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  • 1.
    Fry, Douglas P.
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University and University of Arizona.
    Miklikowska, Marta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Åbo Akademi University.
    Culture of Peace2012In: The Psychological Components of a Sustainable Peace / [ed] Peter Coleman and Morton Deutsch, Springer, 2012, p. 227-243Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Miklikowska, Marta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Åbo Akademi University.
    Democracy begins at home : parenting, empathy, and adolescents' support for democratic values2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Democracies are rare historically and inherently fragile.  Their existence depends on more than formal institutions or an absence of dictators and extremists. In other words, the democratic quality of a political regime requires citizens who support democratic values. To this end, it is important to understand which factors lead individuals to feel committed to a democratic creed. Although it is assumed that support for democratic values develops as a result of social learning, concrete socializing circumstances are less obvious. The classical literature on political socialization pointed to parents as a direct determinant of youth civic formation. However, in contemporary societies, few parents hold explicit goals to influence the political preferences of their children. The present study aims at advancing this discourse by assessing the direct and indirect role of parenting for the democratic commitments of adolescents.  Method: This study was conducted on two random samples. One consisted of 1,341 secondary-school students, aged 17, from three regions of Finland (South, South-West, and West). The second consisted of 678 secondary-school students, aged 16 at baseline, from the Flemish-speaking part of Belgium. The study comprised of questionnaires which were administered during regular school hours.  Results: The present study yielded some important findings. First, it showed that empathy is a good predictor of adolescents’ democratic commitments (Article I). Second, it provided evidence for the influence of supportive parenting on the development of empathy in adolescence (Article II). Third, it tested empathy as a predictor of democratic values in light of other significant variables (Article III). Fourth, it provided evidence that democratic parenting might be directly and non-directly, i.e. through adolescents’ empathic skills, related to youth support for democratic values (Article IV).  Conclusion: Overall, this study showed direct and indirect ways in which parenting might influence the democratic orientation of adolescents and gave recommendations for the democratic education of citizens. 

  • 3.
    Miklikowska, Marta
    School of Law, Psychology, and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Development of anti-immigrant attitudes in adolescence: the role of parents, peers, intergroup friendships, and empathy2017In: British Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0007-1269, E-ISSN 2044-8295, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 626-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic and racial intergroup attitudes are assumed to develop due to the influence of socialization contexts. However, there is still little longitudinal evidence supporting this claim. We also know little about the relative importance of socialization contexts, the possible interplay between them as well as about the conditions and mechanisms that might underlie socialization effects. This longitudinal study of adolescents (N = 517) examined the effects of parents and peers’ anti-immigrant attitudes as well as intergroup friendships on relative changes in adolescents’ anti-immigrant prejudice, controlling for the effects of socioeconomic background. It also examined whether the effects of parents or peers would depend on adolescents’ intergroup friendships. In addition, it explored whether the effects of parents, peers, and intergroup friendships would be mediated or moderated by adolescents’ empathy. Results showed significant effects of parents, peers, intergroup friendships, and socioeconomic background on changes in youth attitudes, highlighting the role of parental prejudice. They also showed adolescents with immigrant friends to be less affected by parents and peers’ prejudice than youth without immigrant friends. In addition, results showed the effects of parents, peers, and intergroup friendships to be mediated by adolescents’ empathic concern. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  • 4.
    Miklikowska, Marta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Örebro University.
    Development of Tolerance across Life Span2018In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development / [ed] M. H. Bornstein, Sage Publications, 2018, In pressChapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tolerance Tolerance is commonly defined as putting up with ideas, persons, or practices that one disagrees with or dislikes. Theory and research have focused on one particular kind of tolerance, namely political tolerance, that concerns the willingness to extend civil liberties to disliked groups. Although difficult and complex, political tolerance has been considered a key to the sustenance of democratic and increasingly diverse societies. Knowledge of tolerance development and factors that influence this process is essential for fostering tolerance in societies. This entry summarizes key points in understanding tolerance and its development employing a scientific lifespan perspective. Conceptualization of Tolerance Several factors trouble understanding the nature and development of tolerance. First, tolerance has been conceptualized as putting up with ideas, persons, or practices that one disagrees with or dislikes, as the absence of prejudice, and as positive attitudes towards groups. These inconsistencies in conceptualization of tolerance make it difficult to integrate research findings. Second, the definition of tolerance as putting up with something that one dislikes implies that one can be both tolerant and prejudiced. However, research has often assumed that tolerance and prejudice are opposites and thus much of the knowledge of tolerance comes from studies on prejudice. This fact is problematic, as, although related, prejudice and tolerance seem to be separate constructs with distinct trajectories and antecedents. Further, the fact that tolerance is not by definition good, and intolerance is not by definition bad, adds to difficulties in understanding tolerance. Blanket tolerance may result in approval of harmful beliefs or in sustenance of an undesirable status quo. Tolerance is more context-dependent than previously assumed; that is, tolerance and intolerance may coexist in individuals hinging on what they are asked to tolerate. Finally, tolerance has often been operationalized as support for the principle of tolerance rather than practice. Yet, there is a discrepancy between endorsing tolerance as an abstract ideal and applying it in practice, as to disliked groups. In result, our understanding of tolerant behavior is limited. 

