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  • 1.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Saveman, Britt-inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Suicidal drowning deaths in Northern Sweden 1992-2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Arvidsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Pilebro, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Westermark, Per
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Suhr, Ole B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Amyloid Cardiomyopathy in Hereditary Transthyretin V30M Amyloidosis - Impact of Sex and Amyloid Fibril Composition2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 11, e0143456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Transthyretin V30M (ATTR V30M) amyloidosis is a phenotypically diverse disease with symptoms ranging from predominant neuropathy to exclusive cardiac manifestations. The aims of this study were to determine the dispersion of the two types of fibrils found in Swedish ATTR V30M patients -Type A consisting of a mixture of truncated and full length ATTR fibrils and type B fibrils consisting of full length fibrils, and to estimate the severity of cardiac dysfunction in relation to fibril composition and sex.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Echocardiographic data were analysed in 107 Swedish ATTR V30M patients with their fibril composition determined as either type A or type B. Measurements of left ventricular (LV) dimensions and evaluation of systolic and diastolic function including speckle tracking derived strain were performed. Patients were grouped according to fibril type and sex. Multivariate linear regression was utilised to determine factors of significant impact on LV thickness.

    RESULTS: There was no significant difference in proportions of the two types of fibrils between men and women. In patients with type A fibrils, women had significantly lower median septal (p = 0.007) and posterior wall thicknesses (p = 0.010), lower median LV mass indexed to height (p = 0.008), and higher septal strain (p = 0.037), as compared to males. These differences were not apparent in patients with type B fibrils. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that fibril type, sex and age all had significant impact on LV septal thickness.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a clear difference between sexes in the severity of amyloid heart disease in ATTR V30M amyloidosis patients. Even though type A fibrils were associated with more advanced amyloid heart disease compared to type B, women with type A fibrils generally developed less cardiac infiltration than men. The differences may explain the better outcome for liver transplanted late-onset female patients compared to males.

  • 3.
    Backman, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Burned out myocardium in biventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy presenting with congestive heart failure: importance of ECG changes2014In: International Cardiovascular Forum Journal, ISSN 2410-2636, Vol. 1, no 3, 159-160 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bajraktari, Gani
    et al.
    Service of Cardiology, Internal Medicine Clinic, University Clinical Centre of Kosova, Prishtina, Kosovo.
    Elezi, Shpend
    Berisha, Venera
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Rexhepaj, Nehat
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Left ventricular asynchrony and raised filling pressure predict limited exercise performance assessed by 6 minute walk test2011In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 146, no 3, 385-389 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Six minute walking test (6-MWT) may serve as a reproducible test for assessing exercise capacity in heart failure (HF) patients and can be clinically predicted. We aimed in this study to ascertain if global markers of ventricular asynchrony can predict 6MWT distance in a group of patients with HF and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) <45%.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included 77 consecutive patients (60+/-12 years) with stable HF. LV end-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions, shortening fraction (SF), EF, myocardial velocities, t-IVT, and Tei index were measured, as well as 6-MWT distance. Patients with limited exercise performance (</=300 m) had lower SF (p=0.02) and EF (p=0.017), longer t-IVT (p=0.001), higher Tei index (p=0.002) and higher E/E' ratio (p<0.001) compared with good performance patients. In multivariate analysis, only E/E' ratio [0.800 (0.665-0.961), p=0.017], and t-IVT [0.769 (0.619-0.955), p=0.018] independently predicted poor exercise performance.

    CONCLUSIONS: In heart failure patients, the higher the filling pressures and the more asynchronous the left ventricle, the poorer is the patient's exercise capacity. These findings highlight specific LV functional disturbances that should be targeted for better optimization of medical and/or electrical therapy.

  • 5.
    Bajraktari, Gani
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Left ventricular global dyssynchrony is exaggerated with age2013In: International Cardiovascular Forum, ISSN 2410-2636, Vol. 1, no 1, 47-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aim. Total isovolumic time (t-IVT) and Tei index both reflect global left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony. They have been shown to be sensitive in responding to myocardial revascularization and in predicting clinical outcome in heart failure patients. Since most these patients are senior, determining the exact effect of age on such parameters remains mandatory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age on LV t-IVT and Tei index compared with conventional systolic and diastolic parameters in normal individuals.

