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  • 1. Abraham, Nabil M.
    et al.
    Liu, Lei
    Jutras, Brandon Lyon
    Yadav, Akhilesh K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Narasimhan, Sukanya
    Gopalakrishnan, Vissagan
    Ansari, Juliana M.
    Jefferson, Kimberly K.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Jacobs-Wagner, Christine
    Fikrig, Erol
    Pathogen-mediated manipulation of arthropod microbiota to promote infection2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 5, E781-E790 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arthropods transmit diverse infectious agents; however, the ways microbes influence their vector to enhance colonization are poorly understood. Ixodes scapularis ticks harbor numerous human pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. We now demonstrate that A. phagocytophilum modifies the I. scapularis microbiota to more efficiently infect the tick. A. phagocytophilum induces ticks to express Ixodes scapularis antifreeze glycoprotein (iafgp), which encodes a protein with several properties, including the ability to alter bacterial biofilm formation. IAFGP thereby perturbs the tick gut microbiota, which influences the integrity of the peritrophic matrix and gut barrier-critical obstacles for Anaplasma colonization. Mechanistically, IAFGP binds the terminal D-alanine residue of the pentapeptide chain of bacterial peptidoglycan, resulting in altered permeability and the capacity of bacteria to form biofilms. These data elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which a human pathogen appropriates an arthropod antibacterial protein to alter the gut microbiota and more effectively colonize the vector.

  • 2.
    Alvarez, Laura
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Espaillat, Akbar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Hermoso, Juan A.
    de Pedro, Miguel A.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Peptidoglycan Remodeling by the Coordinated Action of Multispecific Enzymes2014In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 20, no 3, 190-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall constitutes the main defense barrier of bacteria against environmental insults and acts as communication interface. The biochemistry of this macromolecule has been well characterized throughout the years but recent discoveries have unveiled its chemical plasticity under environmental stresses. Non-canonical D-amino acids (NCDAA) are produced and released to the extracellular media by diverse bacteria. Such molecules govern cell wall adaptation to challenging environments through their incorporation into the polymer, a widespread capability among bacteria that reveals the inherent catalytic plasticity of the enzymes involved in the cell wall metabolism. Here, we analyze the recent structural and biochemical characterization of Bsr, a new family of broad spectrum racemases able to generate a wide range of NCDAA. We also discuss the necessity of a coordinated action of PG multispecific enzymes to generate adequate levels of modification in the murein sacculus. Finally, we also highlight how this catalytic plasticity of NCDAA-incorporating enzymes has allowed the development of new revolutionary methodologies for the study of PG modes of growth and in vivo dynamics.

  • 3.
    Alvarez, Laura
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Hernandez, Sara B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    de Pedro, Miguel A
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Ultra-Sensitive, High-Resolution Liquid Chromatography Methods for the High-Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Bacterial Cell Wall Chemistry and Structure2016In: Bacterial Cell Wall Homeostasis: Methods and Protocols / [ed] Hee-Jeon Hong, New York: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2016, Vol. 1440, 11-27 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis has been critical for determining the structural and chemical complexity of the cell wall. However this method is very time consuming in terms of sample preparation and chromatographic separation. Here we describe (1) optimized methods for peptidoglycan isolation from both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria that dramatically reduce the sample preparation time, and (2) the application of the fast and highly efficient ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) technology to muropeptide separation and quantification. The advances in both analytical instrumentation and stationary-phase chemistry have allowed for evolved protocols which cut run time from hours (2-3 h) to minutes (10-20 min), and sample demands by at least one order of magnitude. Furthermore, development of methods based on organic solvents permits in-line mass spectrometry (MS) of the UPLC-resolved muropeptides. Application of these technologies to high-throughput analysis will expedite the better understanding of the cell wall biology.

  • 4.
    Bernardo-Garcia, Noelia
    et al.
    Department of Crystallography and Structural Biology, Instituto de Química Física "Rocasolano", CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    Sanchez-Murcia, Pedro
    Univ Alcala De Henares, Area Farmacol, Dept Ciencias Biomed, Unidad Asociada I D I,CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    Gago, Federico
    Univ Alcala De Henares, Area Farmacol, Dept Ciencias Biomed, Unidad Asociada I D I,CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Hermoso, Juan A.
    CSIC, Inst Quim Fis Rocasolano, Dept Crystallog & Struct Chem, Madrid, Spain.
    Structural Bioinformatics in Broad-Spectrum Racemases: a new path in anti-microbial research2016In: Current organic chemistry, ISSN 1385-2728, E-ISSN 1875-5348, Vol. 20, no 11, 1222-1231 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    D-amino acids are essential components of the bacterial cell wall and play notable roles in microbiology as regulators, for example in sporulation, biofilm formation or interspecies communication. Racemases are the specific enzymes catalyzing the interconversion of L-amino acids to D-amino acids. While most of racemases are mono-specific, a family of broad-spectrum racemases that can racemize ten of the 19 natural chiral amino acids has been recently reported. These enzymes can interconvert radically different residues such as aliphatic and positively charged residues producing non-canonical D-amino acids. Crystal structures together with bioinformatics allowed identification of the residues defining the molecular footprint in broad-spectrum racemases, the specific features of their active sites and the structural basis of their promiscuity. Here we review the recent knowledge on this family compared with the well established of alanine racemases. This structural information is a prerequisite for the development of novel drugs against the important human pathogens for which broad-spectrum racemases play a key role.

  • 5.
    Blas-Galindo, Emilio
    et al.
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Cava, Felipe
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    López-Viñas, Eduardo
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Mendieta, Jesús
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Berenguer, José
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Use of a dominant rpsL allele conferring streptomycin dependence for positive and negative selection in Thermus thermophilus2007In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 73, no 16, 5138-5145 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A spontaneous rpsL mutant of Thermus thermophilus was isolated in a search for new selection markers for this organism. This new allele, named rpsL1, encodes a K47R/K57E double mutant S12 ribosomal protein that confers a streptomycin-dependent (SD) phenotype to T. thermophilus. Models built on the available three-dimensional structures of the 30S ribosomal subunit revealed that the K47R mutation directly affects the streptomycin binding site on S12, whereas the K57E does not apparently affect this binding site. Either of the two mutations conferred the SD phenotype individually. The presence of the rpsL1 allele, either as a single copy inserted into the chromosome as part of suicide plasmids or in multicopy as replicative plasmids, produced a dominant SD phenotype despite the presence of a wild-type rpsL gene in a host strain. This dominant character allowed us to use the rpsL1 allele not only for positive selection of plasmids to complement a kanamycin-resistant mutant strain, but also more specifically for the isolation of deletion mutants through a single step of negative selection on streptomycin-free growth medium.

  • 6.
    Bolivar, Juan M
    et al.
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, Campus UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Cava, Felipe
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Mateo, Cesar
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, Campus UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Rocha-Martín, Javier
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, Campus UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Guisán, Jose M
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, Campus UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Berenguer, José
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, Campus UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Immobilization-stabilization of a new recombinant glutamate dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus2008In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 80, no 1, 49-58 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genome of Thermus thermophilus contains two genes encoding putative glutamate dehydrogenases. One of these genes (TTC1211) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was a trimer that catalyzed the oxidation of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia with either NAD+ or NADP+ as cofactors. The enzyme was also able to catalyze the inverse reductive reaction. The thermostability of the enzyme at neutral pH was very high even at 70 degrees C, but at acidic pH values, the dissociation of enzyme subunits produced the rapid enzyme inactivation even at 25 degrees C. The immobilization of the enzyme on glyoxyl agarose permitted to greatly increase the enzyme stability under all conditions studied. It was found that the multimeric structure of the enzyme was stabilized by the immobilization (enzyme subunits could be not desorbed from the support by boiling it in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate). This makes the enzyme very stable at pH 4 (e.g., the enzyme activity did not decrease after 12 h at 45 degrees C) and even improved the enzyme stability at neutral pH values. This immobilized enzyme can be of great interest as a biosensor or as a biocatalyst to regenerate both reduced and oxidized cofactors.

  • 7.
    Bolivar, Juan M
    et al.
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica-CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Rocha-Martin, Javier
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica-CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Mateo, Cesar
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica-CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Cava, Felipe
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Berenguer, Jose
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica-CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Guisan, Jose M
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica-CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Coating of soluble and immobilized enzymes with ionic polymers: full stabilization of the quaternary structure of multimeric enzymes2009In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 10, no 4, 742-747 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows a simple and effective way to avoid the dissociation of multimeric enzymes by coating their surface with a large cationic polymer (e.g., polyethylenimine (PEI)) by ionic exchange. As model enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) from Thermus thermophilus and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from Pseudomonas sp. were used. Both enzymes are very unstable at acidic pH values due to the rapid dissociation of their subunits (half-life of diluted preparations is few minutes at pH 4 and 25 degrees C). GDH and FDH were incubated in the presence of PEI yielding an enzyme-PEI composite with full activity. To stabilize the enzyme-polymer composite, a treatment with glutaraldehyde was required. These enzyme-PEI composites can be crosslinked with glutaraldehyde by immobilizing previously the composite onto a weak cationic exchanger. The soluble GDH-PEI composite was much more stable than unmodified GDH at pH 4 and 30 degrees C (retaining over 90% activity after 24 h incubation) with no effect of the GDH concentration in the inactivation course. The composite could be very strongly, but reversibly, adsorbed on cationic exchangers. Similarly, FDH could be treated with PEI and glutaraldehyde after adsorption on cationic exchangers, This permitted a stabilized FDH preparation. In this way, the coating of the enzymes surfaces with PEI is used as a simple and efficient strategy to prevent enzyme dissociation of multimeric enzymes. These composites can be used as a soluble catalyst or reversibly immobilized onto a cationic exchanger (e.g., CM-agarose).

