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  • 1.
    Ahlm, Clas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Vapalahti, O.
    University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Finland.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Seroprevalence of Sindbis virus and associated risk factors in northern Sweden2014In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 142, no 7, 1559-1565 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosquito-borne Sindbis virus (SINV) cause disease characterized by rash, fever and arthritis which often leads to long-lasting arthralgia. To determine the seroprevalence of SINV and associated risk factors in northern Sweden, a randomly selected population aged between 25 and 74 years were invited to join the MONICA study. Serum from 1611 samples were analysed for specific IgG antibodies. Overall, 2·9% had IgG against SINV. More men (3·7%) than women (2·0%) were SINV seropositive (P = 0·047) and it was more common in subjects with a lower educational level (P = 0·013) and living in small, rural communities (P < 0·001). Seropositivity was associated with higher waist circumference (P = 0·1), elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = 0·037), and history of a previous stroke (P = 0·011). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for known risk factors for stroke, seropositivity for SINV was an independent predictor of having had a stroke (odds ratio 4·3, 95% confidence interval 1·4–13·0,P = 0·011).

  • 2. Alssema, M
    et al.
    Vistisen, D
    Heymans, M W
    Nijpels, G
    Glümer, C
    Zimmet, P Z
    Shaw, J E
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Stehouwer, C D A
    Tabák, A G
    Colagiuri, S
    Borch-Johnsen, K
    Dekker, J M
    Risk scores for predicting type 2 diabetes: using the optimal tool2011In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 54, no 9, 2468-2470 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Alssema, M
    et al.
    Vistisen, D
    Heymans, MW
    Nijpels, G
    Glümer, C
    Zimmet, PZ
    Shaw, JE
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Stehouwer, CDA
    Tabák, AG
    Colagiuri, S
    Borch-Johnsen, K
    Dekker, JM
    The evaluation of screening and early detection strategies for type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (DETECT-2) update of the Finnish diabetes risk score for prediction of incident type 2 diabetes2011In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 54, no 5, 1004-1012 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Finnish diabetes risk questionnaire is a widely used, simple tool for identification of those at risk for drug-treated type 2 diabetes. We updated the risk questionnaire by using clinically diagnosed and screen-detected type 2 diabetes instead of drug-treated diabetes as an endpoint and by considering additional predictors.

    METHODS: Data from 18,301 participants in studies of the Evaluation of Screening and Early Detection Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (DETECT-2) project with baseline and follow-up information on oral glucose tolerance status were included. Incidence of type 2 diabetes within 5 years was used as the outcome variable. Improvement in discrimination and classification of the logistic regression model was assessed by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and by the net reclassification improvement. Internal validation was by bootstrapping techniques.

    RESULTS: Of the 18,301 participants, 844 developed type 2 diabetes in a period of 5 years (4.6%). The Finnish risk score had an area under the ROC curve of 0.742 (95% CI 0.726-0.758). Re-estimation of the regression coefficients improved the area under the ROC curve to 0.766 (95% CI 0.750-0.783). Additional items such as male sex, smoking and family history of diabetes (parent, sibling or both) improved the area under the ROC curve and net reclassification. Bootstrapping showed good internal validity.

    CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The predictive value of the original Finnish risk questionnaire could be improved by adding information on sex, smoking and family history of diabetes. The DETECT-2 update of the Finnish diabetes risk questionnaire is an adequate and robust predictor for future screen-detected and clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Europid populations.

  • 4. Andersson, Liselott
    et al.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Sundström Poromaa, Inger
    Increased free androgen index is associated with hypertension in premenopausal women2011In: Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 2160-8792, E-ISSN 2160-8806, Vol. 1, 228-233 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Increased testosterone and decreased sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are associated with a number of adverse cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. The aim of this popula-tion-based study of women aged 25 to 50 was to as-sess the relationship between free androgen index (FAI) and cardiovascular risk factors in premeno-pausal women.

    Methods: A population-based survey of 396 premenopausal women with no hormonal trea- tment was undertaken as part of the Northern Swe-den MONICA study. The study involved question-naires, anthropometry and assays of testosterone and SHBG.

    Results: Increased FAI was associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors in premeno-pausal women but this relationship was strongly af-fected by body mass index (BMI). After adjustment for age and BMI, FAI was significantly associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

    Conclusion: Hyperandrogenism is associated with increased blood pressure and these findings empha-size the need to assess cardiovascular risk factors in women with hyperandrogenism of all ages.

  • 5.
    Awad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University, Sweden..
    Lundqvist, Robert
    Research and Innovation Unit, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå, Sweden..
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University, Sweden..
    Lower cognitive performance among long-term type 1 diabetes survivors: A case-control study2017In: Journal of diabetes and its complications, ISSN 1056-8727, E-ISSN 1873-460X, Vol. 31, no 8, 1328-1331 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. The cognitive decrement is believed to depend on macro- and microvascular complications and long disease duration. Some patients do not develop these complications, but still report cognitive symptoms. We examined if long-standing T1D without complications is associated with lower cognitive performance.

    METHODS: A group of patients (n=43) with long-standing T1D (>30years) without micro- or macro vascular complications was compared with a non-diabetic control group (n=86) on six cognitive tests which probed episodic memory, semantic memory, episodic short-term memory, visual attention and psychomotor speed. Each patient was matched with two controls regarding age, gender and education. A linear mixed effect model was used to analyze the data.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 57years and mean duration was 41years. Patients with diabetes had lower diastolic blood pressure but BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and smoking did not differ between groups. Patients had lower results than non-diabetic controls in episodic short-term memory (p<0.001) and also lower values on a test that mirrors visual attention and psychomotor speed (p=0.019).

    CONCLUSIONS: Long-standing T1D was associated with lower cognitive performance, regardless of other diabetes-related complications.

  • 6.
    Benckert, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lilja, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Improved metabolic health among the obesein six population surveys 1986 to 2009: the Northern Sweden MONICA study2015In: BMC Obesity, ISSN 2052-9538, Vol. 2, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The incidence of CVD is decreasing in spite of increasing BMI in the population. We examined trends in metabolic health among overweight and obese individuals and the influence of lifestyle and socioeconomic status. Six cross sectional population surveys in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study between 1986 and 2009. 8 874 subjects 25 to 64 years participated (74% participation rate). Metabolic health was defined as a total cholesterol level below 5.0 mmol/l, blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg and not having diabetes. In 2009 the age span 25 to 74 years was studied.

    Results

    The prevalence of metabolic health among obese subjects increased by 7.9 % per year (95% confidence interval 5.4; 10.5), reaching 21.0% in 2009. The corresponding figures for overweight subjects were 5.9% per year (4.6; 7.3), reaching 18% in 2009, whereas for the normal-weight subjects, the increase was 6.2% per year (5.3; 7.2), reaching 39% in 2009. The prevalence of metabolic health among subjects with abdominal obesity increased by 5.8% (4.6; 7.0) per year, reaching 17.3% in 2009. Among those with no abdominal obesity the increase was 6.2% (5.2; 7.1), reaching 38% in 2009 (p = <0.001 for all groups). Only among non-obese men and obese women did the increase continue between 2004 and 2009. In the other groups a slight decline or levelling off was noted.

    In 2009 women had a 27% higher prevalence of metabolic health than men. The prevalence of metabolic health among the obese was 19.8% which declined to 15.8% if subjects treated for hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were classified as not healthy. Overweight and obese subjects were less often metabolically healthy (odds ratio 0.54 and 0.59 respectively) compared with normal-weight subjects, independent of sex and age as were subjects with abdominal obesity (odds ratio 0.52). Adjustments for smoking, physical activity and education level did not influence any estimates.

    Conclusions

    This report shows a large increase in prevalence of metabolic health from 1986 to 2009 for all anthropometric categories. Metabolic health remains considerably less prevalent among overweight and obese subjects than among those with normal weight.

