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  • 1. Botha, C
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    South African correctional official occupational stress: The role of psychological strengths.2006In: Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 34, no 1, 73-84 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Coetzee, A
    et al.
    Linde, B
    Pienaar, Jaco
    The workplace antecedents of the intention to emigrate.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. De Beer, L
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom.
    Rothmann Jr, S
    Linking employee burnout to medical aid provider expenditure2013In: SAMJ South African Medical Journal, ISSN 0256-9574, E-ISSN 2078-5135, Vol. 103, no 2, 89-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Healthcare has become a major expense. Burnout and its connection with psychological and physical health is well researched, yet little research has been done on the connection between burnout and financial outcomes, specifically as indicated by the costs incurred by medical aid providers as a result of members' claims. Objective. To investigate the connection between employee burnout and medical aid claims and expenditure data in a sample from the private sector. Method. A cross-sectional design was used. The sample comprised 3 182 participants. The available objective medical aid expenditure data connected with each participant were: total insured benefits, general practitioner visits, specialist visits, general practitioner insured benefits, and claims for medicine. A low and a high burnout group were extracted, based on comorbidity of the two core components of burnout. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was then applied to investigate the differences in estimated marginal means of the expenditures on the low and the high burnout contrast groups, while controlling for age and gender. Results. The high burnout group frequented a general practitioner more often, and the medical aid provider expenditure was nearly double that of the low burnout group, on all the variables. Specialist visits did not show a significant result. Conclusion. High burnout is associated with a higher expenditure by a medical aid provider, compared with low burnout, per member. Stakeholders should therefore address burnout to reduce expenditure and promote health.

  • 4. De Beer, L
    et al.
    Rothmann, Jnr., I.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    A confirmatory investigation of a job demands-resources model with a categorical estimator.2012In: Psychological Reports, Vol. 111, no 2, 528-544 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. De Beer,, L. T.,
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    2013In: Demands, exhaustion and absenteeism: Comparing management, professionals and administrative occupations., 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. De Beer, L. T.
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Rothmann, Jr., S.
    Investigating the reversed causality of engagement and burnout in job demands-resources theory.2013In: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, Vol. 39, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. De Beer, L. T.
    et al.
    Rothmann, I., Jnr.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Work overload, burnout, and psychological ill-health symptoms: A three-wave mediation model of the employee health impairment process.2015In: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10615806.2015.1061123Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. De Beer, Leon T.
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Rothmann, Sebastiaan Jr.
    Job Burnout, Work Engagement and Self-reported Treatment for Health Conditions in South Africa2016In: Stress and Health, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 32, no 1, 36-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study being reported here was to investigate the relationship of job burnout and work engagement with self-reported received treatment for health conditions (cardiovascular condition, high cholesterol, depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome), while controlling for age, gender, smoking and alcohol use. The sample comprised 7895 employees from a broad range of economic sectors in the South African working population. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Structural equation modelling methods were implemented with a weighted least squares approach. The results showed that job burnout had a positive relationship with self-reported received treatment for depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. Work engagement did not have any significant negative or positive relationships with the treatment for these health conditions. The results of this study make stakeholders aware of the relationship between job burnout, work engagement and self-reported treatment for health conditions. Evidence for increased reporting of treatment for ill-health conditions due to burnout was found. Therefore, attempts should be made to manage job burnout to prevent ill-health outcomes.

  • 9. De Beer, L.T
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Rothmann, I., Jnr
    Designated and non-designated employee experiences in post-apartheid South Africa: Examples of informative hypothesis testing.2015In: The International Journal of Human Resource Management.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. De Beer,, L.T
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Rothmann,, Jnr., I.
    Job burnout’s relationship with sleep difficulties in the presence of control variables: A self-report study.2014In: South African Journal of Psychology.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. De Waal,, J.J.,
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Towards understanding causality between work engagement and psychological capital.2013In: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, Vol. 39, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. De Witte, H
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa.
    De Cuyper, N
    Review of 30 Years of Longitudinal Studies on the Association Between Job Insecurity and Health and Well-Being: Is There Causal Evidence?2016In: Australian psychologist, ISSN 0005-0067, E-ISSN 1742-9544, Vol. 51, no 1, 18-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In this review article, we present an overview of the results of longitudinal studies on the consequences of job insecurity for healthand well-being. We discuss the evidence for normal causation (“Does job insecurity influence outcomes?”), reversed causation (“Do specificoutcomes predict job insecurity?”), and reciprocal causation. We also review the various theories used to develop the hypotheses and whethertheory has been used at all.