  • 8.
    Castán, Pablo
    et al.
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Zafra, Olga
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Moreno, Renata
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    de Pedro, Miguel A
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Vallés, Cristina
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Cava, Felipe
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Caro, Eddy
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Schwarz, Heinz
    Max Planck Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie, Tübingen, Germany.
    Berenguer, José
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    The periplasmic space in Thermus thermophilus: evidence from a regulation-defective S-layer mutant overexpressing an alkaline phosphatase2002In: Extremophiles, ISSN 1431-0651, E-ISSN 1433-4909, Vol. 6, no 3, 225-232 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of a periplasmic space within the cell envelope of Thermus thermophilus was analyzed in a mutant (HB8(Delta)UTR1) defective in the regulation of its S-layer (surface crystalline layer). This mutant forms round multicellular bodies (MBs) surrounded by a common envelope as the culture approaches the stationary phase. Confocal microscopy revealed that the origin of the MBs is the progressive detachment of the external layers coupled with the accumulation of NH(2)-containing material between the external envelopes and the peptidoglycan. A specific pattern of proteins was found as soluble components of the intercellular space of the MBs by a single fractionation procedure, suggesting that they are periplasmic-like components. To demonstrate this, we cloned a gene ( phoA) from T. thermophilus HB8 encoding a signal peptide-wearing alkaline phosphatase (AP), and engineered it to be overexpressed in the mutant from a shuttle vector. Most of the AP activity (>80%) was found as a soluble component of the MBs' intercellular fraction. All these data indicate that Thermus thermophilus actually has a periplasmic space which is functionally similar to that of Proteobacteria. The potential application of the HB8(Delta)UTR1 mutant for the overexpression of periplasmic thermophilic proteins is discussed.

  • 9.
    Cava, Felipe
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    de Pedro, Miguel A.
    Peptidoglycan plasticity in bacteria: emerging variability of the murein sacculus and their associated biological functions2014In: Current Opinion in Microbiology, ISSN 1369-5274, E-ISSN 1879-0364, Vol. 18, 46-53 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The peptidoglycan (PG) sacculus once thought to be just a reinforcing, static and uniform structure, is fast becoming recognized as a dynamic cell constituent involved in every aspect of bacterial physiology. Recent advances showed that in addition to 'classical' tasks - as an essential element to define bacterial shape, size, division and resistance to osmotic stress the sacculus plays very important roles in many other fields. The very few chemical and structural changes that were once considered as bizarre, or maybe exotic exceptions, are now universally accepted as fundamental pieces in bacterial cell wall adaptation to different kinds of environmental stresses; immune response; intra-specific and inter-specific signalling and antibiotics, just to mention a few. Most, if not all, of these implications are a consequence of the enormous adaptability of PG metabolism to cope with changing conditions, a characteristic for which the term plasticity is proposed. Here we overview and comment on a number of recent contributions on the cell wall adaptive responses to environmental challenges that has greatly impacted the already high complexity of the PG biology field. These new evidences have revived the interest in PG plasticity as an exciting and trendy topic in current microbiology which considers this variability as the trustworthy picture of bacterial PG in nature.

  • 10.
    Cava, Felipe
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and HHMI, Boston, MA, USA ; CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    de Pedro, Miguel A
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Lam, Hubert
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and HHMI, Boston, MA, USA.
    Davis, Brigid M
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and HHMI, Boston, MA, USA.
    Waldor, Matthew K
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and HHMI, Boston, MA, USA.
    Distinct pathways for modification of the bacterial cell wall by non-canonical D-amino acids2011In: EMBO Journal, ISSN 0261-4189, E-ISSN 1460-2075, Vol. 30, no 16, 3442-3453 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of non-canonical D-amino acids (NCDAAs) in stationary phase promotes remodelling of peptidoglycan (PG), the polymer that comprises the bacterial cell wall. Impairment of NCDAAs production leads to excessive accumulation of PG and hypersensitivity to osmotic shock; however, the mechanistic bases for these phenotypes were not previously determined. Here, we show that incorporation of NCDAAs into PG is a critical means by which NCDAAs control PG abundance and strength. We identified and reconstituted in vitro two (of at least three) distinct processes that mediate NCDAA incorporation. Diverse bacterial phyla incorporate NCDAAs into their cell walls, either through periplasmic editing of the mature PG or via incorporation into PG precursor subunits in the cytosol. Production of NCDAAs in Vibrio cholerae requires the stress response sigma factor RpoS, suggesting that NCDAAs may aid bacteria in responding to varied environmental challenges. The widespread capacity of diverse bacteria, including non-producers, to incorporate NCDAAs suggests that these amino acids may serve as both autocrine- and paracrine-like regulators of chemical and physical properties of the cell wall in microbial communities.

  • 11.
    Cava, Felipe
    et al.
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    de Pedro, Miguel A
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Schwarz, Heinz
    Max Plank Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie, Tübingen, Germany.
    Henne, Anke
    Goettingen Genomics Laboratory, Institute for Microbiology and Genetics, Germany.
    Berenguer, José
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Binding to pyruvylated compounds as an ancestral mechanism to anchor the outer envelope in primitive bacteria2004In: Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0950-382X, E-ISSN 1365-2958, Vol. 52, no 3, 677-690 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron microscopy of isolated cell walls of the ancient bacterium Thermus thermophilus revealed that most of the peptidoglycan (PG) surface, apart from the septal region, was shielded against specific alphaPG antibodies. On the other hand, an antiserum raised against S-layer-attached cell wall fragments (alphaSAC) bound to most of the surface except for the septal regions. Treatments with alpha-amylase and pronase E made the entire cell wall surface uniformly accessible to alphaPG and severely decreased the binding of alphaSAC. We concluded that a layer of strongly bound secondary cell wall polymers (SCWPs) covers most of the cell wall surface in this ancient bacterium. A preliminary analysis revealed that such SCWPs constitute 14% of the cell wall and are essentially composed of sugars. Enzyme treatments of the cell walls revealed that SCWP was required in vitro for the binding of the S-layer protein through the S-layer homology (SLH) motif. The csaB gene was necessary for the attachment of the S-layer-outer membrane (OM) complex to the cell wall in growing cells of T. thermophilus. In vitro experiments confirmed that cell walls from a csaB mutant bound to the S-layer with a much lower affinity ( approximately 1/10) than that of the wild type. CsaB was found to be required for pyruvylation of components of the SCWP and for immunodetection with alpha-SAC antiserum. Therefore, the S-layer-OM complex of T. thermophilus binds to the cell wall through the SLH motif of the S-layer protein via a strong interaction with a highly immunogenic pyruvylated component of the SCWP. Immuno-cross-reactive compounds were detected with alphaSAC on cell walls of other Thermus spp. and in the phylogenetically related microorganism Deinococcus radiodurans. These results imply that the interaction between the SLH motif and pyruvylated components of the cell wall arose early during bacterial evolution as an ancestral mechanism for anchoring proteins and outer membranes to the cell walls of primitive bacteria.

  • 12.
    Cava, Felipe
    et al.
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    de Pedro, Miguel Angel
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Blas-Galindo, Emilio
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Waldo, Geoffrey S
    Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA.
    Westblade, Lars F
    The Rockefeller University, New York, USA.
    Berenguer, José
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Expression and use of superfolder green fluorescent protein at high temperatures in vivo: a tool to study extreme thermophile biology2008In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 10, no 3, 605-613 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superfolder GFP (sGFP) is a variant of the Green Fluorescent Protein that folds efficiently when fused to poorly folded proteins. In this study, we show that sGFP, but not enhanced GFP, is functional in vivo at 70 degrees C in the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus (Tth); thus, permitting the use of sGFP as a localization tag in vivo. We created a suite of plasmids that allow the expression of carboxy-terminal sGFP fusion proteins in both Escherichia coli and Tth. In order to demonstrate the facility of sGFP as an in vivo localization tag in Tth, we tagged GroES (the small subunit of the bacterial GroES/GroEL chaperone), NarC (a membrane component of the nitrate respiration apparatus) and PhoA (a TAT-secreted periplasmic protein), and visualized the distribution of the sGFP fusion proteins using confocal microscopy. Fusions to NarC and PhoA produced enzymatically active proteins that complemented both the narC and the phoA strains respectively. Observation of the distribution of the GroES-sGFP protein by confocal microscopy revealed a homogeneous fluorescence in the cells, which is in full agreement with the cytoplasmic nature of GroES, whereas the NarC-sGFP protein was localized to the membrane. Finally, a combination of confocal microscopy and biochemistry revealed that PhoA is localized in the periplasm. We suggest that sGFP will be broadly applicable in characterizing various extreme thermophile systems.