  • 7.
    Berhan, Yonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Möllsten, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Waernbaum, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Dahlquist, Gisela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Impact of Parental Socioeconomic Status on Excess Mortality in a Population-Based Cohort of Subjects With Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes2015In: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, E-ISSN 1935-5548, Vol. 38, no 5, 827-832 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the possible impact of parental and individual socioeconomic status (SES) on all-cause mortality in a population-based cohort of patients with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects recorded in the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Registry (SCDR) from 1 January 1978 to 31 December 2008 were included (n =14,647). The SCDR was linked to the Swedish Cause of Death Registry (CDR) and the Longitudinal Integration Database for Health Insurance and Labour Market Studies (LISA).

    RESULTS: At a mean follow-up of 23.9 years (maximum 46.5 years), 238 deaths occurred in a total of 349,762 person-years at risk. In crude analyses, low maternal education predicted mortality for male patients only (P = 0.046), whereas parental income support predicted mortality in both sexes (P < 0.001 for both). In Cox models stratified by age-at-death group and adjusted for age at onset and sex, parental income support predicted mortality among young adults (≥18 years of age) but not for children. Including the adult patient’s own SES in a Cox model showed that individual income support to the patient predicted mortality occurring at ≥24 years of age when adjusting for age at onset, sex, and parental SES.

    CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to low SES, mirrored by the need for income support, increases mortality risk in patients with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes who died after the age of 18 years.

  • 8.
    Berhan, Yonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Möllsten, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Waernbaum, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Dahlquist, Gisela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Impact of parental socioeconomic status on excess mortality in subjects with childhood onset type-1 diabetesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to analyze the possible impact of parental and individual socioeconomic status (SES) on all cause mortality in a population based cohort of childhood onset T1D.

    Methods: Subjects recorded in the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Registry (SCDR) January 1 1978 to December 31 2008 were included (n=14 409). The SCDR was linked to the Swedish Cause of Death Register (CDR) and the Longitudinal Integration Database for Health Insurance and Labour Market Studies (LISA). SES measures (education and income support) wtypeere retrieved from the LISA for the years 1990-2010. Mortality data were retrieved from the CDR as of December 31, 2010.

    Results: At a mean follow-up of 24.4 years (maximum 47.5), 238 deaths occurred in a total of 357 048 person-years at risk. In crude analyses, low maternal education predicted mortality for male cases only (p=0.046), while parental income support predicted mortality in both sexes (p<0.001 for both). In Cox models stratified by age at death groups and adjusted for age at onset and sex, parental income support predicted mortality among young adults ( ≥18 years of age) but not for children. Including the adult patient´s own SES in a Cox model showed that individual income support to the patient predicted mortality occurring at ≥ 24 years of age when adjusting for age at onset, sex and parental SES.

    Conclusions/Interpretation: Low parental SES, mirrored by the need of income support, increases mortality risk in childhood onset type-1 diabetics who died after the age of 18 years.

  • 9. Boström, G
    et al.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Folkhälsoproblem - övervikt och fetma.2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10. Boström, Gunnel
    et al.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Chapter 5.3: major public health problems - overweight and obesity.2006In: Scand J Public Health Suppl, ISSN 1403-4956, Vol. 67, 69-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nilsson, Peter M
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Blood pressure treatment levels and choice of antihypertensive agent in people with diabetes mellitus: an overview of systematic reviews2017In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 35, 435-462 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Multiple systematic reviews address the effect of antihypertensive treatment in people with diabetes. Here, we summarize current systematic reviews concerning antihypertensive treatment effect at different blood pressure (BP) levels, and relative treatment effect of different antihypertensive agents.

    METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, BIOSIS, DARE and CDSR during years 2005-2016. Eligibility criteria, number of trials and participants, outcomes analysed, statistical methods used for data synthesis, and principal results were extracted for each review. Review quality was assessed using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews tool.

    RESULTS: We found four reviews concerning BP treatment level. These consistently showed that the effect of antihypertensive treatment on mortality, cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease was attenuated at lower BP levels. If SBP was more than 140 mmHg, treatment reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, myocardial infarction and heart failure. If SBP was less than 140 mmHg, treatment increased the risk of cardiovascular death. We found eight reviews concerning choice of agent. We found no difference between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers and diuretics in preventing all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, combined cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and end-stage renal disease. Minor differences exist for stroke and heart failure. Data were limited on people with type 1 diabetes and very elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. None of the reviews concerning choice of agent included all relevant trials.

    CONCLUSION: The available evidence supports treatment in people with type 2 diabetes and SBP more than 140 mmHg, using any of the major antihypertensive drug classes.

  • 12. Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Anders, Anell
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    [Health economics play more and more important role in health care prioritization. Better utilization of the meager health care resources is the goal]2006In: Lakartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 103, no 46, 3617-20, 3622 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13. Carrasquilla, German D.
    et al.
    Chiavenna, Chiara
    Bottai, Matteo
    Magnusson, Patrik K.
    Santacatterina, Michele
    Wolk, Alicja
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Engstrom, Gunnar
    Borgfeldt, Christer
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Berglund, Anita
    Leander, Karin
    The association between menopausal hormone therapy and coronary heart disease depends on timing of initiation in relation to menopause onset. Results based on pooled individual participant data from The Combined Cohorts of Menopausal Women - Studies of Register Based Health Outcomes in Relation to Hormonal Drugs (COMPREHEND) study2015In: Menopause: The Journal of the North American Menopause, ISSN 1072-3714, E-ISSN 1530-0374, Vol. 22, no 12, 1373-1373 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Connolly-Andersen, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Hammargren, Edvin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Whitaker, Heather
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Holmgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Klingstrom, Jonas
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Increased Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction and Stroke During Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome A Self-Controlled Case Series Study2014In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 129, no 12, 1295-1302 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background We recently observed that cardiovascular causes of death are common in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), which is caused by hantaviruses. However, it is not known whether HFRS is a risk factor for the acute cardiovascular events of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke. Methods and Results Personal identification numbers from the Swedish HFRS patient database (1997-2012; n=6643) were cross-linked with the National Patient Register from 1987 to 2011. Using the self-controlled case series method, we calculated the incidence rate ratio of AMI/stroke in the 21 days after HFRS against 2 different control periods either excluding (analysis 1) or including (analysis 2) fatal AMI/stroke events. The incidence rate ratios for analyses 1 and 2 for all AMI events were 5.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-11.8) and 6.02 (95% CI, 2.95-12.3) and for first AMI events were 3.53 (95% CI, 1.25-9.96) and 4.64 (95% CI, 1.83-11.77). The incidence rate ratios for analyses 1 and 2 for all stroke events were 12.93 (95% CI, 5.62-29.74) and 15.16 (95% CI, 7.21-31.87) and for first stroke events were 14.54 (95% CI, 5.87-36.04) and 17.09 (95% CI, 7.49-38.96). The majority of stroke events occurred in the first week after HFRS. Seasonal effects were not observed, and apart from 1 study, neither sex nor age interacted with the associations observed in this study. Conclusions There is a significantly increased risk for AMI and stroke in the immediate time period after HFRS. Therefore, HFRS patients should be carefully monitored during the acute phase of disease to ensure early recognition of symptoms of impending AMI or stroke.

  • 15.
    Einarsdottir, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics. Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Mayans, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics. Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Ruikka, Karin
    Andersson Escher, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics. Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Lindgren, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics. Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Ågren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Näringsforskning.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Holmberg, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics. Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Linkage but not association of calpain-10 to type 2 diabetes replicated in northern Sweden2006In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 55, no 6, 1879-1883 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Eliasson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Boström, G
    Folkhälsoproblem - Diabetes2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Eliasson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Boström, Gunnel
    Chapter 5.2: major public health problems - diabetes.2006In: Scand J Public Health Suppl, ISSN 1403-4956, Vol. 67, 59-68 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Eliasson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Time trends in population cholesterol levels 1986-2004: influence of lipid-lowering drugs, obesity, smoking and educational level. The northern Sweden MONICA study.2006In: J Intern Med, ISSN 0954-6820, Vol. 260, no 6, 551-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Eliasson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lundblad, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    The disparity between long-term survival in patients with and without diabetes following a first myocardial infarction did not change between 1989 and 2006: an analysis of 6,776 patients in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study2011In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 54, no 10, 2538-2543 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: Long-term survival after myocardial infarction(MI) has improved in the population, but data ondiabetic patients is lacking. We analysed survival for up to18 years after a first MI in patients with or without diabetes

    Methods: The Northern Sweden MONICA MyocardialInfarction Registry was linked to the Cause-of-DeathRegistry for a total of 6,776 patients, 25–64 years of age,with a first MI during 1989–2006. Prehospital deaths wereincluded. Follow-up ended on 30 August 2008.

