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  • 1. Allard, Christina
    et al.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Hjortfors, Lis-Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Ledman, Anna-Lill
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Johansson Lönn, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Norlin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Reimerson, Elsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sehlin MacNeil, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Stoor, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Storm Mienna, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Svonni, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Össbo, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Rasbiologiskt språkbruk i statens rättsprocess mot sameby2015In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Statens hantering av forskningsresultat i rättsprocessen med Girjas sameby utgör ett hot mot Sverige som rättsstat och kunskapsnation. Åratal av svensk och internationell forskning underkänns och man använder ett språkbruk som skulle kunna vara hämtat från rasbiologins tid. Nu måste staten ta sitt ansvar och börja agera som en demokratisk rättsstat, skriver 59 forskare.

  • 2.
    Belancic, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westum, Asbjørg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Nordsamiska i och utanför skolan: språkanvändning och attityder2017In: Samisk kamp: kulturförmedling och rättviserörelse / [ed] Marianne Liliequist och Coppélie Cocq, Umeå: Bokförlaget h:ström - Text & Kultur, 2017, p. 252-279Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3. Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Panichi, Luisa
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Schneider, Christel
    Virtual Learning, Real Heritage Benefits and Challenges of VirtualWorlds for the Learning of Indigenous Minority Languages2010In: Conference Proceedings International Conference ICT for Language Learning3rd Conference Edition, Florence: Pixel , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will present the Island of Avalon Learning in the virtual world of Second Life® (SL). Avalon Learning has been created under the ongoing European projectAVALON for the design, testing and implementation of language teaching and learning in virtual worlds. Avalon (Access to Virtual and Action Learning live ONline) is a 2 year multilateral project funded under the EU EACEA Life Long Learning Programme (LLP) and runs until December 2010. The 10 participating European partners include 5 state funded universities (University of Manchester, University of Vienna, University of Pisa, Molde University College and Mid Sweden University) and 5 other public and private organisations (Verein Grenzenlos — Interkultureller Austausch, Verein Offenes Lernen — Sektion ‘TALKADEMY’, ICC International Language Network (International Certificate Conference e. V.), LANCELOT School GmbH and the British Council) operating in the following areas: language education, teacher training, intercultural training, language testing and certification, online education, publishing, business communication and networking, design of 3D environments and language learning in virtual worlds.The project is also associated with 5 other universities and 11 smaller educational institutions. The project is a transversal programme which targets language learners from the Leonardo da Vinci, Erasmus and Grundtvig communities. Not only does the project aim to create a platform in which these diverse learning communities can come together but it also has a particular interest in providing access to technology and language learning to learners in remote locations. The ultimate aim of the project is to create both a virtual environment and a sustainable community of practitioners and users which will outlive the project itself. Recent literature in the field endorses virtual worlds as a particularly appropriate platform for the development of oral language proficiency in distance education, collaborative and intercultural learning contexts and vocational training. The free client programme of Second Life®, for example, is a 3D virtual world accessible via the Internet and which enables its users to interact with each other through ‘Avatars’. An ‘avatar’ is the graphical representation of a computer user representing himself/herself or alter ego and communication with others is possible via both voice and text chat. Examples of learning scenarios from the Beginners Course of North Sami carried out in conjunction with the Avalon project will help to illustrate some of the benefits and challenges of using virtual worlds for the teaching and learning of languages in general and for indigenous minority languages in particular. Some of the benefits include the provision of online synchronous communication for linguistic communities which are dispersed over vast geographical areas, the co/re-construction of cultural and linguistic identity, opportunities for authentic language contact between native, heritage and L2 learners, the unparalleled creative dimension of the platform in particular in terms of individual and collaborative building and learner movement and freedom within the environment. This paper will conclude with a discussion of some of the challenges of using virtual worlds as a distance education platform in different language education contexts and how they may be overcome.