  • 13.
    Cava, Felipe
    et al.
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Hidalgo, Aurelio
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Berenguer, José
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Thermus thermophilus as biological model2009In: Extremophiles, ISSN 1431-0651, E-ISSN 1433-4909, Vol. 13, no 2, 213-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermus spp is one of the most wide spread genuses of thermophilic bacteria, with isolates found in natural as well as in man-made thermal environments. The high growth rates, cell yields of the cultures, and the constitutive expression of an impressively efficient natural competence apparatus, amongst other properties, make some strains of the genus excellent laboratory models to study the molecular basis of thermophilia. These properties, together with the fact that enzymes and protein complexes from extremophiles are easier to crystallize have led to the development of an ongoing structural biology program dedicated to T. thermophilus HB8, making this organism probably the best so far known from a protein structure point view. Furthermore, the availability of plasmids and up to four thermostable antibiotic selection markers allows its use in physiological studies as a model for ancient bacteria. Regarding biotechnological applications this genus continues to be a source of thermophilic enzymes of great biotechnological interest and, more recently, a tool for the over-expression of thermophilic enzymes or for the selection of thermostable mutants from mesophilic proteins by directed evolution. In this article, we review the properties of this organism as biological model and its biotechnological applications.

  • 14.
    Cava, Felipe
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Kuru, Erkin
    Brun, Yves V
    de Pedro, Miguel A
    Modes of cell wall growth differentiation in rod-shaped bacteria2013In: Current Opinion in Microbiology, ISSN 1369-5274, E-ISSN 1879-0364, Vol. 16, no 6, 731-737 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bacterial cell takes on the challenge to preserve and reproduce its shape at every generation against a substantial internal pressure by surrounding itself with a mechanical support, a peptidoglycan cell wall. The enlargement of the cell wall via net incorporation of precursors into the pre-existing wall conditions bacterial growth and morphology. However, generation, reproduction and/or modification of a specific shape requires that the incorporation takes place at precise locations for a defined time period. Much has been learnt in the past few years about the biochemistry of the peptidoglycan synthesis process, but topological approaches to the understanding of shape generation have been hindered by a lack of appropriate techniques. Recent technological advances are paving the way for substantial progress in understanding the mechanisms of bacterial morphogenesis. Here we review the latest developments, focusing on the impact of new techniques on the precise mapping of cell wall growth sites.

  • 15.
    Cava, Felipe
    et al.
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, USA.
    Lam, Hubert
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, USA.
    de Pedro, Miguel A
    Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa" Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Waldor, Matthew K
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, USA.
    Emerging knowledge of regulatory roles of D-amino acids in bacteria2011In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS), ISSN 1420-682X, E-ISSN 1420-9071, Vol. 68, no 5, 817-831 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The D-enantiomers of amino acids have been thought to have relatively minor functions in biological processes. While L-amino acids clearly predominate in nature, D-amino acids are sometimes found in proteins that are not synthesized by ribosomes, and D-Ala and D-Glu are routinely found in the peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria. Here, we review recent findings showing that D-amino acids have previously unappreciated regulatory roles in the bacterial kingdom. Many diverse bacterial phyla synthesize and release D-amino acids, including D-Met and D-Leu, which were not previously known to be made. These noncanonical D-amino acids regulate cell wall remodeling in stationary phase and cause biofilm dispersal in aging bacterial communities. Elucidating the mechanisms by which D-amino acids govern cell wall remodeling and biofilm disassembly will undoubtedly reveal new paradigms for understanding how extracytoplasmic processes are regulated as well as lead to development of novel therapeutics.

  • 16.
    Cava, Felipe
    et al.
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Laptenko, Oleg
    Department of Cell Biology, UMDNJ-SOM, Stratford, USA.
    Borukhov, Sergei
    Department of Cell Biology, UMDNJ-SOM, Stratford, USA.
    Chahlafi, Zahra
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Blas-Galindo, Emilio
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Gómez-Puertas, Paulino
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Berenguer, José
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Control of the respiratory metabolism of Thermus thermophilus by the nitrate respiration conjugative element NCE2007In: Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0950-382X, E-ISSN 1365-2958, Vol. 64, no 3, 630-646 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strains of Thermus thermophilus that contain the nitrate respiration conjugative element (NCE) replace their aerobic respiratory chain by an anaerobic counterpart made of the Nrc-NADH dehydrogenase and the Nar-nitrate reductase in response to nitrate and oxygen depletion. This replacement depends on DnrS and DnrT, two homologues to sensory transcription factors encoded in a bicistronic operon by the NCE. DnrS is an oxygen-sensitive protein required in vivo to activate transcription on its own dnr promoter and on that of the nar operon, but not required for the expression of the nrc operon. In contrast, DnrT is required for the transcription of these three operons and also for the repression of nqo, the operon that encodes the major respiratory NADH dehydrogenase expressed during aerobic growth. Thermophilic in vitro assays revealed that low DnrT concentrations allows the recruitment of the T. thermophilus RNA polymerase sigma(A) holoenzyme to the nrc promoter and its transcription, whereas higher DnrT concentrations are required to repress transcription on the nqo promoter. In conclusion, our data show a complex autoinducible mechanism by which DnrT functions as the transcriptional switch that allows the NCE to take the control of the respiratory metabolism of its host during adaptation to anaerobic growth.

  • 17.
    Cava, Felipe
    et al.
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Zafra, Olga
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Berenguer, José
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    A cytochrome c containing nitrate reductase plays a role in electron transport for denitrification in Thermus thermophilus without involvement of the bc respiratory complex2008In: Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0950-382X, E-ISSN 1365-2958, Vol. 70, no 2, 507-518 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bc(1) respiratory complex III constitutes a key energy-conserving respiratory electron transporter between complex I (type I NADH dehydrogenase) and II (succinate dehydrogenase) and the final nitrogen oxide reductases (Nir, Nor and Nos) in most denitrifying bacteria. However, we show that the expression of complex III from Thermus thermophilus is repressed under denitrification, and that its role as electron transporter is replaced by an unusual nitrate reductase (Nar) that contains a periplasmic cytochrome c (NarC). Several lines of evidence support this conclusion: (i) nitrite and NO are as effective signals as nitrate for the induction of Nar; (ii) narC mutants are defective in anaerobic growth with nitrite, NO and N2O; (iii) such mutants present decreased NADH oxidation coupled to these electron acceptors; and (iv) complementation assays of the mutants reveal that the membrane-distal heme c of NarC was necessary for anaerobic growth with nitrite, whereas the membrane-proximal heme c was not. Finally, we show evidence to support that Nrc, the main NADH oxidative activity in denitrification, interacts with Nar through their respective membrane subunits. Thus, we propose the existence of a Nrc-Nar respiratory super-complex that is required for the development of the whole denitrification pathway in T. thermophilus.

  • 18.
    Cava, Felipe
    et al.
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Zafra, Olga
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    da Costa, Milton S
    Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal.
    Berenguer, José
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    The role of the nitrate respiration element of Thermus thermophilus in the control and activity of the denitrification apparatus2008In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 10, no 2, 522-533 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nitrate conjugative element (NCE) encodes the ability to respire nitrate in the facultative Thermus thermophilus NAR1 strain. This process is carried out by two heterotetrameric enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of NADH (Nrc) and the reduction of nitrate (Nar), whose expression is activated by the NCE-encoded transcription factors DnrS and DnrT. We report the presence of NCE in other facultative strains of T. thermophilus and analyse its role in subsequent steps of the denitrification pathway. We encountered that nrc mutants of denitrifying strains show a decrease in anaerobic growth rates not only with nitrate, but also with nitrite, NO and N(2)O, which is concomitant to their lower NADH oxidation activities in vitro. We show that nitrate, nitrite and NO are activating signals for transcription of nrc in these strains. Finally, we demonstrate that DnrS and DnrT are required for anaerobic growth not only with nitrate, but also with nitrite, NO and N(2)O. These data allow us to conclude that: (i) Nrc constitutes the main electron donor for the four reductases of the denitrification pathway, and (ii) the NCE controls the expression of the whole denitrification pathway and the repression of the aerobic respiration through the transcription factors DnrS and DnrT.

  • 19.
    Cava, Felipe
    et al.
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Zafra, Olga
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Magalon, Axel
    Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne, Institut de Biologie Structurale et Microbiologie, CNRS, Marseille, France.
    Blasco, Francis
    Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne, Institut de Biologie Structurale et Microbiologie, CNRS, Marseille, France.
    Berenguer, José
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    A new type of NADH dehydrogenase specific for nitrate respiration in the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus2004In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 279, no 44, 45369-45378 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A four-gene operon (nrcDEFN) was identified within a conjugative element that allows Thermus thermophilus to use nitrate as an electron acceptor. Three of them encode homologues to components of bacterial respiratory chains: NrcD to ferredoxins; NrcF to iron-sulfur-containing subunits of succinate-quinone oxidoreductase (SQR); and NrcN to type-II NADH dehydrogenases (NDHs). The fourth gene, nrcE, encodes a membrane protein with no homologues in the protein data bank. Nitrate reduction with NADH was catalyzed by membrane fractions of the wild type strain, but was severely impaired in nrc::kat insertion mutants. A fusion to a thermophilic reporter gene was used for the first time in Thermus spp. to show that expression of nrc required the presence of nitrate and anoxic conditions. Therefore, a role for the nrc products as a new type of membrane NDH specific for nitrate respiration was deduced. Consistent with this, nrc::kat mutants grew more slowly than the wild type strain under anaerobic conditions, but not in the presence of oxygen. The oligomeric structure of this Nrc-NDH was deduced from the analysis of insertion mutants and a two-hybrid bacterial system. Attachment to the membrane of NrcD, NrcF, and NrcN was dependent on NrcE, whose cytoplasmic C terminus interacts with the three proteins. Interactions were also detected between NrcN and NrcF. Inactivation of nrcF produced solubilization of NrcN, but not of NrcD. These data lead us to conclude that the Nrc proteins form a distinct third type of bacterial respiratory NDH.