    Results: Sixteen per cent had diabetes. Median follow-uptime was 6.8 years, and the study included 50,667 patientyears.One third of the non-diabetic patients died vs half ofthe diabetic patients. Median survival for non-diabetic menwas 227 months and for diabetic men 123 months.Corresponding figures for the non-diabetic and diabeticwomen were 222 and 81 months respectively. Men withdiabetes had an age-adjusted HR for all-cause mortality of 1.56 (95% CI 1.39, 1.79) vs men without diabetes. Mortality risk was higher among diabetic women, HR1.97 (1.62, 2.39) (diabetes × sex interaction, p=0.03). Survival increased for three consecutive cohorts and washigher in non-diabetic patients for all durations of follow-upand in all three cohorts. The interaction of diabetes x cohortwas not significant over time (p=0.5) and HRs did notdiffer either.

    Conclusions/interpretation Long-term survival after a firstMI is markedly lower in diabetic patients, especially amongwomen, over an 18-year observation time. Althoughsurvival has improved in diabetic patients, the effect ofdiabetes upon mortality has not diminished.

  • 20.
    Eliasson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Talbäck, Mats
    Rosén, Måns
    Improved survival in both men and women with diabetes between 1980 and 2004--a cohort study in Sweden.2008In: Cardiovascular diabetology, ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 7, 32- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In Sweden, diabetes prevalence is increasing in spite of unchanged incidence, indicating improved survival. In recent US studies mortality in diabetic subjects has decreased over three decades, but only in men. Our aim was to study mortality over time in diabetic subjects. METHODS: The annual Swedish Living Conditions Survey from 1980 to 2004 has been record-linked to the Cause of Death Register in order to study trends in mortality risk for those reporting diabetes as a chronic illness. Survival and the relative mortality risk within 5 years of follow-up have been calculated for a random sample of men and women aged 40-84 years with (n = 3,589) and without diabetes (n = 85,685) for the period 1980 to 2004. Poisson regression models were used. RESULTS: The age-adjusted mortality risk relative to non-diabetics within 5 years of follow-up for men was doubled during all periods. The relative risk for women was initially about 2.5, with a substantial drop in mortality in 1995-1999 to 1.45 although it increased to 1.90 in the last period. Using models that took into consideration the presence of heart disease, hypertension, daily smoking, and socio-economic status at the initial interview did not change the relative mortality risk. The age-adjusted 10-year observed survival rate for men with diabetes increased from 41.4% 1980-1984 to 51.5% in 1995-1999. The observed survival for women increased from 43.7% to 61.0%. CONCLUSION: Survival rates have improved in subjects with diabetes since the early 1980s, more so in women than in men, thereby decreasing the gap to non-diabetic women.

  • 21.
    Engberg, Isak
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Segerstedt, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Waller, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Fatigue in the general population-associations to age, sex, socioeconomic status, physical activity, sitting time and self-rated health: the northern Sweden MONICA study 20142017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, 654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fatigue is widespread in the population and a common complaint in primary care. Little is known about prevalence of fatigue in the population and its predictors. We aimed to describe the pattern of fatigue in the general population and to explore the associations with age, sex, socioeconomic status, self-reported physical activity, sitting time and self-rated health.

    Methods: One thousand, five hundred and fifty-seven out of 2500 invited subjects in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study 2014, aged 25-74 years, filled out the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), consisting of four subscales: General fatigue (GF), Physical fatigue (PF), Reduced activity (RA) and Mental fatigue (MF). Questions regarding age, sex, socioeconomic status, physical activity, sitting time and self-rated health were also included.

    Results: Higher age correlated significantly with lower fatigue scores for the GF and MF subscales. Women had higher fatigue scores than men on all subscales (p < 0.05). Among men, higher socioeconomic status was related to lower fatigue for the GF, PF and RA subscales (age adjusted p < 0.05). Among women, higher socioeconomic status was related to lower fatigue for the PF and MF subscales (age adjusted p < 0.05). Higher physical activity was connected to lower levels of fatigue for all subscales (age and sex adjusted p < 0.001) except for MF. Longer time spent sitting was also related to more fatigue on all subscales (age and sex adjusted p < 0.005) except for MF. Better self-rated health was strongly associated with lower fatigue for all subscales (age and sex adjusted p < 0.001).

    Conclusion: Older, highly educated, physically active men, with little sedentary behavior are generally the least fatigued. Self-rated health is strongly related to fatigue. Interventions increasing physical exercise and reducing sedentary behavior may be important to help patients with fatigue and should be investigated in prospective studies.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Kerstin Margareta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Hagberg, Lars
    Departement of Social medicine and Public Health and centre for Health Care Science Örebro County Council.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Österlind, Jonas
    Department of Medicine Sunderby Hospital Luleå.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Quality of life and cost-effectiveness of a 3-year trial of lifestyle intervention in primary health care2010In: Archives of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0003-9926, E-ISSN 1538-3679, Vol. 170, no 16, 1470-1479 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lifestyle interventions reduce cardiovascular risk and diabetes but reports on long term effects on quality of life (QOL) and health care utilization are rare. The aim was to investigate the impact of a primary health care based lifestyle intervention program on QOL and cost-effectiveness over 3 years.

    Methods: 151 men and women, age 18-65 yr, at moderate-to-high risk for cardiovascular disease, were randomly assigned to either lifestyle intervention with standard care or standard care alone. Intervention consisted of supervised exercise sessions and diet counseling for 3 months, followed by regular group meetings during 3years. Change in QOL was measured with EuroQol (EQ-5D, EQ VAS), the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the SF-6D.  The health economic evaluation was performed from a societal view and a treatment perspective. In a cost-utility analysis the costs, gained quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and savings in health care were considered. Cost-effectiveness was also described using the Net Monetary Benefit Method.

    Results: Significant differences between groups over the 3-yr period were shown in EQ VAS, SF-6D and SF-36 physical component summary but not in EQ-5D or SF-36 mental component summary. There was a net saving of 47 USD per participant. Costs per gained QALY, savings not counted, were 1,668 – 4,813 USD. Probabilities of cost-effectiveness were 89 – 100 %, when 50 000 USD was used as stakeholder’s threshold of willingness to pay for a gained QALY.

    Conclusion: Lifestyle intervention in primary care improves QOL and is highly cost-effective in relation to standard care.

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Margareta K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Franks, Paul W
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    A 3-year randomized trial of lifestyle intervention for cardiovascular risk reduction in the primary care setting: the Swedish Björknäs study2009In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, no 4, e5195- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Successfully transferring the findings of expensive and tightly controlled programmes of intensive lifestyle modification to the primary care setting is necessary if such knowledge is to be of clinical utility. The objective of this study was to test whether intensive lifestyle modification, shown previously in tightly-controlled clinical trials to be efficacious for diabetes risk-reduction among high-risk individuals, can reduce cardiovascular risk factor levels in the primary care setting. 

    Methodology / Principal Findings The Swedish Björknäs study was a randomized controlled trial conducted from 2003 to 2006 with follow-up on cardiovascular risk factors at 3, 12, 24 and 36 months. A total of 151 middle-aged men and women at moderate- to high-risk of cardiovascular disease from northern Sweden were randomly assigned to either an intensive lifestyle intervention (n=75) or control (n=76) group. The intervention was based broadly on the protocol of the Diabetes Prevention Program. The three-month intervention period was administered in the primary care setting and consisted of supervised exercise sessions and diet counselling, followed by regular group meetings during three years. The control group was given general advice about diet and exercise and received standard clinical care. Outcomes were changes in anthropometrics, aerobic fitness, self-reported physical activity, blood pressure, and metabolic traits. At 36 months post-randomisation, intensive lifestyle modification reduced waist circumference (–2.2cm: p=0.001), waist-hip ratio (–0.02: p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (–4.9mmHg: p=0.036), and diastolic blood pressure (–1.6mmHg: p=0.005), and improved aerobic fitness (5%; p=0.038). Changes in lipid or glucose values did not differ statistically between groups. At 36 months, self-reported time spent exercising and total physical activity had increased more in the intervention group than in the control group (p<0.001).