  • 5.
    Miklikowska, Marta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Empathy Trumps Prejudice: The Longitudinal Relation Between Empathy and Anti-Immigrant Attitudes in Adolescence2017In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1895-6297, E-ISSN 2084-3879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although research has shown the effects of empathy manipulations on prejudice, little is known about the long-term relation between empathy and prejudice development, the direction of effects, and the relative effects of cognitive and affective aspects of empathy. Moreover, research has not examined within-person processes and, hence, its practical implications are unclear. In addition, longitudinal research on adolescents is still scarce. This three-wave study of adolescents (N = 574) examined a longitudinal, within-person relation between empathy and anti-immigrant attitudes. The "standard" cross-lagged model showed bidirectional effects between empathic concern, perspective taking, and anti-immigrant attitudes. In contrast, the Random-Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Model showed, that only perspective taking directly predicted within-person changes in anti-immigrant attitudes. Empathic concern predicted within-person changes in anti-immigrant attitudes indirectly, via its effects on perspective taking. No effects of anti-immigrant attitudes on within-person changes in empathy were found. The relations between empathic concern, perspective taking, and anti-immigrant attitudes were significant at the between-person level. In addition, the results showed changes in anti-immigrant attitudes and perspective taking and a change in empathic concern in mid- but not late adolescence. The results provide strong evidence for the effects of perspective taking on development of anti-immigrant attitudes in adolescence. They also suggest that the link between empathic concern and adolescents’ anti-immigrant attitudes can be explained by indirect, within-person effects and by between-person differences. The findings suggest that programs aimed at reducing development of anti-immigrant attitudes in adolescence should work more closely with youth perspective taking and empathic concern.

  • 6.
    Miklikowska, Marta
    School of Law Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Like parent, like child?: development of prejudice and tolerance towards immigrants2015In: British Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0007-1269, E-ISSN 2044-8295, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 95-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although intergroup attitudes are assumed to develop due to the influence of parents, there is no longitudinal evidence supporting this claim. In addition, research on socialization of intergroup attitudes has omitted possible effects of adolescents on their parents. We also know little about the conditions under which intergroup attitudes are transmitted. This two-wave, 2 years apart, study of adolescents (N = 507) and their parents examined the relations between parents and adolescents' prejudice and tolerance from a longitudinal perspective. The study tested whether parental prejudice and tolerance would predict over-time changes in adolescents' attitudes and whether adolescents' prejudice and tolerance would elicit changes in parental attitudes. Additionally, it explored whether some of the effects would depend on perceived parental support. Results showed significant bidirectional influences between parents and adolescents' attitudes. In addition, adolescents who perceived their parents as supportive showed higher parent–adolescent correspondence in prejudice than youth with low parental support. These findings show that intergroup attitudes develop as a result of mutual influences between parents and adolescents. Hence, the unidirectional transmission model and previous research findings should be revisited. The results also suggest that parents' prejudice influence adolescents' attitudes to the extent that youth perceive their parents as supportive.