  • 20.
    Chautard, Hélène
    et al.
    Biométhodes SA, Evry, France.
    Blas-Galindo, Emilio
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Menguy, Thierry
    Biométhodes SA, Evry, France.
    Grand'Moursel, Laure
    Biométhodes SA, Evry, France.
    Cava, Felipe
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Berenguer, José
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Delcourt, Marc
    Biométhodes SA, Evry, France.
    An activity-independent selection system of thermostable protein variants2007In: Nature Methods, ISSN 1548-7091, E-ISSN 1548-7105, Vol. 4, no 11, 919-921 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe an activity-independent method for the selection of thermostable mutants of any protein. It is based on a fusion construct comprising the protein of interest and a thermostable antibiotic resistance reporter, in such a way that thermostable mutants provide increased resistance in a thermophile. We isolated thermostable mutants of three human interferons and of two enzymes to demonstrate the applicability of the system.

  • 21. Cuenca, Miguelangel
    et al.
    Pfister, Simona P.
    Buschor, Stefanie
    Bayramova, Firuza
    Hernandez, Sara B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Kuru, Erkin
    Van Nieuwenhze, Michael S.
    Brun, Yves V.
    Coelho, Fernanda M.
    Hapfelmeier, Siegfried
    D-Alanine-Controlled Transient Intestinal Mono-Colonization with Non-Laboratory-Adapted Commensal E. coli Strain HS2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 3, e0151872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soon after birth the mammalian gut microbiota forms a permanent and collectively highly resilient consortium. There is currently no robust method for re-deriving an already microbially colonized individual again-germ-free. We previously developed the in vivo growth-incompetent E. coli K-12 strain HA107 that is auxotrophic for the peptidoglycan components D-alanine (D-Ala) and meso-diaminopimelic acid (Dap) and can be used to transiently associate germ-free animals with live bacteria, without permanent loss of germ-free status. Here we describe the translation of this experimental model from the laboratory-adapted E. coli K-12 prototype to the better gut-adapted commensal strain E. coli HS. In this genetic background it was necessary to complete the D-Ala auxotrophy phenotype by additional knockout of the hypothetical third alanine racemase metC. Cells of the resulting fully auxotrophic strain assembled a peptidoglycan cell wall of normal composition, as long as provided with D-Ala and Dap in the medium, but could not proliferate a single time after D-Ala/Dap removal. Yet, unsupplemented bacteria remained active and were able to complete their cell cycle with fully sustained motility until immediately before autolytic death. Also in vivo, the transiently colonizing bacteria retained their ability to stimulate a live-bacteria-specific intestinal Immunoglobulin (Ig) A response. Full D-Ala auxotrophy enabled rapid recovery to again-germ-free status. E. coli HS has emerged from human studies and genomic analyses as a paradigm of benign intestinal commensal E. coli strains. Its reversibly colonizing derivative may provide a versatile research tool for mucosal bacterial conditioning or compound delivery without permanent colonization.

  • 22.
    de Pedro, Miguel A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Structural constraints and dynamics of bacterial cell wall architecture2015In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 6, 449Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The peptidoglycan wall (PG) is a unique structure which confers physical strength and defined shape to bacteria. It consists of a net-like macromolecule of peptide interlinked glycan chains overlying the cell membrane. The structure and layout of the PG dictates that the wall has to be continuously modified as bacteria go through division, morphological differentiation, and adaptive responses. The PG is poorly known in structural terms. However, to understand morphogenesis a precise knowledge of glycan strand arrangement and of local effects of the different kinds of subunits is essential. The scarcity of data led to a conception of the PG as a regular, highly ordered structure which strongly influenced growth models. Here, we review the structure of the PG to define a more realistic conceptual framework. We discuss the consequences of the plasticity of murein architecture in morphogenesis and try to define a set of minimal structural constraints that must be fulfilled by any model to be compatible with present day information.

  • 23. Desmarais, Samantha M.
    et al.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    de Pedro, Miguel A.
    Huang, Kerwyn Casey
    Isolation and preparation of bacterial cell walls for compositional analysis by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography2014In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, no 83, UNSP e51183- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bacterial cell wall is critical for the determination of cell shape during growth and division, and maintains the mechanical integrity of cells in the face of turgor pressures several atmospheres in magnitude. Across the diverse shapes and sizes of the bacterial kingdom, the cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan, a macromolecular network of sugar strands crosslinked by short peptides. Peptidoglycan's central importance to bacterial physiology underlies its use as an antibiotic target and has motivated genetic, structural, and cell biological studies of how it is robustly assembled during growth and division. Nonetheless, extensive investigations are still required to fully characterize the key enzymatic activities in peptidoglycan synthesis and the chemical composition of bacterial cell walls. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is a powerful analytical method for quantifying differences in the chemical composition of the walls of bacteria grown under a variety of environmental and genetic conditions, but its throughput is often limited. Here, we present a straightforward procedure for the isolation and preparation of bacterial cell walls for biological analyses of peptidoglycan via HPLC and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), an extension of HPLC that utilizes pumps to deliver ultra-high pressures of up to 15,000 psi, compared with 6,000 psi for HPLC. In combination with the preparation of bacterial cell walls presented here, the low-volume sample injectors, detectors with high sampling rates, smaller sample volumes, and shorter run times of UPLC will enable high resolution and throughput for novel discoveries of peptidoglycan composition and fundamental bacterial cell biology in most biological laboratories with access to an ultracentrifuge and UPLC.

  • 24.
    Desmarais, Samantha M
    et al.
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    De Pedro, Miguel A
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Huang, Kerwyn Casey
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Peptidoglycan at its peaks: how chromatographic analyses can reveal bacterial cell wall structure and assembly2013In: Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0950-382X, E-ISSN 1365-2958, Vol. 89, no 1, 1-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall is a unique macromolecule responsible for both shape determination and cellular integrity under osmotic stress in virtually all bacteria. A quantitative understanding of the relationships between PG architecture, morphogenesis, immune system activation and pathogenesis can provide molecular-scale insights into the function of proteins involved in cell wall synthesis and cell growth. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has played an important role in our understanding of the structural and chemical complexity of the cell wall by providing an analytical method to quantify differences in chemical composition. Here, we present a primer on the basic chemical features of wall structure that can be revealed through HPLC, along with a description of the applications of HPLC PG analyses for interpreting the effects of genetic and chemical perturbations to a variety of bacterial species in different environments. We describe the physical consequences of different PG compositions on cell shape, and review complementary experimental and computational methodologies for PG analysis. Finally, we present a partial list of future targets of development for HPLC and related techniques.

  • 25. Desmarais, Samantha M
    et al.
    Tropini, Carolina
    Miguel, Amanda
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Monds, Russell D
    de Pedro, Miguel A
    Huang, Kerwyn Casey
    High-throughput, Highly Sensitive Analyses of Bacterial Morphogenesis Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography2015In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 290, no 52, 31090-31100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bacterial cell wall is a network of glycan strands crosslinked by short peptides (peptidoglycan); it is responsible for the mechanical integrity of the cell and shape determination. Liquid chromatography can be used to measure the abundance of the muropeptide subunits composing the cell wall. Characteristics such as the degree of cross-linking and average glycan strand length are known to vary across species. However, a systematic comparison among strains of a given species has yet to be undertaken, making it difficult to assess the origins of variability in peptidoglycan composition. We present a protocol for muropeptide analysis using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and demonstrate that UPLC achieves resolution comparable with that of HPLC while requiring orders of magnitude less injection volume and a fraction of the elution time. We also developed a software platform to automate the identification and quantification of chromatographic peaks, which we demonstrate has improved accuracy relative to other software. This combined experimental and computational methodology revealed that peptidoglycan composition was approximately maintained across strains from three Gram-negative species despite taxonomical and morphological differences. Peptidoglycan composition and density were maintained after we systematically altered cell size in Escherichia coli using the antibiotic A22, indicating that cell shape is largely decoupled from the biochemistry of peptidoglycan synthesis. High-throughput, sensitive UPLC combined with our automated software for chromatographic analysis will accelerate the discovery of peptidoglycan composition and the molecular mechanisms of cell wall structure determination.