    Conclusion / Significance  A program of intensive lifestyle modification undertaken in the primary health care setting can favourably influence cardiovascular risk-factor profiles in high-risk individuals.

  • 24.
    Eriksson, Margareta K.
    et al.
    Björknäs Primary Health Care Centre, Boden, Sweden.
    Westborg, Carl-Johan
    Björknäs Primary Health Care Centre, Boden, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    A randomized trial of lifestyle intervention in primary health care for the modification of cardiovascular risk factors2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 34, no 5, 453-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention programme in primary healthcare, targeted to patients with moderate to high risk of cardiovascular disease in terms of cardiovascular risk factors, physical activity, and quality of life.

    METHOD: Randomized controlled trial with one-year follow-up, carried out in a primary healthcare centre in Northern Sweden. A total of 151 middle-aged men and women, with hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, or obesity were enrolled. The subjects were randomized to either the intervention (n = 75) or the control group (n = 76). A total of 123 subjects completed the one-year follow-up. Interventions: Exercise: supervised endurance and circuit training in groups three times a week for three months. Diet: five group sessions of diet counselling with a dietitian. Follow- up meetings with a physiotherapist were conducted monthly thereafter. Primary outcomes were changes in anthropometry, maximal oxygen uptake, health-related quality of life, and self-reported physical activity. The secondary outcomes were changes in blood pressure and metabolic variables.

    RESULTS: After one year the intervention group significantly increased maximal oxygen uptake, physical activity, and quality of life and significantly decreased body weight, waist and hip circumference, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and glycosylated haemoglobin. There were significant differences between groups, mean changes (and their 95% confidence intervals, CI) in waist circumference -1.9 cm (-2.80 to -0.90; p<0.001), in waist-hip ratio -0.01 (-.02 to -0.004; p<0.01) and in diastolic blood pressure -2.3 mmHg (-4.04 to -0.51; p<0.05). CONCLUSION: A prevention programme in primary healthcare with a focus on physical activity and diet counselling followed by structured follow-up meetings can favourably influence several risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and quality of life in high-risk subjects for at least one year.

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Maria A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Rask, Eva
    Department of Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johnson, Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Carlström, Kjell
    Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Science, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahrén, Bo
    Department of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Sex-related differences in the associations between hyperleptinemia, insulin resistance and dysfibrinolysis2008In: Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, ISSN 0957-5235, E-ISSN 1473-5733, Vol. 19, no 7, 625-632 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is associated with insulin resistance and reduced fibrinolytic status--or dysfibrinolysis--in humans. As leptin associates differentially to the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in men and women, we hypothesized that leptin and insulin sensitivity are related to dysfibrinolysis in a sex-dependent manner. Thirty-two men and 40 women were recruited from the Monitoring of trends and determinants in Cardiovascular disease (MONICA) population sample, representing the highest and lowest quartiles of fasting insulin levels. Lipids, fibrinolytic status [plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) activity, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mass and activity, and tPA-PAI complex], leptin, testosterone and sex-hormone-binding globulin were measured. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using the euglycaemic clamp technique. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. Determinants for circulating levels of fibrinolytic factors were explored in a multivariate linear regression analysis. Levels of fibrinolytic variables and estimated insulin sensitivity did not differ between men and women. Leptin was independently associated with reduced fibrinolytic status (high PAI-1 activity, low tPA activity, high tPA mass, and high tPA-PAI complex) in men (P < 0.001-0.002). In women, fat mass and/or insulin sensitivity were related to these factors (P < 0.001-0.03), and leptin only to reduced tPA activity (P = 0.002). Hyperleptinemia, dysfibrinolysis, insulin sensitivity and androgenicity associate differentially in men and women.

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. mats.eliasson@nll.se.
    Differences in cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic status do not explain the increased risk of death after stroke in diabetic patients: results from the Swedish Stroke Register2013In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 35, no Suppl. 3, 305-305 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Eriksson, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Van Rompaye, Bart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Department of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Differences in cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic status do not explain the increased risk of death after a first stroke in diabetic patients: results from the Swedish Stroke Register2013In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 56, no 10, 2181-2186 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study compared survival rates and causes of death after stroke in diabetic and non-diabetic patients in Sweden. We hypothesised that differences in cardiovascular risk factors, acute stroke management or socioeconomic status (SES) could explain the higher risk of death after stroke in diabetic patients. METHODS: The study included 155,806 first-ever stroke patients from the Swedish Stroke Register between 2001 and 2009. Individual patient information on SES was retrieved from Statistics Sweden. Survival was followed until 2010 (532,140 person-years) with a median follow-up time of 35 months. Multiple Cox regression was used to analyse survival adjusting for differences in background characteristics, in-hospital treatment, SES and year of stroke. Causes of death were analysed using cause-specific proportional hazard models. RESULTS: The risk of death after stroke increased in diabetic patients (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.25, 1.31), and this risk was greater in younger patients and in women. Differences in background characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, in-hospital treatment and SES did not explain the increased risk of death after stroke (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.32, 1.37) after adjustments. Diabetic patients had an increased probability of dying from cerebrovascular disease and even higher probabilities of dying from other circulatory causes and all other causes except cancer. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Differences in cardiovascular risk factors, acute stroke management and SES do not explain the lower survival after stroke in diabetic compared with non-diabetic patients. Diabetic patients are at higher risk of dying from cardiovascular causes and all other causes of death, other than cancer.

  • 28.
    Eriksson, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    The disparity in long-term survival after a first stroke in patients with and without diabetes persists: the Northern Sweden MONICA Study2012In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 34, no 2, 153-160 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes is an established risk factor for stroke. Compared to nondiabetic patients, diabetic patients also have an increased risk of new vascular events and death after stroke. We analyzed how differences in long-term survival between diabetic and nondiabetic stroke patients have changed over time, and if differences varied with respect to sex and age.

    Methods: This population-based study included 12,375 first-ever stroke patients, 25-74 years old, who were registered in the Northern Sweden MONICA Stroke Registry 1985-2005. Uniform diagnostic criteria for stroke case ascertainment were used throughout the study period. The diagnosis of diabetes was based on medical records or diabetes diagnosed during the acute stroke event. Patients were separated into four cohorts according to year of stroke and followed for survival until August 30, 2008.

    Results: The diabetes prevalence at stroke onset was 21%, similar in men and women, and remained stable throughout the study period. The diabetic patients were an average of 2 years older, more often nonsmokers and more likely to have antihypertensive treatment, antithrombotics, atrial fibrillation, and a history of myocardial infarction or transient ischemic attack than the nondiabetic patients. The total follow-up time was 86,086 patient-years during which a total of 1,930 (75.7%) of the diabetic patients and 5,744 (58.5%) of the nondiabetic patients died (p < 0.001). Median survival was 60 months (95% CI: 57-64) in diabetic patients and 117 months (113-120) in the nondiabetic patients. Survival improved significantly in both groups (p < 0.001). A Cox regression, adjusting for possible confounders (age, sex, antihypertensive medication, antithrombotics or other thrombolytic agents, history of myocardial infarction, type of stroke, diabetes, cohort and the diabetes-by-sex, diabetes-by-age and diabetes-by-cohort interactions), showed a hazard ratio of 1.67 (1.58-1.76) comparing survival in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients. The reduced survival in diabetic stroke patients was more pronounced in women (p = 0.02) and younger patients (p < 0.001). There was a tendency that the difference in survival decreased between the earlier cohorts and the 2000-2005 cohort, but the test for interaction did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.08).

    Conclusion: Long-term survival after a first stroke has improved in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Survival is markedly lower in diabetics, especially in women and younger patients, and the disparity persisted over 24 years. Decreasing the disparity in stroke survival is a challenge for stroke and diabetes care. New treatment methods in combination with intense secondary prevention in diabetic patients, especially in younger women, are needed.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Pennlert, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Time trends and socioeconomic differences in blood pressure levels: the Northern Sweden MONICA study 1994-20142017In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 24, no 14, 1473-1481 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People with low socioeconomic status have higher blood pressure (BP), increasing their risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. We hypothesized that the gap in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP, according to educational level, has decreased over time but, that economical vulnerability would confer higher BP.

