare som jobbat inom service och handel. Beroende på vilka kompetenser som eftersöks kan därmed olika områden vara lämpliga källor för ny kompetens och det är en viss variation mellan inflyttare generellt och hemvändare.

    När vi slutligen följt utflyttare från Skellefteå sedan början av 1990-talet finner vi att ungefär en fjärdedel flyttar ut från Skellefteå och sedan blir kvar i den regionen de flyttat till under kommande 10 år. Det gäller framförallt personer som flyttat till övriga Västerbotten, men också Stockholm, övriga övre Norrland samt Västsverige och östra Mellansverige. Det går inte att se några tydliga skillnader mellan mäns och kvinnors fortsatta flyttmönster. Däremot är det tydligt att högutbildade och utlandsfödda i mindre utsträckning återvänder till Skellefteå när de väl flyttat. Drygt en tredjedel av de som flyttat från Skellefteå återvänder någon gång under kommande tioårsperiod. Det gäller främst personer som flyttat till övriga Västerbotten eller till Västsverige. Dock är graden av återkommande flytt bland dessa personer relativt hög (ungefär en tredjedel) och av de som stannar kvar i Skellefteå efter att ha flyttat tillbaka är det framförallt personer som bott i övriga Västerbotten men också i övriga övre Norrland eller Stockholm (totalt 69% av alla återvändande stannare). Det är en marginell överrepresentation av kvinnor, svenskfödda och personer under 35 år bland de återvändande stannarna även om andelen män ökar kraftigt under de senaste åren. Bland återvändarna som igen lämnar för en annan region, sjunker andelen migranter till övriga Västerbotten och det är framförallt storstadsregionerna (främst Stockholm) som ökar sin mottagarandel.

1 - 7 of 7
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