    Methods. We studied 47 healthy individuals, mean age 62±12 years (24 female), who were arbitrarily classified into three groups: M (middle age), S (seniors), and E (elderly), using spectral Doppler echocardiography and tissue-Doppler imaging. We studied the interrelation between age, LV systolic and diastolic function parameters as well as t-IVT [60 – (total ejection time + total filling time) in s/min], and Tei index (T-IVT/ejection time).

    Results. LV ejection fraction was 68±6%, E/A ratio 1±0.4, filling time 538±136ms, ejection time 313±26ms, t-IVT 7.7±2.6 s/min and Tei index 0.41±0.14. Age strongly correlated with t-IVT (r=0.8, p<0.001) and with Tei index (r=0.7, p<0.001) but not with QRS duration. Age also correlated with E/A ratio (r=-0.6, p<0.001), but not with global or segmental systolic function measurements. Mean values for t-IVT were 5.5 (95% CI, 4.6-6.3 s/min) for M, 6.9 (95% CI, 6.0-7.8 s/min) for S and 9.5 (95% CI, 8.4-10.6 s/min) for E groups. The corresponding upper limit of the t-IVT 95% normal CI (calculated as mean ±2SD) for the three groups was 8.3 s/min, 10.5 s/min and 14.5 s/min, respectively. The upper limit of normal t-IVT 95% CI was significantly shorter in the S compared with the E group (p=0.001). T-IVT correlated with A wave (r=0.66, p<0.001), E/A ratio (r=-0.56, p<0.001), septal e’ (r=-0.49, p=0.001) and septal a’ (r=0.4, p=0.006), but not with QRS.

    Conclusions. In normals, age is associated with exaggerated LV global dyssynchrony and diastolic function disturbances, but systolic function remains unaffected. The strong relationship between age and t-IVT supports its potential use as a marker of global LV dyssynchrony. In addition, variations in the upper limit of normal values, particularly in the elderly may have significant clinical applications in patients recommended for CRT treatment.

  • 6.
    Bajraktari, Gani
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Total isovolumic time correlates with limited exercise capacity in HFpEF - its shortening with stress suggests significant rise of filling pressure2014In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, Meeting abstract P6544, 1179-1179 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Byström, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Örnsköldsvik Hospital.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Henein, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    The right ventricle: knowing what is right2008In: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, ISSN 1569-5794, E-ISSN 1875-8312, Vol. 24, no 7, 701-702 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Calcutteea, Avin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Chung, Robin
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Hodson, Margaret
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Differential right ventricular regional function and the effect of pulmonary hypertension: three-dimensional echo study2011In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 97, no 12, 1004-1011 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The right ventricle has distinct features for the inflow, apical and outflow tract compartments, with different extent of contribution to the overall systolic function. In PAH, the right ventricle becomes one dyssynchronous compartment, which itself may have perpetual effect on overall cardiac dysfunction.

  • 9.
    Calcutteea, Avin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Organised right ventricular remodelling in aortic stenosis even after valve replacement2013In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 168, no 2, 1549-1550 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Calcutteea, Avin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Global and regional right ventricular disturbances in pulmonary hypertensionArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Calcutteea, Avin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Center.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Center.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Center.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Center.
    Global and regional right ventricular dysfunction in pulmonary hypertension2014In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 31, no 2, 164-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is known to affect the right ventricular (RV) function.

    AIMS: To assess the extent of global and regional RV dysfunction in PH patients.

    METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on 20 controls (age 62 ± 15 years, 7 males) and 35 patients (age 67 ± 12 years, 13 males) with PH of mixed etiologies and assessed RV inflow and outflow tracts (OTs) function, using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) based myocardial deformation and its time relations. RV inlet and OT dimensions (2D), inlet myocardial velocities (TDI), myocardial strain and strain rate (SR), TAPSE (M-mode), ejection and filling times (pulsed-wave [PW] Doppler), and pulmonary artery acceleration (PAc) were measured.