    Methods: A total of 4564 women and 4363 men aged 25-74 years participated in five population-based surveys in the Northern Sweden MONICA study between 1994 and 2014 (participation rate 76.8-62.5%).

    Results: SBP decreased by 10 mmHg in women and 4 mmHg in men, while DBP was unchanged. Treatment with antihypertensives increased in all but the youngest men. The prevalence of BP control in the population (<140/90 mmHg) increased and in 2014 reached 75% among women and 70% among men. The decrease in SBP was more pronounced in people without university education than in people with university education and DBP showed the same pattern, regardless of education. After adjustment for confounding factors, age, male sex, higher body mass index, and being born in a Nordic country were related to higher SBP and DBP. University education was related to lower SBP, while variables mirroring economic vulnerability were not associated with BP levels.

    Conclusions: BP levels as well as the socioeconomic gap in BP has decreased in Sweden but people with a lower level of education still have higher SBP. Lacking economic resources is not associated with high BP.

  • 30.
    Eriksson, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Forslund, Ann-Sofi
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Greater decreases in cholesterol levels among individuals with high cardiovascular risk than among the general population: the northern Sweden MONICA study 1994 to 20142016In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 37, no 25, 1985-1992 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Decreasing cholesterol levels in Western populations is the main reason for decreasing mortality due to coronary heart disease. Our aim was to analyze trends in cholesterol levels in the population during a period of 20 years in relation to previous cardiovascular disease (CVD), other cardiovascular risk factors, and socioeconomic status.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 4546 women and 4349 men aged 25-74 years participated in five population-based surveys in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study between 1994 and 2014 (participation rate 76.8-62.5%). Total cholesterol levels decreased from 6.2 mmol/L (95% confidence interval, CI, 6.1-6.2) in 1994 to 5.5 mmol/L (CI 5.4-5.5) in 2014. The decrease was more pronounced in elderly vs. younger participants (1.0 vs. 0.5 mmol/L). In 2014, participants with previous CVD, diabetes, or hypertension had lower cholesterol levels than the general population, whereas their levels were higher or similar to the general population in 1994. The use of lipid-lowering drugs increased markedly and was used by 14.3% in 2014. Previously described differences in cholesterol levels between participants with obesity and normal weight, and between those with and without university education, diminished, or vanished over time.

    CONCLUSION: Cholesterol levels decreased by 0.7 mmol/L over 20 years with no sign of abating. The improvement occurred in all age and gender groups but more prominently among those at high risk of ischaemic heart disease.

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Holmgren, L
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lundblad, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Large improvements in major cardiovascular risk factors in the population of northern Sweden: the MONICA study 1986-20092011In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 269, no 2, 219-231 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract.  Eriksson M, Holmgren L, Janlert U, Jansson J-H, Lundblad D, Stegmayr B, Söderberg S, Eliasson M (Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå; Research Department, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå; Department of Medicine, Skellefteå Hospital, Skellefteå; Department of Medicine, Sunderby Hospital, Luleå; and National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden). Large improvements in major cardiovascular risk factors in the population of northern Sweden: the MONICA study 1986–2009. J Intern Med 2011; 269: 219–231.

    Objectives.  The incidence of cardiovascular disease has declined rapidly in Sweden since the 1980s. We explored changes in major cardiovascular risk factors in northern Sweden between 1986 and 2009.

    Design.  Since 1986, six population surveys have been carried out in northern Sweden using procedures of the World Health Organization MONICA project. The population age range was 25–64 years in 1986 and 1990, and 25–74 years from 1994. Trends were analysed using generalized linear models.

    Results.  A total of 10 586 subjects were included in the surveys. Blood pressure decreased by 4.9/3.9 mmHg in women and 1.8/1.5 mmHg in men aged 25–64 years between 1986 and 2009. In men and women aged 65–74 years, the decrease was 12.6/6.1 mmHg between 1994 and 2009. From 1994, the use of blood pressure-lowering drugs increased, particularly among the older subgroup. The prevalence of smoking halved between 1986 and 2009; 11% of women and 9% of men were smokers in 2009. Cholesterol levels decreased by 0.9 mmol L−1 in the younger age group (25–64 years), and the use of lipid-lowering agents increased from 1994. Among subjects aged 25–64 years, one in five was obese in 2009, which was twice as many as in 1986, and body mass index (BMI) increased by 1.5 kg m−2, corresponding to an increase in weight of 4 kg. There was no further increase in BMI from 2004. The prevalence of diabetes did not change between 1986 and 2009. The proportion that received a university education increased markedly in all age groups, especially in women, during the study period.

    Conclusions.  Significant improvements were observed in major cardiovascular risk factors in northern Sweden between 1986 and 2009.

  • 32.
    Evander, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Putkuri, Niina
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lwande, Olivia Wesula
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Vapalahti, Olli
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Inkoo Virus in Northern Sweden2016In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, ISSN 0002-9637, E-ISSN 1476-1645, Vol. 94, no 5, 1103-1106 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mosquito-borne Inkoo virus (INKV) is a member of the California serogroup in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus These viruses are associated with fever and encephalitis, although INKV infections are not usually reported and the incidence is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies and associated risk factors in humans living in northern Sweden. Seroprevalence was investigated using the World Health Organization Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study, where a randomly selected population aged between 25 and 74 years (N = 1,607) was invited to participate. The presence of anti-INKV IgG antibodies was determined by immunofluorescence assay. Seropositivity for anti-INKV was significantly higher in men (46.9%) than in women (34.8%; P < 0.001). In women, but not in men, the prevalence increased somewhat with age (P = 0.06). The peak in seropositivity was 45-54 years for men and 55-64 years for women. Living in rural areas was associated with a higher seroprevalence. In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies was high in northern Sweden and was associated with male sex, older age, and rural living. The age distribution indicates exposure to INKV at a relatively early age. These findings will be important for future epidemiological and clinical investigations of this relatively unknown mosquito-borne virus.

  • 33.
    Forsling, Elin
    et al.
    Sunderby Hospital, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Robert
    Norrbotten County Council, Sweden .
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Medicine, Sunderby Hospital, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Rose-Marie
    Norrbotten County Council, Sweden .
    Health care contact is higher in the week preceding a first myocardial infarction: A review of medical records in Northern Sweden in 20072015In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 14, no 5, 450-456 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Prodromal symptoms before myocardial infarction (MI) are common, but there are limited data regarding health care contact prior to the acute onset of MI and the impact of gender on early presentation to health care.

    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse prodromal symptoms reported in medical records and study health care contact in the week before the acute onset of MI in comparison to the general population.

    METHODS: From the Northern Sweden MONICA Study we accessed the medical records of 359 patients aged 32-74 years with a first MI in the county of Norrbotten in 2007. We identified those patients' health care contact during the seven days before the MI and compared them with the weekly number of contacts in the general population aged 45-74 years in the county during 2007.

    RESULTS: We found that 23.1% of the women and 17.6% of the men had at least one contact the week before the MI. With the exception of the 14 women aged 45-55 years, health care consumption in both women and men in all age groups between 45- 74 years of age was 75%-165% higher in the week prior to the MI than in the general population of the same ages. In the first health care contact, pain-related symptoms were most frequent (43%), and fatigue was present in 8% of patients. There were no differences between women and men in health care consumption or presenting symptoms.

    CONCLUSION: Both women and men with a first MI are in contact more frequently than the general population in the week prior to the event.