  • 7.
    Miklikowska, Marta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Åbo Akademi University.
    Psychological underpinnings of democracy: Empathy, authoritarianism, self-esteem, interpersonal trust, normative identity style, and openness to experience as predictors of support for democratic values2012In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 603-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the role of individual differences for political attitudes is undisputed, the psychological deter-minants of support for democratic values received limited attention. This study aimed at incorporating a variety of measures of stable individual differences and determining their relative effect on support for democratic values as well as at testing a new predictor, i.e. normative identity style. The analysis of a sur-vey in a sample of middle adolescents (N = 1341; 16–17 year olds) showed that (a) right-wing authoritar-ianism, interpersonal trust, normative identity style, and empathy were good predictors of support for democratic values, (b) empathy and authoritarianism were the strongest predictors of democratic com-mitments, and that (c) self-esteem was not related to support for democratic values.

  • 8.
    Miklikowska, Marta
    Örebro University.
    The apple does not fall far from the tree or does it?: The role of parents in developmentof tolerance and intolerance among adolescents2017In: Mechanisms of tolerance: an anthology / [ed] Erik Lundberg, Stockholm: The Living History Forum , 2017, p. 281-302Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Miklikowska, Marta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Åbo Akademi University.
    Duriez, Bart
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Soenens, Bart
    Ghent University.
    Family roots of empathy-related characteristics: the role of perceived maternal and paternal need support in adolescence2011In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1895-6297, E-ISSN 2084-3879, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 1342-1352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories on empathy development have stressed the role of socialization in general and the role of parental support in particular. This 3-wave longitudinal study of middle adolescents (N 678) aimed to contribute to the extant research on the socialization of empathy (a) by examining the relative contri-bution of perceived maternal and paternal need supportive parenting on over-time changes in adoles-cents’ emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy (i.e., empathic concern and perspective taking, respectively) and (b) by considering the possibility of reciprocal relations between perceived parenting and adolescent empathy. Whereas paternal need support consistently predicted over-time changes in perspective taking in both sons and daughters, perceived maternal need support predicted changes in empathic concern among daughters only. In addition, although less consistently so, empathy dimensions also predicted over-time changes in perceived parenting. Results are discussed in terms of the nature of empathy and in the light of domain-specific effects of each parent.

  • 10.
    Miklikowska, Marta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Åbo Akademi University .
    Fry, Douglas P.
    Åbo Akademi University and University of Arizona .
    Values for Peace: Ethnographic Lessons From the Semaiof Malaysia and the Mardu of Australia2010In: Journal of Beliefs and Values, ISSN 1361-7672, E-ISSN 1469-9362, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 124-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schwartz’s model of basic human values conceptualizes self-enhancing and selftranscendenceas opposing value dimensions. Self-enhancing values include striving forpower and achievement; hence, they are individual-centric, whereas self-transcendencevalues include benevolence and universalism, which pertain to a concern for other peopleand society. As deeply rooted and socially shared conceptions of what is good, valuesprovide a basis for the development of attitudes and motivate individuals to behave incertain ways. This article suggests that self-transcendence values run counter to violenceand warfare. Two anthropological case studies, one from Malaysia and the other fromAustralia, are presented to illustrate how self-transcendence values contribute to peace.Special attention is paid to egalitarianism, affiliation, nurturance, cooperation, sharing,and interdependence as self-transcendence values that are congruent with and supportiveof peace. The broader implications of how self-transcendence values enhance peacefulsocial interaction within and among social groups are considered.

  • 11.
    Miklikowska, Marta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Åbo Akademi University.
    Hurme, Helena
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Democracy begins at home: Democratic parenting and adolescents' support for democratic values2011In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 541-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is generally assumed that support for democratic values and beliefs develops as a result of social learning, the concrete socializing circumstances through which this occurs are less obvious. This study investigated the relationship between democratic family functioning and democratic values of adolescents. Adolescents' (N = 1,341, 16- to 17-year-olds) reports on their parents' psychological control, autonomy granting, warmth, and behavioural control were considered predictors of adolescents' democratic orientation. The results demonstrated that the democratic functioning of families was positively related to adolescents' support for democratic values when controlling for the effects of gender, political experience, authoritarianism, empathy, and political activism. Additionally, this study examined the possible role of empathy as a mediator in the relation between democratic family functioning and adolescent's democratic values. The results show that empathy was a partial mediator of a family's contribution to adolescents' democratic orientation.

1 - 11 of 11
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