    Method: Scientific and scholarly databases were searched to find all existing articles. We found 57 longitudinal studies published since 1987 ina variety of countries throughout the world. All articles were summarised in an encompassing table.

    Results: The results show strong evidence for normal causation, in which job insecurity influences both psychological well-being and somatichealth over time. The results were somewhat dependent on the type of outcome variable analysed, with clear evidence regarding exhaustion(burnout), general mental/psychological well-being, self-rated health, and a variety of somatic complaints. For aspects such as job satisfaction,work engagement, and psychosomatic complaints, the results suggested normal causation in one half to two thirds of the studies only. Reversedor reciprocal causation was rarely studied, and when studied, rarely found.

    Conclusions: Job insecurity influences health and well-being over time, rather than the other way round. Limitations and suggestions for futureresearch are discussed.

  • 13. Jacobs, D
    et al.
    Mostert, K
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Experience of work-life interaction in the mining industry: A phenomenological study. 2008In: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, Vol. 11, no 1, 17-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Masia, U
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Unraveling safety compliance in the mining industry: Examining the role of work stress, job insecurity, satisfaction and commitment as antecedents.2011In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, Vol. 31, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Meyer, R
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Coping, stress and suicide ideation in the South African Police Service in the Eastern Cape.2003In: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, Vol. 6, no 4, 1-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Mostert, K
    et al.
    Cronje, S
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Job resources, work engagement and the mediating role of positive work-home interaction of police officers in the North West Province.2006In: Acta Criminologica, Vol. 19, no 3, 64-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Mostert, K
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Gauché, C
    Jackson, L. T. B.
    Burnout and engagement in university students. A psychometric analysis of the MBI-SS and the UWES-S.2007In: South African Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 21, no 1, 147-162 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Pienaar, Jaco
    Research ethics in economic and management sciences: A researcher’s resource.2010In: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, Vol. 13, no 2, 177-189 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Pienaar, Jaco
    Skeleton key or siren song: Is coping the answer to balancing work and wellbeing?2008In: The individual in the changing working life / [ed] K. Näswall, J. Hellgren & M. Sverke, Cambridge University Press , 2008, 235-257 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    De Witte, H.
    Work locus of control and sense of coherence as antecedents of job insecurity2016In: South African Journal of Business Management, ISSN 2078-5585, E-ISSN 2078-5976, Vol. 47, no 3, 35-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has highlighted various antecedents of job insecurity, both in cross-sectional research and in a recent meta-analysis. A review of this literature indicates that work locus of control actually is the only personality antecedent that has received considerable attention, while sense of coherence may also be an important factor to consider. Data on biographical variables, cognitive and affective job insecurity, work locus of control and sense of coherence were gathered from employees across 3 organisations (N=718), presenting two different sectors (chemical industry and financial services), by means of anonymous surveys. Data were analysed by means of correlations and regression analyses. Results indicate that both work locus of control and sense of coherence play a role in predicting job insecurity, even after controlling for biographical variables. Considering their individual contributions, it is suggested here that sense of coherence may be even more important than work locus of control as a personality antecedent of job insecurity.