  • 26. Dörr, Tobias
    et al.
    Alvarez, Laura
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Delgado, Fernanda
    Davis, Brigid M.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Waldor, Matthew K.
    A cell wall damage response mediated by a sensor kinase/response regulator pair enables beta-lactam tolerance2016In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, no 2, 404-409 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bacterial cell wall is critical for maintenance of cell shape and survival. Following exposure to antibiotics that target enzymes required for cell wall synthesis, bacteria typically lyse. Although several cell envelope stress response systems have been well described, there is little knowledge of systems that modulate cell wall synthesis in response to cell wall damage, particularly in Gram-negative bacteria. Here we describe WigK/WigR, a histidine kinase/response regulator pair that enables Vibrio cholerae, the cholera pathogen, to survive exposure to antibiotics targeting cell wall synthesis in vitro and during infection. Unlike wild-type V. cholerae, mutants lacking wigR fail to recover following exposure to cell-wall-acting antibiotics, and they exhibit a drastically increased cell diameter in the absence of such antibiotics. Conversely, overexpression of wigR leads to cell slimming. Overexpression of activated WigR also results in increased expression of the full set of cell wall synthesis genes and to elevated cell wall content. WigKR-dependent expression of cell wall synthesis genes is induced by various cell-wall-acting antibiotics as well as by overexpression of an endogenous cell wall hydrolase. Thus, WigKR appears to monitor cell wall integrity and to enhance the capacity for increased cell wall production in response to damage. Taken together, these findings implicate WigKR as a regulator of cell wall synthesis that controls cell wall homeostasis in response to antibiotics and likely during normal growth as well.

  • 27.
    Dörr, Tobias
    et al.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA ; Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School and HHMI, Boston, MA, USA .
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). 3 Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.
    Lam, Hubert
    Discovery Research, Sanofi Pasteur, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Davis, Brigid M
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA ; Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School and HHMI, Boston, MA, USA .
    Waldor, Matthew K
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA ; Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School and HHMI, Boston, MA, USA .
    Substrate specificity of an elongation-specific peptidoglycan endopeptidase and its implications for cell wall architecture and growth of Vibrio cholerae2013In: Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0950-382X, E-ISSN 1365-2958, Vol. 89, no 5, 949-962 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bacterial cell wall consists of peptidoglycan (PG), a sturdy mesh of glycan strands cross-linked by short peptides. This rigid structure constrains cell shape and size, yet is sufficiently dynamic to accommodate insertion of newly synthesized PG, which was long hypothesized, and recently demonstrated, to require cleavage of the covalent peptide cross-links that couple previously inserted material. Here, we identify several genes in Vibrio cholerae that collectively are required for growth - particularly elongation - of this pathogen. V. cholerae encodes three putative periplasmic proteins, here denoted ShyA, ShyB, and ShyC, that contain both PG binding and M23 family peptidase domains. While none is essential individually, the absence of both ShyA and ShyC results in synthetic lethality, while the absence of ShyA and ShyB causes a significant growth deficiency. ShyA is a D,d-endopeptidase able to cleave most peptide chain cross-links in V. cholerae's PG. PG from a ∆shyA mutant has decreased average chain length, suggesting that ShyA may promote removal of short PG strands. Unexpectedly, ShyA has little activity against muropeptides containing pentapeptides, which typically characterize newly synthesized material. ShyA's substrate-dependent activity may contribute to selection of cleavage sites in PG, whose implications for the process of side-wall growth are discussed.

  • 28. Dörr, Tobias
    et al.
    Lam, Hubert
    Alvarez, Laura
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Davis, Brigid M.
    Waldor, Matthew K.
    A novel peptidoglycan binding protein crucial for PBP1A-mediated cell wall biogenesis in Vibrio cholerae2014In: PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 10, no 6, e1004433- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bacterial cell wall, which is comprised of a mesh of polysaccharide strands crosslinked via peptide bridges (peptidoglycan, PG), is critical for maintenance of cell shape and survival. PG assembly is mediated by a variety of Penicillin Binding Proteins (PBP) whose fundamental activities have been characterized in great detail; however, there is limited knowledge of the factors that modulate their activities in different environments or growth phases. In Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, PG synthesis during the transition into stationary phase is primarily mediated by the bifunctional enzyme PBP1A. Here, we screened an ordered V. cholerae transposon library for mutants that are sensitive to growth inhibition by non-canonical D-amino acids (DAA), which prevent growth and maintenance of cell shape in PBP1A-deficient V. cholerae. In addition to PBP1A and its lipoprotein activator LpoA, we found that CsiV, a small periplasmic protein with no previously described function, is essential for growth in the presence of DAA. Deletion of csiV, like deletion of lpoA or the PBP1A-encoding gene mrcA, causes cells to lose their rod shape in the presence of DAA or the beta-lactam antibiotic cefsulodin, and all three mutations are synthetically lethal with deletion of mrcB, which encodes PBP1B, V. cholerae's second key bifunctional PBP. CsiV interacts with LpoA and PG but apparently not with PBP1A, supporting the hypothesis that CsiV promotes LpoA's role as an activator of PBP1A, and thereby modulates V. cholerae PG biogenesis. Finally, the requirement for CsiV in PBP1A-mediated growth of V. cholerae can be overcome either by augmenting PG synthesis or by reducing PG degradation, thereby highlighting the importance of balancing these two processes for bacterial survival.

  • 29. Dörr, Tobias
    et al.
    Möll, Andrea
    Chao, Michael C.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Lam, Hubert
    Davis, Brigid M.
    Waldor, Matthew K.
    Differential Requirement for PBP1a and PBP1b in In Vivo and In Vitro Fitness of Vibrio cholerae2014In: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 82, no 5, 2115-2124 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the roles of the Vibrio cholerae high-molecular-weight bifunctional penicillin binding proteins, PBP1a and PBP1b, in the fitness of this enteric pathogen. Using a screen for synthetic lethality, we found that the V. cholerae PBP1a and PBP1b proteins, like their Escherichia coli homologues, are each essential in the absence of the other and in the absence of the other's putative activator, the outer membrane lipoproteins LpoA and LpoB, respectively. Comparative analyses of V. cholerae mutants suggest that PBP1a/LpoA of V. cholerae play a more prominent role in generating and/or maintaining the pathogen's cell wall than PBP1b/LpoB.V. cholerae lacking PBP1b or LpoB exhibited wild-type growth under all conditions tested. In contrast, V. cholerae lacking PBP1a or LpoA exhibited growth deficiencies in minimal medium, in the presence of deoxycholate and bile, and in competition assays with wild-type cells both in vitro and in the infant mouse small intestine. PBP1a pathway mutants are particularly impaired in stationary phase, which renders them sensitive to a product(s) present in supernatants from stationary-phase wild-type cells. The marked competitive defect of the PBP1a pathway mutants in vivo was largely absent when exponential-phase cells rather than stationary-phase cells were used to inoculate suckling mice. Thus, at least for V. cholerae PBP1a pathway mutants, the growth phase of the inoculum is a key modulator of infectivity.

  • 30.
    Espaillat, Akbar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Carrasco-Lopez, Cesar
    Bernardo-Garcia, Noelia
    Pietrosemoli, Natalia
    Otero, Lisandro H.
    Alvarez, Laura
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    de Pedro, Miguel A.
    Pazos, Florencio
    Davis, Brigid M.
    Waldor, Matthew K.
    Hermoso, Juan A.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Structural basis for the broad specificity of a new family of amino-acid racemases2014In: Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography, ISSN 0907-4449, E-ISSN 1399-0047, Vol. 70, 79-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Broad-spectrum amino-acid racemases (Bsrs) enable bacteria to generate noncanonical D-amino acids, the roles of which in microbial physiology, including the modulation of cell-wall structure and the dissolution of biofilms, are just beginning to be appreciated. Here, extensive crystallographic, mutational, biochemical and bioinformatic studies were used to define the molecular features of the racemase BsrV that enable this enzyme to accommodate more diverse substrates than the related PLP-dependent alanine racemases. Conserved residues were identified that distinguish BsrV and a newly defined family of broad-spectrum racemases from alanine racemases, and these residues were found to be key mediators of the multispecificity of BrsV. Finally, the structural analysis of an additional Bsr that was identified in the bioinformatic analysis confirmed that the distinguishing features of BrsV are conserved among Bsr family members.

  • 31.
    Espaillat, Akbar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Forsmo, Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    El Biari, Khouzaima
    Björk, Rafael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lemaitre, Bruno
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Canada, Francisco Javier
    de Pedro, Miguel A.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Chemometric Analysis of Bacterial Peptidoglycan Reveals Atypical Modifications That Empower the Cell Wall against Predatory Enzymes and Fly Innate Immunity2016In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 138, no 29, 9193-9204 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peptidoglycan is a fundamental structure for most bacteria. It contributes to the cell morphology and provides cell wall integrity against environmental insults. While several studies have reported a significant degree of variability in the chemical composition and organization of peptidoglycan in the domain Bacteria, the real diversity of this polymer is far from fully explored. This work exploits rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography and multivariate data analysis to uncover peptidoglycan chemical diversity in the Class Alphaproteobacteria, a group of Gram negative bacteria that are highly heterogeneous in terms of metabolism, morphology and life-styles. Indeed, chemometric analyses revealed novel peptidoglycan structures conserved in Acetobacteria: amidation at the alpha-(L)-carboxyl of meso-diaminopimelic acid and the presence of muropeptides cross-linked by (1-3) L-Ala-D-(meso)diaminopimelate cross-links. Both structures are growth-controlled modifications that influence sensitivity to Type VI secretion system peptidoglycan endopeptidases and recognition by the Drosophila innate immune system, suggesting relevant roles in the environmental adaptability of these bacteria. Collectively our findings demonstrate the discriminative power of chemometric tools on large cell wall-chromatographic data sets to discover novel peptidoglycan structural properties in bacteria.