  • 4.
    Hornberger, Nancy H.
    et al.
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sámi time, space and place: exploring teachers' metapragmatic statements on Sámi language use, teaching and revitalization in Sápmi2015In: Confero: Essays on Education, Philosophy and Politics, ISSN 2001-4562, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westum, Asbjørg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Researching literacy development in the globalised North: studying tri-lingual children's English writing in Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish Sápmi2016In: Super Dimensions in Globalisation and Education / [ed] David R. Cole & Christine Woodrow, Singapore: Springer, 2016, p. 55-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westum, Asbjørg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Meaning-making across languages: a case study of three multilingual writers in Sápmi2017In: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 124-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sápmi is a geographical area that runs across the Kola Peninsula in Russia to northern Finland, Norway and Sweden. All Sami languages have been going through a rapid language change process and many of the traditional language domains have disappeared during the last decades due to previous national and local language policies. Nevertheless, recent growth of positive attitudes towards Sami languages and culture both within and outside the Sami group has given new momentum to the language revitalisation process. At the same time, English is becoming more present in the Sami context through tourism, media and popular culture. This study investigates 15-year-old writers' meaning-making in three languages they meet on a daily basis: North Sami, the majority language Finnish/Norwegian/Swedish and English. Data were collected in schools where writers wrote two texts in each language, one argumentative and one descriptive. Using a functional approach, we analyse how three writers make meaning across three languages and two genres. Results show that writers made use of similar ways of expressing meaning on the three levels we investigated: ideational, interpersonal and textual, but also how the production differed between the texts, and how context and content interacted with writers’ meaning-making in the three languages.

  • 7.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westum, Asbjørg
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Revising at the leading edge: shaping ideas or clearing up noise2019In: Observing writing: insights from keystroke logging and handwriting / [ed] Eva Lindgren and Kirk P H Sullivan, Leiden : Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, 1, p. 346-365Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Motteram, Gary
    et al.
    The University of Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Koenraad, Ton
    TELLConsult.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Kristi, Jauregi Ondarra
    Universiteit Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Molka-Danielsen, Judith
    Molde Universitet, Norway.
    Schneider, Christel
    The Euroversity Good Practice Framework (EGPF) and its application to minority languages and elder learners2014In: CALL Design: Principles and Practice - Proceedings of the 2014 EUROCALL Conference, Groningen, The Netherlands / [ed] Sake Jager, Linda Bradley, Estelle J. Meima, Sylvie Thouësny, Dublin, Ireland: Research-publishing.net , 2014, p. 241-247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Euroversity Network project (2011-2014) has built a Good Practice Framework (GPF) that functions as a heuristic for course and activity designers wishing to develop courses and other materials for use in a range of virtual worlds. This framework has been tested with a number of courses during the running of the project and the aim is that it will be useful for new designers as a starting point for their own ideas development. The GPF is still open for adjustment and negotiation and this paper shows how two new case studies that were not the direct focus of the project, minority languages and elder learners, help to expose some of the framework’s weaknesses, but also many of its strengths. These case studies illustrate that a tool like the GPF can provide an effective mediating function for a variety of courses and other activity in virtual worlds.

  • 9.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Davvisámegielat čálamáhtu konteaksta [The context of North Sámi literacy]2015In: Sámi dieđalaš áigečála, ISSN 0805-4312, no 1, p. 29-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The context of North Sámi literacy

    This article sets out to unravel the contexts of Sámi literacy that are necessarily and unavoidably intertwined with the bilingual and biliterate actuality of the Sámi learners in North Sámi speaking regions of Sápmi in Sweden, Norway and Finland. The study presented in this paper is a language sociological cross-sectional case study. Our primary material consists of the 128 questionnaires that were gathered from 9 and 12 year old North Sámi learners and their parents during the school year 2012-2013. We have approached and analysed the questionnaire data using the Hornbergian Continua of Biliteracy theoretical framework as our main conceptual tool.