  • 34. Gao, W
    et al.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Does the constellation of risk factors with and without abdominal adiposity associate with different cardiovascular mortality risk?2008In: International journal of obesity (2005), ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 32, no 5, 757-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To evaluate whether the metabolic syndrome (MetS) defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, which has abdominal adiposity as a mandatory element, predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality better than the cluster of other IDF-defined abnormalities not including abdominal adiposity. METHODS: Data from nine European population-based studies, including 7782 men and 7739 women (aged 30-89 years), with a median follow-up of 8.55 years, were jointly analyzed. Hazard ratios for CVD mortality were calculated with Cox regression models. RESULTS: In total, 41% of the men and 38% of the women had the IDF MetS. Individuals with the IDF MetS were by definition more obese and had a higher prevalence of diabetes than non-obese subjects with > or = 2 IDF abnormalities; whereas non-obese men with > or = 3 factors had more atherogenic lipid profiles. Multivariate adjusted hazard ratio for CVD death in men and women with the IDF MetS was 2.44 (1.69-2.98) and 2.32 (1.27-4.23); in non-obese men with 2 and > or = 3 factors the hazard ratio was 1.60 (1.12-2.30) and 2.44 (1.62-3.66), respectively, and in non-obese women with 2 factors the hazard ratio was 2.41 (1.09-5.33). CONCLUSIONS: The cluster of the CVD risk factors predicted CVD mortality regardless of the presence or absence of the abdominal adiposity. Inclusion of abdominal adiposity as a prerequisite will miss those non-obese individuals who have increased CVD mortality.

  • 35. Haglund, Bengt
    et al.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Stenbeck, Magnus
    Rosén, Måns
    Is moist snuff use associated with excess risk of IHD or stroke? A longitudinal follow-up of snuff users in Sweden.2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 35, no 6, 618-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The potential risks of Swedish moist snuff (snus) are debated and studies have shown diverging results. AIMS: The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is any excess risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke from snuff use. METHODS: The Swedish Survey of Living Conditions from 1988-89 was record-linked to the Swedish Cause of Death Register and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register to investigate excess mortality and hospitalization from IHD and stroke. A Poisson regression model was used and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for snuff and smoking were calculated controlling for age, physical activity, self-reported health, number of longstanding illnesses, residential area, and socioeconomic position. RESULTS: Among snuff users there were no excess risks of mortality or hospitalization from IHD (IRR 0.8; 0.5-1.2,) or stroke (IRR 1.1; 0.7-1.8), but, as expected, clear excess risks were found for smokers (IRR 1.7; 1.4-2.1 for IHD, and IRR 1.4; 1.0-1.9 for stroke). CONCLUSIONS: This study has not shown any excess risk among users of snuff for IHD or stroke. If there is a risk associated with snuff it is evidently much lower than those associated with smoking.

  • 36.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    The Process of Care-seeking for Myocardial Infarction Among Patients With Diabetes2015In: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 0889-4655, E-ISSN 1550-5049, Vol. 30, no 5, E1-E8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: People with diabetes have a higher risk for myocardial infarction (MI) than do people without diabetes. It is extremely important that patients with MI seek medical care as soon as possible after symptom onset because the shorter the time from symptom onset to treatment, the better the prognosis.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore how people with diabetes experience the onset of MI and how they decide to seek care.

    METHODS: We interviewed 15 patients with diabetes, 7 men and 8 women, seeking care for MI. They were interviewed 1 to 5 days after their admission to hospital. Five of the participants had had a previous MI; 5 were being treated with insulin; 5, with a combination of insulin and oral antidiabetic agents; and 5, with oral agents only. Data were analyzed according to grounded theory.

    RESULTS: The core category that emerged, "becoming ready to act," incorporated the related categories of perceiving symptoms, becoming aware of illness, feeling endangered, and acting on illness experience. Our results suggest that responses in each of the categories affect the care-seeking process and could be barriers or facilitators in timely care-seeking. Many participants did not see themselves as susceptible to MI and MI was not expressed as a complication of diabetes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients with diabetes engaged in a complex care-seeking process, including several delaying barriers, when they experienced symptoms of an MI. Education for patients with diabetes should include discussions about their increased risk of MI, the range of individual variation in symptoms and onset of MI, and the best course of action when possible symptoms of MI occur.

  • 37.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Internal Medicine, Sunderbyn, Luleå, Sweden.
    Longer pre-hospital delay in first myocardial infarction among patients with diabetes: an analysis of 4266 patients in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study2013In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 13, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reperfusion therapy reduces both morbidity and mortality in myocardial infarction, but the effectiveness depends on how fast the patient receives treatment. Despite the time-dependent effectiveness of reperfusion therapy, many patients with myocardial infarction have delays in seeking medical care. The aim of this study was to describe pre-hospital delay in a first myocardial infarction among men and women with and without diabetes and to describe the association between pre-hospital delay time and diabetes, sex, age, symptoms and size of residential area as a proxy for distance to hospital.

    Methods: This population based study was based on data from 4266 people aged 25-74 years, with a first myocardial infarction registered in the Northern Sweden MONICA myocardial infarction registry between 2000 and 2008.

    Results: The proportion of patients with delay times >= 2 h was 64% for patients with diabetes and 58% for patients without diabetes. There was no difference in delay time >= 2 h between men and women with diabetes. Diabetes, older age and living in a town or rural areas were factors associated with pre-hospital delay times >= 2 h. Atypical symptoms were not a predictor for pre-hospital delay times >= 2 h, OR 0.59 (0.47; 0.75).

    Conclusions: A higher proportion of patients with diabetes have longer pre-hospital delay in myocardial infarction than patients without diabetes. There are no differences in pre-hospital delay between men and women with diabetes. The largest risk difference for pre-hospital delay >= 2 h is between women with and without diabetes. Diabetes, older age and living in a town or rural area are predictors for pre-hospital delay >= 2 h.

  • 38.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Internal Medicine, Sunderbyn, Luleå, Sweden.
    Patients with diabetes are not more likely to have atypical symptoms when seeking care of a first myocardial infarction: an analysis of 4028 patients in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study2012In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 29, no 7, e82-e87 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe symptoms of a first myocardial infarction in men and women with and without diabetes.

    Methods: We conducted a population-based study of 4028 people aged 25-74 years, with first myocardial infarction registered in the Northern Sweden Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) myocardial infarction registry between 2000 and 2006. Symptoms were classified as typical or atypical according to the World Health Organization MONICA manual.

    Results: Among patients with diabetes, 90.1% reported typical symptoms of myocardial infarction; the corresponding proportion among patients without diabetes was 91.5%. In the diabetes group, 88.8% of women and 90.8% of men had typical symptoms of myocardial infarction. No differences were found in symptoms of myocardial infarction between women with and without diabetes or between men with and without diabetes. Atypical symptoms were more prevalent in the older age groups (> 65 years) than in the younger age groups (< 65 years). The increases were approximately equal among men and women, with and without diabetes. Diabetes was not an independent predictor for having atypical symptoms of myocardial infarction.

    Conclusions: Typical symptoms of myocardial infarction were equally prevalent in patients with and without diabetes and there were no sex differences in symptoms among persons with diabetes. Diabetes was not a predictor of atypical symptoms.

    © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine© 2011 Diabetes UK.

  • 39.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sederholm Lawesson, S
    Linköping Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, S-58185 Linköping, Sweden.
    Swahn, E
    Linköping Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, S-58185 Linköping, Sweden.
    Thylén, I
    Linköping Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, S-58185 Linköping, Sweden.
    Isaksson, R. M
    Norrbotten City Council, Sunderby Hosp, Dept Res, Luleå, Sweden.
    Ericsson, M
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Symptoms in MI in patients with and without diabetes: a survey report from the SymTime study group2014In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, Meeting abstract P6111, 1076-1076 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Thylén, Ingela
    Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Symptoms and delay times during myocardial infarction in 694 patients with and without diabetes: an explorative cross-sectional study2016In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 16, 108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In myocardial infarction (MI) a short pre-hospital delay, prompt diagnosis and timely reperfusion treatment can improve the prognosis. Despite the importance of timely care seeking, many patients with MI symptoms delay seeking medical care. Previous research is inconclusive about differences in symptom presentation and pre-hospital delay between patients with and without diabetes during MI. The aim of this study was to describe symptoms and patient delay during MI in patients with and without diabetes.

    METHODS: Swedish cross-sectional multicentre survey study enrolling MI patients in 5 centres within 24 h from admittance.

    RESULTS: Chest pain was common in patients both with and without diabetes and did not differ after adjustment for age and sex. Patients with diabetes had higher risk for shoulder pain/discomfort, shortness of breath, and tiredness, but lower risk for cold sweat. The three most common symptoms reported by patients with diabetes were chest pain, pain in arms/hands and tiredness. In patients without diabetes the most common symptoms were chest pain, cold sweat and pain in arms/hands. Median patient delay time was 2 h, 24 min for patients with diabetes and 1 h, 15 min for patients without diabetes (p = 0.024).