  • 32. Felgner, S
    et al.
    Frahm, M
    Kocijancic, D
    Rohde, M
    Eckweiler, D
    Bielecka, A
    Bueno, Emilio
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Abraham, WR
    Curtiss, R
    Häussler, S
    Erhardt, M
    Weiss, S
    aroA-Deficient Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Is More Than a Metabolically Attenuated Mutant2016In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 7, no 5, e01220-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains are believed to act as powerful live vaccine carriers that are able to elicit protection against various pathogens. Auxotrophic mutations, such as a deletion of aroA, are commonly introduced into such bacteria for attenuation without incapacitating immunostimulation. In this study, we describe the surprising finding that deletion of aroA dramatically increased the virulence of attenuated Salmonella in mouse models. Mutant bacteria lacking aroA elicited increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) after systemic application. A detailed genetic and phenotypic characterization in combination with transcriptomic and metabolic profiling demonstrated that Delta aroA mutants display pleiotropic alterations in cellular physiology and lipid and amino acid metabolism, as well as increased sensitivity to penicillin, complement, and phagocytic uptake. In concert with other immunomodulating mutations, deletion of aroA affected flagellin phase variation and gene expression of the virulence-associated genes arnT and ansB. Finally, Delta aroA strains displayed significantly improved tumor therapeutic activity. These results highlight the importance of a functional shikimate pathway to control homeostatic bacterial physiology. They further highlight the great potential of Delta aroA-attenuated Salmonella for the development of vaccines and cancer therapies with important implications for host-pathogen interactions and translational medicine. 

    IMPORTANCE Recombinant attenuated bacterial vector systems based on genetically engineered Salmonella have been developed as highly potent vaccines. Due to the pathogenic properties of Salmonella, efficient attenuation is required for clinical applications. Since the hallmark study by Hoiseth and Stocker in 1981 (S. K. Hoiseth and B. A. D. Stocker, Nature 291:238-239, 1981, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/291238a0), the auxotrophic Delta aroA mutation has been generally considered safe and universally used to attenuate bacterial strains. Here, we are presenting the remarkable finding that a deletion of aroA leads to pronounced alterations of gene expression, metabolism, and cellular physiology, which resulted in increased immunogenicity, virulence, and adjuvant potential of Salmonella. These results suggest that the enhanced immunogenicity of aroA-deficient Salmonella strains might be advantageous for optimizing bacterial vaccine carriers and immunotherapy. Accordingly, we demonstrate a superior performance of Delta aroA Salmonella in bacterium-mediated tumor therapy. In addition, the present study highlights the importance of a functional shikimate pathway to sustain bacterial physiology and metabolism.

  • 33. Ghssein, Ghassan
    et al.
    Brutesco, Catherine
    Ouerdane, Laurent
    Fojcik, Clementine
    Izaute, Amelie
    Wang, Shuanglong
    Hajjar, Christine
    Lobinski, Ryszard
    Lemaire, David
    Richaud, Pierre
    Voulhoux, Rome
    Espaillat, Akbar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Pignol, David
    Borezee-Durant, Elise
    Arnoux, Pascal
    Biosynthesis of a broad-spectrum nicotianamine-like metallophore in Staphylococcus aureus2016In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 352, no 6289, 1105-1109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal acquisition is a vital microbial process in metal-scarce environments, such as inside a host. Using metabolomic exploration, targeted mutagenesis, and biochemical analysis, we discovered an operon in Staphylococcus aureus that encodes the different functions required for the biosynthesis and trafficking of a broad-spectrum metallophore related to plant nicotianamine (here called staphylopine). The biosynthesis of staphylopine reveals the association of three enzyme activities: a histidine racemase, an enzyme distantly related to nicotianamine synthase, and a staphylopine dehydrogenase belonging to the DUF2338 family. Staphylopine is involved in nickel, cobalt, zinc, copper, and iron acquisition, depending on the growth conditions. This biosynthetic pathway is conserved across other pathogens, thus underscoring the importance of this metal acquisition strategy in infection.

  • 34.
    Hernández, Sara B
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Environmental roles of microbial amino acid racemases2016In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 18, no 6, 1673-1685 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzymes catalysing the stereo-chemical inter-conversion of amino acids are known as amino acid racemases. In bacteria, these enzymes are fundamental to synthesize the D-Ala and D-Glu that are critical components of the peptidoglycan. In addition to this structural function in cell wall assembly, D-amino acids produced by microbial amino acid racemases have been described as relevant constituents in other prokaryotic structures (e.g. capsule, non-ribosomal peptides) and have been associated to growth fitness and to processes such as biofilm development, spore germination, and signalling. The recent discovery of broad spectrum racemases able to produce and release several D-amino acids to the environment suggests that these enzymes might have a great impact in microbial ecology. Consequently, new data on the biochemistry and regulation of racemases is key to understand the biological significance of D-enantiomers in nature, in particular their effect on microbial social networks. This review summarizes current knowledge on the environmental roles of bacterial racemases with an emphasis on the potential roles of the new broad spectrum enzymes in natural environments.

  • 35. Hernández, Sara B
    et al.
    Cava, Felipe
    Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC-Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Pucciarelli, Maria Graciela
    García-Del Portillo, Francisco
    de Pedro, Miguel A
    Casadesús, Josep
    Bile-induced peptidoglycan remodeling in Salmonella enterica2015In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 17, no 4, 1081-1089 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the peptidoglycan (PG) structure of Salmonella enterica are detected in the presence of a sublethal concentration of sodium deoxycholate (DOC): (i) lower proportions of Braun lipoprotein (Lpp)-bound muropeptides; (ii) reduced levels of muropeptides cross-linked by L(meso)-diaminopimelyl-D(meso)-diaminopimelic acid (L-D) peptide bridges (3-3 cross-links). Similar structural changes are found in S. enterica cultures adapted to grow in the presence of a lethal concentration of DOC, suggesting that reduced anchoring of Braun protein to PG and low occurrence of 3-3 cross-links may increase S. enterica resistance to bile. This view is further supported by additional observations: (i) A triple mutant lacking L,D-transpeptidases YbiS, ErfK, and YcfS, which does not contain Lpp anchored to PG, is hyper-resistant to bile; (ii) enhanced 3-3 cross-linking upon overexpression of YnhG transpeptidase causes a decrease in bile resistance. These observations suggest that remodelling of the cell wall may be added to the list of adaptive responses that permit survival of S. enterica in the presence of bile.

  • 36.
    Hidalgo, Aurelio
    et al.
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica-CSIC.
    Betancor, Lorena
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica-CSIC.
    Moreno, Renata
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Zafra, Olga
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Cava, Felipe
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Fernández-Lafuente, Roberto
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica-CSIC.
    Guisán, José M
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica-CSIC.
    Berenguer, José
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Thermus thermophilus as a cell factory for the production of a thermophilic Mn-dependent catalase which fails to be synthesized in an active form in Escherichia coli2004In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 70, no 7, 3839-3844 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermostable Mn-dependent catalases are promising enzymes in biotechnological applications as H(2)O(2)-detoxifying systems. We cloned the genes encoding Mn-dependent catalases from Thermus thermophilus HB27 and HB8 and a less thermostable mutant carrying two amino acid replacements (M129V and E293G). When the wild-type and mutant genes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, unmodified or six-His-tagged proteins of the expected size were overproduced as inactive proteins. Several attempts to obtain active forms or to activate the overproduced proteins were unsuccessful, even when soluble and thermostable proteins were used. Therefore, a requirement for a Thermus-specific activation factor was suggested. To overcome this problem, the Mn-dependent catalase genes were overexpressed directly in T. thermophilus under the control of the Pnar promoter. This promoter belongs to a respiratory nitrate reductase from of T. thermophilus HB8, whose transcription is activated by the combined action of nitrate and anoxia. Upon induction in T. thermophilus HB8, a 20- to 30-fold increase in catalase specific activity was observed, whereas a 90- to 110-fold increase was detected when the laboratory strain T. thermophilus HB27::nar was used as the host. The thermostability of the overproduced wild-type catalase was identical to that previously reported for the native enzyme, whereas decreased stability was detected for the mutant derivative. Therefore, our results validate the use of T. thermophilus as an alternative cell factory for the overproduction of thermophilic proteins that fail to be expressed in well-known mesophilic hosts.

  • 37.
    Horcajo, Pilar
    et al.
    Centro de Biología Molecular ‘‘Severo Ochoa,’’ Universidad Autónoma de Madrid-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.
    de Pedro, Miguel A
    Centro de Biología Molecular ‘‘Severo Ochoa,’’ Universidad Autónoma de Madrid-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.
    Cava, Felipe
    Centro de Biología Molecular ‘‘Severo Ochoa,’’ Universidad Autónoma de Madrid-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.
    Peptidoglycan plasticity in bacteria: stress-induced peptidoglycan editing by noncanonical D-amino acids2012In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 18, no 3, 306-313 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been generally assumed that the role of D-amino acids in bacterial physiology is rather limited. However, recent new evidence demonstrated that millimolar concentrations of noncanonical D-amino acids are synthesized and released to the environment by bacteria from diverse phyla. These D-amino acids help bacteria adapt to environmental challenges by modulating the structure and composition of the peptidoglycan (PG). This regulation, which appears to be well conserved among bacterial species, occurs principally through the incorporation of the D-amino acids into the terminus of the peptide moiety of muropeptides. These findings revived interest in studies investigating D-amino acids as an exciting and trendy topic in current microbiology, which considers them as fundamental players in different aspects of bacterial physiology. In this article, we provide an overview of the origins of research on the effects of D-amino acids in the biology of bacterial cell walls, including their recent implication as key factors for stress-associated PG remodeling.