    According to our findings Sámi language is often conceived of as being a difficult language to write and having more value when spoken fluently. Such views seems to, in turn, have negative effects on how literacy skills in Sámi are perceived both by the pupils and their parents. Paradoxically, when placed on the scales of the Continua of Biliteracy framework, we see that the literacy context of many young Sámi learners of today is limited to the literary realm of school, and to literate rather than oral contexts. Our findings further implicate that there are substantial interregional differences in the state of Sámi literacy that are due to as well ideological as practical factors that arise in this complex bi- and multilingual context. Although some regions are coping better with reaching balanced biliteracy and good Sámi litercy skills among Sámi learners, Sámi literacy practices everywhere are in need of special attention and focused measures so that they can withstand the pressures that in the present cause considerable lack of balance in many Sámi learners biliteracy scales.

  • 10.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Multilingual literacy among young learners of North Sámi: contexts, complexity and writing in Sápmi2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents an investigation of the complexities of the immediate, ideological, educational, and societal contexts for literacy development among North Sámi learners between the ages of 9 and 15 who live in Northern Finland, Norway and Sweden in the central regions of Sápmi. Further, this thesis focuses on one area of literacy, namely writing. It examines these children’s writing, its phases and peculiarities, writing strategies, and the nature of transitions that these multilingual writers experience in switching between North Sámi, English and their respective national majority language. The main body of the collected materials consists of computer mediated pupil texts that the author gathered at 10 schools that arranged compulsory schooling in Central Sápmi during the school year 2012-2013. The texts were collected using keytroke logging methodology that not only records the final written product but also keeps track of changes and other writing activity during the writing session. Other materials collected and analyzed in this study include questionnaires addressed to the pupils, their parents, and to their language teachers. The materials also include detailed interviews with with 24 teachers from the participating schools. This study consists of six individual papers that focus at 1) research methodological aspects that concern studying Indigenous populations, 2) language attitudes, ideologies and available language arenas that have an impact on biliteracy emergence in North Sámi speaking Sápmi, or 3) the qualities and characteristics of multilingual pupil's writing and texts. The implications of the six individual papers are analyzed with respect to language revitalization and biliteracy emergence using the Hornbergian Continua of Biliteracy as the overarching theoretical framework. North Sámi, English and the national majority languages in the respective countries are constantly present in the lives of Sámi learners. Young Sámi learners grow up to be multilingual citizens of the global north through this extensive exposure to many languages and cultures from multiple sources such as popular culture, literature, media, community, tourism, and school. In their writing, multilingual Sámi learners show a wide spectrum of strategies and knowledge that carries over from one language to another. Nevertheless, most young Sámi learners cannot draw on equally many points on their Continua of Biliteracy in all their languages. Due to factors such as scarcity of adequate teaching materials, lack of popular culture and media content in Sámi languages, and language compartmentalizing language ideologies, the scales on the continua of biliteracy are in severe imbalance for many Sámi learners. Many Sámi learners risk losing their indigenous heritage language because the non-indigenous languages are prevalent in school as well as out of school contexts.

  • 11.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    On Reflexive Binding in North Sami2003In: Nordlyd, ISSN 0332-7531, E-ISSN 1503-8599, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 723-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Principle A of the Binding Theory states that an anaphor must be A-bound in the local domain containing it, its governor and an accessible subject. However, if the anaphor is contained in an infinitival complement clause, it may, in North Sami, be bound either by the clause-mate subject or by the subject of the tensed clause. Thus, it appears that there is a larger binding domain for anaphors in addition to that determined by the condition A of standard binding theory. This domain can in some languages, as in North Sami, be defined by the notion of Tense whereas in other languages this need not be case, as in English. This supports the approach that the characterization of binding domains is parameterized and that languages pick different values of the parameter.

  • 12.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Språkrikedom skapar ett mångsidigt identitetsspektrum2014In: Kulturella perspektiv - Svensk etnologisk tidskrift, ISSN 1102-7908, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 58-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Teaching an endangered language in virtual reality2014In: Keeping languages alive: documentation, pedagogy and revitalization / [ed] Mari C. Jones, Sarah Ogilvie, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 128-139Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Steggo, Peter
    Strengthening Indigenous languages in the digital age: social media–supported learning in Sápmi2018In: Media International Australia: Incorporating Culture & Policy, ISSN 1329-878X, E-ISSN 2200-467X, Vol. 169, no 1, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents and discusses Sámi social media initiatives for strengthening languages. The Sámi are the Indigenous people of Europe. All Sámi languages are endangered, and the lack of resources for maintaining, promoting and teaching the languages has been underscored on several occasions by the European Council and the Sámi parliaments. Social media has become an arena where resources are created and shared, enabling communities of speakers to support each other and promote their languages. YouTube, blogs, Twitter and language learning applications are here discussed as public domains and community-grounded media. Based on a few examples and on our expertise as instructors within Sámi studies, we suggest strategies for developing long-lasting and innovative models for revitalizing threatened languages and cultures, and for counteracting language loss through social media. This contribution shares examples of innovative uses of social media in Sámi of relevance for other Indigenous contexts.