    RESULTS: RV inlet and OT were dilated (P < 0.001 for both) and TAPSE (P < 0.001), inlet velocities (P < 0.001), basal and mid-cavity strain, SR and longitudinal displacement reduced (P < 0.001 for all). The time to peak systolic SR at basal, mid-cavity (P < 0.001 for both), and RVOT (P = 0.007) was short as was that to peak displacement (P < 0.001 for all). The time to peak pulmonary ejection correlated with time to peak SR at RVOT (r = 0.7, P < 0.001) in controls, but with that of the mid-cavity in patients (r = 0.71, P < 0.001). PAc was faster (P = 0.001) and RV filling time shorter in patients (P = 0.03) with respect to controls.

    CONCLUSIONS: PH has drastic effects on RV structure and intrinsic myocardial function, significantly disturbing its ejection time relations and overall pump performance. Increased RV afterload results in RV configuration changes with the inflow tract determining peak ejection rather than OT.

  • 12.
    Cameli, Matteo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Mondillo, Sergio
    Righini, Francesca Maria
    Lisi, Matteo
    Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Dokollari, Aleksander
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Maccherini, Massimo
    Henein, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Left Ventricular Deformation and Myocardial Fibrosis in Patients With Advanced Heart Failure Requiring Transplantation2016In: Journal of Cardiac Failure, ISSN 1071-9164, E-ISSN 1532-8414, Vol. 22, no 11, 901-907 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To evaluate potential relationships between different components of left ventricular (LV) function and histopathological evidence for myocardial fibrosis in patients undergoing heart transplantation.

    METHODS: The study population included patients with advanced heart failure, referred for an echocardiographic examination before heart transplantation. Traditional LV function measurements and global longitudinal strain (GLS) by speckle tracking echocardiography, averaging all LV segments in 4-, 2-, and 3-chamber views were obtained in all subjects. LV tissue samples were obtained from all patients who underwent heart transplantation. Myocardial fibrosis was assessed using Masson's staining.

    RESULTS: Of 106 patients referred for cardiac transplantation, 47 underwent cardiac transplantation and were enrolled in the study. LV myocardial fibrosis and its grade strongly correlated with GLS (r = 0.75, P = .0001), modestly with global circumferential strain and LV torsion (r = 0.61, P = .001 and r = 0.52, P = .01, respectively) and weakly with mitral S' wave (r = -0.41; P = .01) and mitral annular plane systolic excursion (r = -0.35; P = .05) but did not correlate with LV ejection fraction (r = -0.12; P = NS). GLS had the strongest accuracy for detecting LV fibrosis (area under the curve, 0.92). None of the echo parameters correlated with patient's exercise capacity.

    CONCLUSION: Global longitudinal strain is the most accurate LV global function measure that correlates with the extent of myocardial fibrosis in patients with advanced systolic HF requiring heart transplantation.

  • 13.
    Ding, Wenhong
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Zhao, Ying
    Watt, Astrid
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Weintar, Reidar
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Ruck, Andreas
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Early effect of TAVI on left ventricular function in severe aortic stenosis: trans-apical vs. trans-femoral approachManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Engvall, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Henein, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Suhr, Ole B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Can myocardial strain differentiate hypertrophic from infiltrative etiology of a thickened septum?2011In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 28, no 4, 408-415 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Septal systolic strain measurements showed reduced longitudinal function but its localized nature failed to demonstrate radial disturbances in patients with pathologically thickened septum. No difference was found in systolic strain between patients according to the etiology of septal thickness. This limitation might be either technical or is explained by the maintained radial function in all patient groups.

  • 15.
    Grönlund, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Albano, Amanda
    Gustavsson, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Significant beat-to-beat variability of E/e’ irrespective of respiration2013In: International cardiovascular forum, ISSN 2409-3424, Vol. 1, no 2, 88-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The E/e’ ratio is commonly used in Doppler echocardiographic examinations to estimate the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. The rationale of using this ratio is to combine left ventricular (LV) filling (E) and relaxation (e’) velocities to indirectly assess left atrial pressure. However, the accuracy of this index has recently been questioned, particularly in patients with controlled heart failure. Likewise, the potential beat-to-beat variability of such measurements remains undetermined. The cardiovascular system is subject to several oscillations with the potential of influencing LV function and its intra-cavitary pressures, hence measurements of its filling and relaxation velocities. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the beat-to-beat variability of the E/e’ ratio in one minute long examination in healthy subjects, and patients with various severity of amyloid heart disease. The results show that despite critical application of the standard echocardiographic recording recommendations, E/e’ beat-to-beat variability was 36 % (22 to 50%) in healthy subjects and 17 % (11-26%) in patients, and where the most severe amyloid heart disease had the least variability. Thus, clinical use of a single or few cardiac beats might not necessarily reflect an accurate ratio between the two velocities, and hence casts doubt over their diagnostic value.