  • 38. Howell, Matthew
    et al.
    Aliashkevich, Alena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Salisbury, Anne K.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Bowman, Grant R.
    Brown, Pamela J. B.
    Absence of the Polar Organizing Protein PopZ Results in Reduced and Asymmetric Cell Division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens2017In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 199, no 17, UNSP e00101-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a rod-shaped bacterium that grows by polar insertion of new peptidoglycan during cell elongation. As the cell cycle progresses, peptidoglycan synthesis at the pole ceases prior to insertion of new peptidoglycan at midcell to enable cell division. The A. tumefaciens homolog of the Caulobacter crescentus polar organelle development protein PopZ has been identified as a growth pole marker and a candidate polar growth-promoting factor. Here, we characterize the function of PopZ in cell growth and division of A. tumefaciens. Consistent with previous observations, we observe that PopZ localizes specifically to the growth pole in wild-type cells. Despite the striking localization pattern of PopZ, we find the absence of the protein does not impair polar elongation or cause major changes in the peptidoglycan composition. Instead, we observe an atypical cell length distribution, including minicells, elongated cells, and cells with ectopic poles. Most minicells lack DNA, suggesting a defect in chromosome segregation. Furthermore, the canonical cell division proteins FtsZ and FtsA are misplaced, leading to asymmetric sites of cell constriction. Together, these data suggest that PopZ plays an important role in the regulation of chromosome segregation and cell division. IMPORTANCE A. tumefaciens is a bacterial plant pathogen and a natural genetic engineer. However, very little is known about the spatial and temporal regulation of cell wall biogenesis that leads to polar growth in this bacterium. Understanding the molecular basis of A. tumefaciens growth may allow for the development of innovations to prevent disease or to promote growth during biotechnology applications. Finally, since many closely related plant and animal pathogens exhibit polar growth, discoveries in A. tumefaciens may be broadly applicable for devising antimicrobial strategies.

  • 39. Kudrin, Pavel
    et al.
    Varik, Vallo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Oliveira, Sofia Raquel Alves
    Beljantseva, Jelena
    Santos, Teresa Del Peso
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Dzhygyr, Ievgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Rejman, Dominik
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Tenson, Tanel
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Subinhibitory Concentrations of Bacteriostatic Antibiotics Induce relA-Dependent and relA-Independent Tolerance to beta-Lactams2017In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 61, no 4, e02173-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nucleotide (p) ppGpp is a key regulator of bacterial metabolism, growth, stress tolerance, and virulence. During amino acid starvation, the Escherichia coli (p) ppGpp synthetase RelA is activated by deacylated tRNA in the ribosomal A-site. An increase in (p) ppGpp is believed to drive the formation of antibiotic-tolerant persister cells, prompting the development of strategies to inhibit (p) ppGpp synthesis. We show that in a biochemical system from purified E. coli components, the antibiotic thiostrepton efficiently inhibits RelA activation by the A-site tRNA. In bacterial cultures, the ribosomal inhibitors thiostrepton, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline all efficiently abolish accumulation of (p) ppGpp induced by the Ile-tRNA synthetase inhibitor mupirocin. This abolishment, however, does not reduce the persister level. In contrast, the combination of dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor trimethoprim with mupirocin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol leads to ampicillin tolerance. The effect is independent of RelA functionality, specific to beta-lactams, and not observed with the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin. These results refine our understanding of (p) ppGpp's role in antibiotic tolerance and persistence and demonstrate unexpected drug interactions that lead to tolerance to bactericidal antibiotics.

  • 40.
    Kumar, Keshav
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Constraint randomised non-negative factor analysis (CRNNFA): an alternate chemometrics approach for analysing the biochemical data sets2017In: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 142, no 11, 1916-1928 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work introduces an alternate chemometrics approach constraint randomised non-negative factor analysis (CRNNFA) for analysing the bioanalytical data sets. The CRNNFA algorithm provides the outputs that are easy to interpret and correlate with the real chromatograms. The CRNNFA algorithm achieves termination when the iteration limit is reached circumventing the premature convergence. Theoretical and computational aspects of the proposed method are also described. The analytical and computational potential of CRNNFA are successfully tested by analysing the complex chromatograms of the peptidoglycan samples belonging to the Alphaproteobacterium members. The obtained results clearly show that CRNNFA can easily trace the compositional variability of the peptidoglycan samples. In summary, the proposed method in general can be a potential alternate approach for analysing the data sets obtained from different analytical and clinical fields.

  • 41.
    Kuru, Erkin
    et al.
    Indiana University, Bloomington, USA.
    Hughes, H Velocity
    Indiana University, Bloomington, USA.
    Brown, Pamela J
    Indiana University, Bloomington, USA.
    Hall, Edward
    Indiana University, Bloomington, USA.
    Tekkam, Srinivas
    Indiana University, Bloomington, USA.
    Cava, Felipe
    Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    de Pedro, Miguel A
    Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Brun, Yves V
    Indiana University, Bloomington, USA.
    VanNieuwenhze, Michael S
    Indiana University, Bloomington, USA.
    In Situ probing of newly synthesized peptidoglycan in live bacteria with fluorescent D-amino acids2012In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 51, no 50, 12519-12523 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tracking a bug's life: Peptidoglycan (PG) of diverse bacteria is labeled by exploiting the tolerance of cells for incorporating different non-natural D-amino acids. These nontoxic D-amino acids preferably label the sites of active PG synthesis, thereby enabling fine spatiotemporal tracking of cell-wall dynamics in phylogenetically and morphologically diverse bacteria. HCC = 7-hydroxycoumarin, NBD = 7-nitrobenzofurazan, TAMRA = carboxytetramethylrhodamine.

  • 42.
    Lam, Hubert
    et al.
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA, USA.
    Oh, Dong-Chan
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Cava, Felipe
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA, USA.
    Takacs, Constantin N
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA, USA.
    Clardy, Jon
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    de Pedro, Miguel A
    CBM ‘Severo Ochoa’ CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Waldor, Matthew K
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA, USA.
    D-amino acids govern stationary phase cell wall remodeling in bacteria2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 325, no 5947, 1552-1555 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In all known organisms, amino acids are predominantly thought to be synthesized and used as their L-enantiomers. Here, we found that bacteria produce diverse D-amino acids as well, which accumulate at millimolar concentrations in supernatants of stationary phase cultures. In Vibrio cholerae, a dedicated racemase produced D-Met and D-Leu, whereas Bacillus subtilis generated D-Tyr and D-Phe. These unusual D-amino acids appear to modulate synthesis of peptidoglycan, a strong and elastic polymer that serves as the stress-bearing component of the bacterial cell wall. D-Amino acids influenced peptidoglycan composition, amount, and strength, both by means of their incorporation into the polymer and by regulating enzymes that synthesize and modify it. Thus, synthesis of D-amino acids may be a common strategy for bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions.

  • 43.
    Laptenko, Oleg
    et al.
    Department of Cell Biology, School of Osteopathic Medicine at Stratford, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ, USA.
    Kim, Seung-Sup
    Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
    Lee, Jookyung
    Department of Cell Biology, School of Osteopathic Medicine at Stratford, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ, USA.
    Starodubtseva, Marina
    Department of Cell Biology, School of Osteopathic Medicine at Stratford, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ, USA.
    Cava, Felipe
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Berenguer, Jose
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Kong, Xiang-Peng
    Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
    Borukhov, Sergei
    Department of Cell Biology, School of Osteopathic Medicine at Stratford, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ, USA.
    pH-dependent conformational switch activates the inhibitor of transcription elongation2006In: EMBO Journal, ISSN 0261-4189, E-ISSN 1460-2075, Vol. 25, no 10, 2131-2141 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gfh1, a transcription factor from Thermus thermophilus, inhibits all catalytic activities of RNA polymerase (RNAP). We characterized the Gfh1 structure, function and possible mechanism of action and regulation. Gfh1 inhibits RNAP by competing with NTPs for coordinating the active site Mg2+ ion. This coordination requires at least two aspartates at the tip of the Gfh1 N-terminal coiled-coil domain (NTD). The overall structure of Gfh1 is similar to that of the Escherichia coli transcript cleavage factor GreA, except for the flipped orientation of the C-terminal domain (CTD). We show that depending on pH, Gfh1-CTD exists in two alternative orientations. At pH above 7, it assumes an inactive 'flipped' orientation seen in the structure, which prevents Gfh1 from binding to RNAP. At lower pH, Gfh1-CTD switches to an active 'Gre-like' orientation, which enables Gfh1 to bind to and inhibit RNAP.