  • 15.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Procedural differences in bilingual writers' computer mediated writing: evidence from treatment of gradation in textManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westum, Asbjørg
    Jönköping University.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Researching writing development to support language maintenance and revitalization: design and methodological challenges2019In: Perspectives on Indigenous writing and literacies / [ed] Coppélie Cocq and Kirk P.H. Sullivan, Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, p. 165-185Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Belancic, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The global in the local: young multilingual language learners write in North Sámi (Finland, Norway, Sweden)2019In: Teaching writing to children in Indigenous languages: instructional practices from global contexts / [ed] Ari Sherris and Joy Krefft Peyton, New York: Routledge, 2019, p. 235-253Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary globalization trends might be a threat to Indigenous language revitalization efforts, or might act as catalysts that stimulate interest in learning and writing in Indigenous languages. This chapter presents a snapshot case study of young multilingual writers of North Sámi and considers the interaction of supercomplexity and the super dimensions of Sápmi on North Sámi literacy. Using illustrations taken from 126 young writers' narratives texts collected from 12 schools across the North Sámi speaking area of Sápmi in Finland, Norway, and Sweden, this chapter discusses how these young writers express in written North Sámi what they do in their lives, their understandings of their identities, and how these reflect the global and the local dimensions that they engage in on a daily basis. Based on our analysis, together with earlier research, we argue that young writers have the literacy skills necessary for meaning making, but that more possibilities for exposure to North Sámi are required, coupled with structural support from policy makers, society generally, and education opportunities, to raise the linguistics competencies for more nuanced North Sámi writing.

  • 18.
    Vinka, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Exceptional causatives in North Sami2005In: Proceedings from the Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago Linguistic Society , 2005, p. 401-414Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vinka (2002) and Svonni & Vinka (2002, 2003) brought attention to the fact that it is impossible to form productive morphological causatives based on unaccusative verbs in the Finno-Ugric language North Sámi. However, further inspection reveals that the ill-formed causatives under question can be alleviated, in fact they can be improved to full grammaticality, if one of the constituents of the clause undergoes wh-movement. In this paper, we argue that causatives with wh-movement involve a causative formative that has two pertinent properties: it exclusively selects for an unaccusative verb and it hosts a wh-feature. This wh-feature, in turn, Agrees with an appropriate element that it can access, contingent on syntactic locality conditions.

  • 19.
    Zmyvalova, Ekaterina Andreyevna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The development of Sámi children's right to learn Sámi in the Russian school context2019In: Sámi educational history in a comparative international perspective / [ed] Otso Kortekangas, Pigga Keskitalo, Jukka Nyyssönen, Andrej Kotljarchuk, Merja Paksuniemi, and David Sjögren, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 105-123Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we show how the provisions of international law concerning Indigenous children's right to learn their mother tongue in school have evolved over time and how the provisions of the Russian national legislation comply with international law. In the light of this framework, we present the historic trajectory of Sámi education at the Lovozero School, from the end of the 1800s to the organizational and attitudinal breaking point experienced during the school year of 2016–2017. Although the Russian legislation has come to contain the elements of the right in focus, we claim that the realization of this right has been, and still is, problematic. A further analysis indicates a recent negative change of the curricular contents, and of the interest of the Sámi learners to attend the Sámi language lessons. This change coincides with a shift from language-oriented teaching into history and culture-oriented program at the school, as well as with negative changes in the speaker demography.

1 - 19 of 19
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