  • 21. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    De Witte, H
    Hellgren, J
    Sverke, M
    The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and differential relations.2013In: Southern African Business Review, Vol. 17, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Coping strategies in the South African Police Service.2003In: South African Journal of Industrial Psycholog, Vol. 29, no 4, 81-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Job stress in the South African Police Service2006In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, Vol. 32, no 3, 72-78 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Occupational stress, personality traits, coping strategies and suicide ideation in the South African Police Services.2007In: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Vol. 34, no 2, 246-258 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Suicide ideation in the South African Police Service.2005In: South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 35, no 1, 58-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Rothmann, J.C
    The evaluation of a self-development programme for managers in a corporate pharmacy group.2003In: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, Vol. 6, no 1, 50-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Sieberhagen, C. F
    Mostert, K
    Investigating turnover intentions by role overload, job satisfaction and social support moderation.2007In: South African Journal of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, Vol. 33, no 2, 62-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Van Wyk, D
    Teacher Burnout: Construct equivalence and the role of union membership.2006In: South African Journal of Education, Vol. 26, no 4, 541-551 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Willemse, S. A.
    Burnout, engagement, coping and general health of service employees in the hospitality industry.2008In: Tourism Management, Vol. 29, 1053-1063 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Saayman, A
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    de Pelsmacker, P
    Viviers, W
    Cuyvers, L
    Muller, M. L.
    Jegers, M.
    Competitive intelligence activities at the firm level:  Construct exploration, validation and equivalence.2008In: Aslib Proceedings, Vol. 60, no 4, 383-411 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Saayman, M
    et al.
    Van der Merwe, P
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Expenditure based segmentation of tourists to the Kruger National Park.2009In: Acta Academica, Vol. 41, no 3, 107-127 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Sieberhagen, C
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Burnout and engagement of student leaders at a Higher Education institution.2005In: South African Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 19, no 1, 155-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Sieberhagen, C
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Els, C
    Management of employee health and wellness in South Africa: Perspectives of employers, service providers and trade unions.2011In: South African Journal of Human Resource Management,, Vol. 9, no 1, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Sieberhagen, C
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Employment health and wellness in South Africa: The role of legislation and management standards.2009In: Sieberhagen, C., Rothmann, S., & Pienaar, J. (2009). Employment health and wellness in South Africa: The role of legislation and management standards. South African Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(10), 1 – 9., Vol. 7, no 10, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Sverke, M
    et al.
    Hellgren, J
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Lu, C.-Q.
    Falkenberg, H
    What do we feel and do when our organization changes?: Organizational change, down-sizing, job insecurity, employment contracts, part-time, flexible and temporary working.2016In: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective (Third Edition). / [ed] Chmiel, F. Fraccaroli, & M. Sverke, Chichester: Wiley. , 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36. Swanepoel, C
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Coping, stress and suicide ideation in the South African Police Service in Gauteng Province.2004In: Acta Criminologica, Vol. 17, no 2, 17-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Van der Merwe, A.S
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Coping, stres en selfmoord-denkbeeldvorming in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens in die Vrystaat [Coping, stres and suicide ideation in the South African Police Service in the Freestate].2004In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, Vol. 30, no 1, 81-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. Van der Merwe, P
    et al.
    Saayman, M
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Expenditure based segmentation of South African biltong hunters.2011In: Expenditure based segmentation of South African biltong hunters., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39. Van Wyk, M
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Towards a research agenda for job insecurity in South Africa.2008In: Southern African Business Review, Vol. 12, no 2, 49-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Van Wyk, Sumarie M
    et al.
    de Beer, Leon T.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, South Africa.
    Schaufeli, Wilmar B
    The psychometric properties of a workplace boredom scale (DUBS) within the South African context2016In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, E-ISSN 2071-0763, Vol. 42, no 1, UNSP a1326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orientation: Boredom at work has been shown to be a concern for individuals and organisations. At the time of this research, no validated scale was available to measure and investigate workplace boredom within the South African context. Research purpose: To determine the psychometric properties of the Dutch Boredom Scale (DUBS) within the South African context. Motivation for the study: No reliable and valid scale for workplace boredom was available in South Africa at the time of the current research. Boredom at work has been found to affect organisations negatively in other countries. Insights are needed into workplace boredom and how it affects the outcomes of organisations in South Africa. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional research approach was utilised. A random convenience sample (N = 490) was obtained from organisations within the manufacturing and logistics sector. In order to validate the DUBS, the factor structure, construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity) and scale reliability were investigated. A mediation model was also tested with structural equation modelling to ascertain predictive validity. Main findings: The results showed that the one-factor structure of the DUBS could be confirmed and that this factor had acceptable reliability. In terms of convergent validity, all of the item indicators loaded significantly on the workplace boredom construct, and the relationship between workplace boredom and work underload revealed that they were positively correlated with medium effect size. Furthermore, work engagement and organisational commitment were correlated negatively in terms of practical significance with workplace boredom. A structural mediation model showed that work underload was significantly and positively associated with boredom, which in turn had significant negative relations to both work engagement and organisational commitment. No significant direct relations were found from work underload to either work engagement or organisational commitment. Instead, bootstrapping showed that there was an indirect-only relationship from work underload to work engagement and organisational commitment through workplace boredom - indicating full mediation. Practical/managerial implications: Management should not neglect workplace boredom, as results indicate that it may adversely impact work engagement and organisational commitment. Therefore, workplace boredom should be a concern not only for individuals, but also for the organisation at large. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the limited research available on workplace boredom in South Africa by providing evidence of acceptable psychometric properties for a workplace boredom scale.

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