  • 16.
    Grönlund, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics (CMTF).
    Claesson, Kenji
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    D Hooge, Jan
    Department of Cardiovascular sciences, Leuven, Belgium.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Centre.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Centre.
    Simultaneous quantification of myocardial and blood flow velocities based on duplex mode ultrasound imaging2013In: Biomedical engineering online, ISSN 1475-925X, Vol. 12, no 1, 107- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound imaging of the heart is a commonly used clinical tool to assess cardiac function. The basis for this analysis is the quantification of cardiac blood flow and myocardial velocities. These are typically measured using different imaging modes and on different cardiac cycles. However, due to beat-to-beat variations such as irregular heart rhythm and transient events, simultaneous acquisition is preferred. There exists specialized ultrasound systems for this purpose; however, it would be beneficial if this could be achieved using conventional ultrasound systems due to their wide availability. The conventional Duplex mode ultrasound allows simultaneous acquisition, however at a highly reduced spatial and temporal resolution.

    METHODS: The aim of this work was to present and evaluate the performance of a novel method to recover myocardial tissue velocity using conventional Duplex ultrasound imaging, and to demonstrate its feasibility for the assessment of simultaneous blood flow and myocardial velocity in-vivo. The essence of the method was the estimation of the axial phase shift of robust echogenic structures between subsequent image frames. The performance of the method was evaluated on synthetic tissue mimicking B-mode image sequences at different frame rates (20--60 Hz) and tissue velocities (peak velocities 5-15cm/s), using cardiac deformation and displacement characteristics. The performance was also compared to a standard 2-D speckle tracking technique.

    RESULTS: The method had an overall high performance at frame rates above 25 Hz, with less than 15% error of the peak diastolic velocity, and less than 10 ms peak timing error. The method showed superior performance compared to the 2-D tracking technique at frame rates below 50 Hz. The in-vivo quantification of simultaneous blood flow and myocardial tissue velocities verified the echocardiographic patterns and features of healthy subjects and the specific patient group.

    CONCLUSIONS: A novel myocardial velocity quantification method was presented and high performance at frame rates above 25Hz was shown. In-vivo quantification of simultaneous myocardial and blood flow velocities was feasible using the proposed method and conventional Duplex mode imaging. We propose that the methodology is suitable for retrospective as well as prospective studies on the mechanics and hemodynamics of the heart.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Granåsen, Gabriel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Grönlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Suhr, Ole B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Discriminating hereditary transthyretin cardiomyopathy from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using an echocardiographic and ECG based classification tree2014In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, Meeting abstract P5254, 929-929 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Centre.
    Grönlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Centre.
    Suhr, Ole
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Umeå Heart Centre.
    Can echocardiography differentiate hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?2013In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 34, no Supplement: 1, 213-213 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) andhypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have many phenotypic similarities when examined by echocardiography. As the two conditions have different treatment strategies it is of importance to accurately diagnose these patients early in the disease. This study aimed to identify the most accurate echocardiographic method in differentiating these two conditions by using traditional and speckle tracking echocardiographyas well as myocardial texture analysis.

    Methods: We investigated 40 healthy controls, 33 patients with biopsy proven ATTR and 20 with HCM. All patients had septal thickness >12 mm. We measured left ventricular (LV) global strain as intrinsic systolic function and LV E/e' to estimate filling pressures. We also tested septal cyclic integrated backscatter (cIBS) and septal entropy as both being measures for myocardial highly reflection pattern whereas cIBS showing motion of highly reflective echoes and entropy the distribution of highly reflective echoes.

    Results: LV global strain, cIBS and E/e' were not useful in differentiating ATTR from HCM. However, septal entropy was found to be significantly different and showed an area under the curve from ROC analysis of 0.66 separating ATTR from HCM.