  • 44. LeRoux, Frederique
    et al.
    Wegner, K. Mathias
    Baker-Austin, Craig
    Vezzulli, Luigi
    Osorio, Carlos R.
    Amaro, Carmen
    Ritchie, Jennifer M.
    Defoirdt, Tom
    Destoumieux-Garzon, Delphine
    Blokesch, Melanie
    Mazel, Didier
    Jacq, Annick
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Gram, Lone
    Wendling, Carolin C.
    Strauch, Eckhard
    Kirschner, Alexander
    Huehn, Stephan
    The emergence of Vibrio pathogens in Europe: ecology, evolution, and pathogenesis (Paris, 11-12th March 2015)2015In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 6, 830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change has caused a worldwide increase in reports of Vibrio-associated diseases with ecosystem-wide impacts on humans and marine animals. In Europe, higher prevalence of human infections followed regional climatic trends with outbreaks occurring during episodes of unusually warm weather. Similar patterns were also observed in Vibrio-associated diseases affecting marine organisms such as fish, bivalves and corals. Basic knowledge is still lacking on the ecology and evolutionary biology of these bacteria as well as on their virulence mechanisms. Current limitations in experimental systems to study infection and the lack of diagnostic tools still prevent a better understanding of Vibrio emergence. A major challenge is to foster cooperation between fundamental and applied research in order to investigate the consequences of pathogen emergence in natural Vibrio populations and answer federative questions that meet societal needs. Here we report the proceedings of the first European workshop dedicated to these specific goals of the Vibrio research community by connecting current knowledge to societal issues related to ocean health and food security.

  • 45. Maciejewska, B
    et al.
    Roszniowski, B
    Espaillat, Akbar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Kęsik-Szeloch, A
    Majkowska-Skrobek, G
    Kropinski, AM
    Briers, Y
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Lavigne, R
    Drulis-Kawa, Z
    Klebsiella phages representing a novel clade of viruses with an unknown DNA modification and biotechnologically interesting enzymes2017In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 101, no 2, 673-684 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lytic bacteriophages and phage-encoded endolysins (peptidoglycan hydrolases) provide a source for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies. In the present study, we focus on the closely related (96 % DNA sequence identity) environmental myoviruses vB_KpnM_KP15 (KP15) and vB_KpnM_KP27 (KP27) infecting multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca strains. Their genome organisation and evolutionary relationship are compared to Enterobacter phage phiEap-3 and Klebsiella phages Matisse and Miro. Due to the shared and distinct evolutionary history of these phages, we propose to create a new phage genus BKp15virus^ within the Tevenvirinae subfamily. In silico genome analysis reveals two unique putative homing endonucleases of KP27 phage, probably involved in unrevealed mechanism of DNA modification and resistance to restriction digestion, resulting in a broader host spectrum. Additionally, we identified in KP15 and KP27 a complete set of lysis genes, containing holin, antiholin, spanin and endolysin. By turbidimetric assays on permeabilized Gram-negative strains, we verified the ability of the KP27 endolysin to destroy the bacterial peptidoglycan. We confirmed high stability, absence of toxicity on a human epithelial cell line and the enzymatic specificity of endolysin, which was found to possess endopeptidase activity, cleaving the peptide stem between L-alanine and D-glutamic acid.

  • 46.
    Moell, Andrea
    et al.
    Boston, Massachusetts, USA .
    Doerr, Tobias
    Boston, Massachusetts, USA .
    Alvarez, Laura
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Chao, Michael C.
    Boston, Massachusetts, USA .
    Davis, Brigid M.
    Boston, Massachusetts, USA .
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Waldor, Matthew K.
    Boston, Massachusetts, USA .
    Cell Separation in Vibrio cholerae Is Mediated by a Single Amidase Whose Action Is Modulated by Two Nonredundant Activators2014In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 196, no 22, 3937-3948 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis and hydrolysis of septal peptidoglycan (PG) are critical processes at the conclusion of cell division that enable separation of daughter cells. Cleavage of septal PG is mediated by PG amidases, hydrolytic enzymes that release peptide side chains from the glycan strand. Most gammaproteobacteria, including Escherichia coli, encode several functionally redundant periplasmic amidases. However, members of the Vibrio genus, including the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae, encode only a single PG amidase, AmiB. Here, we show that V. cholerae AmiB is crucial for cell division and growth. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that AmiB is regulated by two activators, EnvC and NlpD, at least one of which is required for AmiB's localization to the cell division site. Localization of the activators (and thus of AmiB) is dependent upon the cell division protein FtsN. These factors mediate septal PG cleavage in E. coli as well; however, their precise roles vary between the two organisms in a number of ways. Notably, even though V. cholerae EnvC and NlpD appear to be functionally redundant under most growth conditions tested, NlpD is specifically required for intestinal colonization in the infant mouse model of cholera and for V. cholerae resistance against bile salts, perhaps due to environmental regulation of AmiB or its activators. Collectively, our findings reveal that although the cellular components that enable cleavage of septal PG appear to be generally conserved between E. coli and V. cholerae, they can be combined into diverse functional regulatory networks.

  • 47.
    Moreno, Renata
    et al.
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Hidalgo, Aurelio
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica-CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Cava, Felipe
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Fernández-Lafuente, Roberto
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica-CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Guisán, José Manuel
    Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica-CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Berenguer, José
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Use of an antisense RNA strategy to investigate the functional significance of Mn-catalase in the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus2004In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 186, no 22, 7804-7806 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expression of an antisense RNA revealed that an Mn-catalase was required in Thermus thermophilus for aerobic but not for anaerobic growth. The antisense system is based on the constitutive expression of a "bicistronic" transcript consisting of the kanamycin resistance gene mRNA followed by the antisense RNA against the selected target.

  • 48.
    Moreno, Renata
    et al.
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Zafra, Olga
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Cava, Felipe
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Berenguer, José
    Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' CSIC-UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Development of a gene expression vector for Thermus thermophilus based on the promoter of the respiratory nitrate reductase2003In: Plasmid, ISSN 0147-619X, Vol. 49, no 1, 2-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A specific expression system for Thermus spp. is described. Plasmid pMKE1 contains replicative origins for Escherichia coli and Thermus spp., a selection gene encoding a thermostable resistance to kanamycin, and a 720 bp DNA region containing the promoter (Pnar), and the regulatory sequences of the respiratory nitrate reductase operon of Thermus thermophilus HB8. Two genes, encoding a thermophilic beta-galactosidase and an alkaline phosphatase were cloned in pMKE1 as cytoplasmic and periplasmic reporters, respectively. The expression of the reporters was specifically induced by the combined action of nitrate and anoxia in facultative anaerobic derivatives of T. thermophilus HB27 to which the gene cluster for nitrate respiration was transferred by conjugation. Overexpressions in the range of approximately 200-fold were obtained for the cytoplasmic reporter, whereas that of the periplasmic reporter was limited to approximately 20-fold, with respect to their intrinsic respective activities.

  • 49. Moreno-Guzman, Maria
    et al.
    Garcia-Carmona, Laura
    Molinero-Fernandez, Agueda
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Lopez Gil, Miguel Angel
    Escarpa, Alberto
    Bi-enzymatic biosensor for on-site, fast and reliable electrochemical detection of relevant D-amino acids in bacterial samples2017In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 242, 95-101 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a bi-enzymatic biosensor allowed the total content of D-amino acids (DAAs) determination in highly relevant matrices involving bacteria. The strategy is based on the unique coimmobilization of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzymes onto a multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified screen-printed electrode (SPCE). The greater amount of AuNPs deposited and hence the greater loading of both enzymes was observed when they were deposited after the activation of the carboxylated MWCNTs with EDC/Sulfo-NHS chemistry. These platforms provided a fast (300s) and selective quantification of DAAs with excellent precision (RSD < 5%) and accuracy (Recoveries 100-104%) in bacterial samples. Collectively, the electrochemical bi-enzymatic biosensor become an universal, fast, sensitive and easy-to-use approach to determine total content of DAAs in complex matrices.

  • 50. Möll, Andrea
    et al.
    Dörr, Tobias
    Alvarez, Laura
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Davis, Brigid M
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Waldor, Matthew K
    A D, D-carboxypeptidase is required for Vibrio cholerae halotolerance2015In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 17, no 2, 527-540 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biological roles of low molecular weight penicillin-binding proteins (LMW PBP) have been difficult to discern in Gram-negative organisms. In Escherichia coli, mutants lacking these proteins often have no phenotype, and cells lacking all seven LMW PBPs remain viable. In contrast, we report here that Vibrio cholerae lacking DacA-1, a PBP5 homologue, displays slow growth, aberrant morphology and altered peptidoglycan (PG) homeostasis in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, as well as a profound plating defect. DacA-1 alone among V.cholerae'sLMW PBPs is critical for bacterial growth; mutants lacking the related protein DacA-2 and/or homologues of PBP4 or PBP7 displayed normal growth and morphology. Remarkably, the growth and morphology of the dacA-1 mutant were unimpaired in LB media containing reduced concentrations of NaCl (100mM or less), and also within suckling mice, a model host for the study of cholera pathogenesis. Peptidoglycan from the dacA-1 mutant contained elevated pentapeptide levels in standard and low salt media, and comparative analyses suggest that DacA-1 is V.cholerae's principal DD-carboxypeptidase. The basis for the dacA-1 mutant's halosensitivity is unknown; nonetheless, the mutant's survival in biochemically uncharacterized environments (such as the suckling mouse intestine) can be used as a reporter of low Na+ content.

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