    CONCLUSION: Chest pain was common both in patients with and without diabetes. There were more similarities than differences in MI symptoms between patients with and without diabetes but patients with diabetes had considerably longer delay. This knowledge is important not only for health care personnel meeting patients with suspected MI, but also for the education of people with diabetes.

  • 41.
    Hernestål-Boman, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Johansson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Individual PAI-1 increase over nine years relates differently in men and women to changes in anthropometric, glycaemic, inflammatory and lipid markers.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is known to correlate to factors related to the metabolic syndrome. We have previously shown that PAI-1 antigen increased by 75% in men and 95% in women over nine years.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore relationships between intra-individual changes in PAI-1 and changes in anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, glycaemic, lipid and inflammatory markers, separately for men and women.

    Method: In northern Sweden, 125 men and 116 women were examined first in 1990 and re-examined in 1999 during the morning hours. Changes over time (Δ) were calculated as the value at 1999 minus the value at 1990.

    Results: In men, ΔPAI-1 was significantly correlated to ΔBMI (r =0.33), ΔCRP (r =0.25), Δtriglycerides (r =0.39), Δfasting plasma glucose (r =0.41) and Δ2-hour plasma glucose (r =0.29). In women, ΔPAI-1 was significantly correlated to ΔBMI (r =0.36), Δwaist circumference (r =0.38), Δhip circumference (r =0.27), ΔCRP (r =0.27) and Δtotal cholesterol (r =0.19). The multivariate linear regression analysis showed that ΔPAI-1 was significantly related to Δfasting plasma glucose and ΔCRP in men (R2 for the complete model was 0.31). In women, ΔPAI-1 was significantly related to Δwaist circumference (R2 for the complete model was 0.17).

    Conclusion: We expected that changes in anthropometric, glycaemic, inflammatory and lipid markers would explain a large part of the observed PAI-1 increase. However, the multivariate analysis explained only 20% of the variation in ΔPAI-1 in women and 30% in men. Interestingly, the patterns of components correlating with the changes in PAI-1 differed between sexes.

  • 42.
    Hernestål-Boman, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Johansson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Individual changes in fibrinolytic factors, von Willebrand factor, and C-reactive protein over a nine-year period.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intra-individual changes in haemostatic factor concentrations over time are unknown, in the general population.

    Objective: To describe intra-individual longitudinal changes in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tPA/PAI-1 complex, von Willebrand factor (VWF), and C-reactive protein (CRP) over nine years, in different age groups, stratified for sex.

    Methods: The MONICA survey in 1990 examined randomly selected men and women in four age groups (25–64 years) who were re-examined in 1999. A total of 309 individuals donated venous blood samples in Stabilyte tubes for both surveys during the morning hours, after an overnight fast. We analysed tPA activity and antigens of tPA, PAI-1, tPA/PAI-1 complex, VWF, and CRP.

    Results: Over nine years, in both men and women, we found significant intra-individual increases in the antigen levels of tPA, PAI-1, tPA/PAI-1 complex, VWF, and CRP (P < 0.001). PAI-1 antigen levels increased by 75% for men and 95% for women. Compared to men, women had a significantly higher CRP increase (0.92 vs. 0.22 mg/L; P = 0.044). The P for trend for mean Δ1999–1990 across age groups showed a significant linear trend for VWF (P = 0.001 for men; P < 0.001 for women), but not for the other studied variables.

    Conclusions: There were intra-individual longitudinal increases in the antigen levels of tPA, PAI-1, tPA/PAI-1 complex, VWF, and CRP over nine years in both men and women, with PAI-1 showing the highest relative increase. VWF increased significantly across age groups; however, fibrinolytic variables did not.

  • 43.
    Hernestål-Boman, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Johansson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Long-term stability of fibrinolytic factors stored at -80 degrees C.2010In: Thrombosis Research, ISSN 0049-3848, E-ISSN 1879-2472, Vol. 125, no 5, 451-456 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Blood samples in epidemiological studies are often stored for several years and analysed at different occasions. The reagent kits are continually modified for better precision and accuracy. Our hypothesis was that epidemiological studies are affected by long-term storage and/or modifications of reagent kits.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samples stored at -80( degrees )C from two populations were used: A case-referent study with samples collected from 1985 to 2000 and analysed 2005 (n=1598) were used to study influence of long-term storage. A cross-sectional study analysed 1990 (n=1558) and re-analysed 2001 (n=78) and 2005 (n=828) was used to study influence of reagent kit modifications. Fibrinolytic analyses included immunoassays of tPA, PAI-1 and tPA-PAI-1 complex and chromogenic substrate assays of the activities of tPA and PAI-1.

    RESULTS: Long-term storage for a median time of 11.6years (range 5 to 20) showed an effect of time on tPA antigen R(2)=0.01, PAI-1 antigen R(2)=0.01 and tPA-PAI-1 complex R(2) = 0.02. Modifications in reagent kits affected the levels of fibrinolytic factors; for tPA antigen the slope coefficients were between 0.72 and 0.95 (R(2) 0.47 - 0.75), whereas tPA activity showed an agreement with slope coefficients 1.06 to 1.09 (R(2) 0.67 - 0.93).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that long-term storage affects fibrinolytic variables to a negligible extent, but modifications in reagent kits introduced an element of bias. We conclude that analysis of samples on a single occasion is preferable to multiple occasions, as storage has negligible effect.

  • 44.
    Hernestål-Boman, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Medicine, Sunderby Hospital, Luleå, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jan W
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg and AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Johansson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Signs of dysregulated fibrinolysis precede the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a population-based study2012In: Cardiovascular Diabetology, ISSN 1475-2840, E-ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 11, 152- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetic patients experience stimulated coagulation and dysfibrinolysis, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This imbalance may precede the manifest diagnosis. We investigated whether elevated antigen levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the tPA/PAI-1 complex, or von Willebrand Factor (VWF) precede type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis, and whether this elevation occurs before increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) in individuals who later develop T2DM.

    Methods: We conducted a prospective incident case-referent study within the Vasterbotten Intervention Programme. Cardiovascular risk factor data as well as FPG and 2hPG and blood samples for future research were collected at a baseline health examination between 1989 and 2000, (n= 28 736). During follow-up in January 2001, 157 cases had developed T2DM. Referents without T2DM were matched for sex, age, and year of participation (n=277). Subgroup analysis was performed for cases with normal baseline glucose levels (FPG <6.1 mmol/L and 2hPG < 8.9 mmol/L) and cases with elevated levels (FPG 6.1-6.9 mmol/L and/or 2hPG 8.9-12.1 mmol/L).

    Results: After adjusting for BMI, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking, systolic blood pressure and levels of C-reactive protein and triglycerides, independent associations were found between incident T2DM and elevated levels of tPA (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.23), PAI-1 (OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.14-2.28), and tPA/PAI-1 complex (OR=2.45, 95% CI 1.56-3.84). In participants with normal glucose levels, PAI-1 (OR=2.06, 95% CI 1.10 - 3.86) exhibited an independent relationship with incident T2DM after the adjustments.

    Conclusions: Elevated levels of fibrinolytic variables precede the manifestation of T2DM after adjusting for metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors and can be detected several years before changes in glucose tolerance.

  • 45.
    Holmberg, Dan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics. EMV, Immunology, BMC, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Ruikka, Karin
    Department of Medicine, Sunderby Hospital, SE-971 80 Luleå, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Medicine, Sunderby Hospital, SE-971 80 Luleå, Sweden.
    Mayans, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Association of CD247 (CD3ζ) gene polymorphisms with T1D and AITD in the population of northern Sweden2016In: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 17, no 1, 70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: T1D and AITD are autoimmune disorders commonly occurring in the same family and even in the same individual. The genetic contribution to these disorders is complex making uncovering of susceptibility genes very challenging. The general aim of this study was to identify loci and genes contributing to T1D/AITD susceptibility. Our strategy was to perform linkage and association studies in the relatively genetically homogenous population of northern Sweden. We performed a GWLS to find genomic regions linked to T1D/AITD in families from northern Sweden and we performed an association study in the families to test for association between T1D/AITD and variants in previously published candidate genes as well as a novel candidate gene, CD247.

    METHODS: DNA prepared from 459 individuals was used to perform a linkage and an association study. The ABI PRISM Linkage Mapping Set v2.5MD10 was employed for an initial 10-cM GWLS, and additional markers were added for fine mapping. Merlin was used for linkage calculations. For the association analysis, a GoldenGate Custom Panel from Illumina containing 79 SNPs of interest was used and FBAT was used for association calculations.

    RESULTS: Our study revealed linkage to two previously identified chromosomal regions, 4q25 and 6p22, as well as to a novel chromosomal region, 1q23. The association study replicated association to PTPN22, HLA-DRB1, INS, IFIH1, CTLA4 and C12orf30. Evidence in favor of association was also found for SNPs in the novel susceptibility gene CD247.

    CONCLUSIONS: Several risk loci for T1D/AITD identified in published association studies were replicated in a family material, of modest size, from northern Sweden. This provides evidence that these loci confer disease susceptibility in this population and emphasizes that small to intermediate sized family studies in this population can be used in a cost-effective manner for the search of genes involved in complex diseases. The linkage study revealed a chromosomal region in which a novel T1D/AITD susceptibility gene, CD247, is located. The association study showed association between T1D/AITD and several variants in this gene. These results suggests that common susceptibility genes act in concert with variants of CD247 to generate genetic risk for T1D/AITD in this population

  • 46. Hyvärinen, Marjukka
    et al.
    Qiao, Qing
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Stehouwer, Coen D A
    The difference between acute coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke risk with regard to gender and age in Finnish and Swedish populations2010In: International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society, ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 5, no 3, 152-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke events appeared approximately 10 years earlier in men than in women, and these rates remained higher in men than in women in all age groups. The gender difference was more marked for coronary heart disease than for ischaemic stroke. This may be taken into account when developing interventions and treatment strategies.

  • 47. Hyvärinen, Marjukka
    et al.
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Qiao, Qing
    The impact of diabetes on coronary heart disease differs from that on ischaemic stroke with regard to the gender.2009In: Cardiovascular Diabetology, ISSN 1475-2840, E-ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 8, no 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To study the diabetes related CVD risk between men and women of different ages. METHODS: Hazards ratios (HRs) (95%CI) for acute CHD and ischaemic stroke events were estimated based on data of Finnish and Swedish cohorts of 5111 women and 4167 men. RESULTS: 182 (3.6%) women and 348 (8.4%) men had CHD and 129 (2.5%) women and 137 (3.3%) men ischaemic stroke events. The multivariate adjusted HRs for acute CHD at age groups of 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 years were 1.00 (1.94), 1.78 (4.23), 3.75 (8.40) in women (men) without diabetes and 4.35 (5.40), 5.49 (9.54) and 8.84 (13.76) in women (men) with diabetes. The corresponding HRs for ischaemic stroke were 1.00 (1.26), 2.48 (2.83) and 5.17 (5.11) in women (men) without diabetes and 4.14 (4.91), 3.32 (6.75) and 13.91 (18.06) in women (men) with diabetes, respectively. CONCLUSION: CHD risk was higher in men than in women but difference reduced in diabetic population. Diabetes, however, increased stroke risk more in men than in women.

  • 48.
    Isaksson, Rose-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Sunderbyn Research Unit.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Zingmark, Karin
    FoU enheten, Luleå, Norrbottens läns landsting.
    Older women's prehospital experiences of their first myocardial infarction: a qualitative analysis from the Northern Sweden MONICA Study2013In: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 0889-4655, E-ISSN 1550-5049, Vol. 28, no 4, 360-369 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Few qualitative studies have been conducted on older women’s experiences of myocardial infarction (MI) and, in particular, the time before they seek medical care.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore older women’s prehospital experiences of their first MI.

    Methods: Qualitative content analysis was performed on data from individual interviews with 20 women, aged 65 to 80 years (mean, 73.0 years). The participants were interviewed 3 days after admission to a hospital for a confirmed first MI.

    Results: The women perceived their symptoms as a strange and unfamiliar development from indistinct physical sensations to persistent and overwhelming chest pain. Throughout the prehospital phase, they used different strategies such as downplaying and neglecting the symptoms. The symptoms were seen as intrusions in their daily lives, against which the participants defended themselves to remain in control and to maintain social responsibilities. As their symptoms evolved into constant chest pain, the women began to realize the seriousness of their symptoms. When the pain became unbearable, the women took the decision to seek medical care.

    Conclusion: Understanding the complex experiences of older women in the prehospital phase is essential to reducing their patient decision times. The findings of this study should be incorporated into the education of professionals involved in the care of cardiac patients, including those who answer informational and emergency telephone lines.

  • 49.
    Isaksson, Rose-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Zingmark, Karin
    Prehospital experiences of older men with a first myocardial infarction: a qualitative analysis within the Northern Sweden MONICA Study2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 25, no 4, 787-797 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To explore older men's prehospital experiences of their first myocardial infarction (MI). Background:  The delay between the onset of symptoms to the initiation of medical care is a major determinant of prognosis in MI. The majority of people experiencing MI are men. But few studies have been conducted solely on men's experiences before seeking medical care for MI. The objective of this study was to explore older men's experiences of symptoms and their reasoning during the prehospital phase of their first MI. Method:  Data collection was carried out through individual interviews with 20 men representing the age range 65-80 (mean 71) years. The participants were interviewed 3 days after admission for a confirmed first MI. The interviews were designed to prompt the men to describe their symptoms and their reasoning up to the decision to seek care. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. Findings:  The prehospital phase in older men was found to be a complex and extended journey. The symptoms were perceived from diffuse ill-being to a cluster of alarming symptoms. The participants dealt with conceptions about MI symptoms. They were unsure about the cause of their symptoms, which did not correspond to their expectations about an MI, and whether they should seek medical care. They had difficulty making the final decision to seek care and strived to maintain a normal life. They initially tried to understand, reduce or treat the symptoms by themselves. The decision to seek medical care preceded a movement from uncertainty to conviction. Conclusions:  Understanding older men's prehospital experiences of MI is essential to reduce their patient decision times. This requires knowledge about the complexity and dynamic evolvement of symptoms, beliefs and strategies to maintain an ordinary life.

  • 50.
    Isaksson, Rose-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Zingmark, Karin
    FoU enheten, Luleå, Norrbottens läns landsting.
    Prehospital experiences of older men with a first myocardial infarction: a qualitative analysis within the Northern Sweden MONICA StudyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To explore older men’s prehospital experiences of their first MI.

    Background:  The delay between the onset of symptoms to the initiation of medical care is a major determinant of prognosis in myocardial infarction (MI).  The largest single component of the delay is the time it takes the person to respond to the symptoms by seeking care. The majority of people experiencing MI are men. But few studies have been conducted solely on men’s experiences before seeking medical care for MI. The objective of this study was to explore older men’s experiences of symptoms and their reasoning during the prehospital phase of their first MI.

    Method: Data collection was carried out through individual interviews with 20 men representing the age range 65–80 (mean 71) years. The participants were interviewed three days after admission for a confirmed first MI (with or without ST elevation). The interviews were designed to prompt the men to describe their symptoms and their reasoning up to the decision to seek care. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews.        

    Findings: The prehospital phase in older men was found to be a complex and extended journey. The symptoms were perceived from diffuse ill-being to a cluster of alarming symptoms. During this journey the participants dealt with conceptions about MI symptoms. They were unsure both about the cause of their symptoms, which did not correspond to their expectations about an MI, and about whether they should seek medical care. They had difficulty making the final decision to seek care and strived to maintain a normal life. They initially tried to understand, reduce, or treat the symptoms by themselves. The decision to seek medical care preceded a movement from uncertainty to conviction.

    Conclusions:Understanding older men’s prehospital experiences of MI is essential to reduce their patient decision times. This requires knowledge about the complexity and dynamic evolvement of symptoms, beliefs and strategies to maintain an ordinary life.

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