    Conclusion: After using detailed analysis of different aspects of LV morphology and function we found that myocardial texture behavior from entropy analysis was the only method useful in differentiating patients with ATTR fromHCM.

  • 19.
    Gustafsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Ihse, Elisabet
    Henein, Michael Y.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Westermark, Per
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Suhr, Ole B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Amyloid Fibril Composition as a Predictor of Development of Cardiomyopathy After Liver Transplantation for Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis2012In: Transplantation, ISSN 0041-1337, E-ISSN 1534-6080, Vol. 93, no 10, 1017-1023 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Liver transplantation (LTx) is an accepted treatment for hereditary transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis (ATTR). However, unforeseen heart complications, especially a rapid development of cardiomyopathy after LTx has affected mortality and morbidity. Recently, a relationship between ATTR-fibril composition and cardiomyopathy has been noted. The aim of this study was to investigate whether development of cardiomyopathy and heart failure in LTx ATTR amyloid patients is related to amyloid fibril composition. Methods. Twenty-four patients with hereditary ATTR amyloidosis who had undergone LTx and have had their amyloid fibril type tested were available for the study. They had been examined by echocardiography including tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography before and after LTx. Patients were divided into two groups according to fibril composition, 10 patients with type A fibrils (a mixture of truncated and full-length TTR) and 14 patients with type B fibrils (full-length TTR fibrils only). There was no difference in time to the follow-up echocardiography between the two groups. Results. After LTx, the group consisting of type A patients developed symptoms of heart failure and with reduced systolic and diastolic ventricular function as shown by echocardiography, whereas no similar deterioration was noted for the group of patients with type B fibrils. Conclusion. Patients with type A fibrils deteriorate an already existing cardiomyopathy and heart failure after LTx, in contrast to patients with type B fibrils. These results might have significant clinical implications in optimizing best patients selection criteria for LTx.

  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Larsson, M
    School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjällmark, A
    School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Aroch, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Haney, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Waldenström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    The effect of acute myocardial ischemia on the rotation axis of the left ventricleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: We have developed a method to assess the axis around which the left ventricle (LV) rotates. The aim was to assess the effect of acute regional ischemia on the otation axis.

    Method: Mid‐LAD occlusion was induced in six anesthetised pigs and echocardiographic images were recorded at baseline and after LAD occlusion. The rotation axis was calculated at three different levels of the LV throughout the cardiac cycle. Results: The direction of the rotation axis was significantly changed (p<0.01) after LAD occlusion, being directed towards the ischemic area. AV‐plane displacement was significantly reduced (p<0.05) during ischemia. No significant difference in twist or otation amplitudes was found.

    Conclusion: This new method of assessing rotational function seems as sensitive as AV‐plane displacement and superior to traditional rotation and twist parameters in detecting dysfunction in acute ischemic myocardium. The rotation axis method has the advantage of potentially identifying areas with dysfunction.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Larsson, M
    School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjällmark, A
    School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Brodin, LA
    School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Waldenström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    The rotation axis of the left ventricle: a new concept derived from ultrasound data in healthy individualsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The axis around which the left ventricle (LV) rotates has never previously been described. The aim was to develop a method to calculate the spatial motion of the rotation axis throughout the cardiac cycle.

    Method: By constructing a model of the LV, based on dimensions and rotation values at the basal, mid ventricular and apical levels, a rotation axis could be calculated at each level in 39 healthy subjects. The transition plane, defined as the level without rotation, where basal and apical rotation meet was also calculated.

    Results: The rotation axis was not congruent to the longitudinal axis of the LV at any time point. A significant and specific mean direction for each of the rotation axes for the majority of the tested time points displayed a physiological pattern.

    Conclusion: This new method introduces a new concept in cardiac function and provides further insight into the complexity of LV mechanics.

  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Waldenström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Assessment of regional rotation patterns improves the understanding of the systolic and diastolic left ventricular function: an echocardiographic speckle-tracking study in healthy individuals2009In: European Journal of Echocardiography, ISSN 1525-2167, E-ISSN 1532-2114, no 10, 56-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM To elucidate the complexity of left ventricular motion throughout the cardiac cycle, we studied regional rotation in detail. METHODS AND RESULTS: Regional rotation in six subdivisions of the circumference at three levels was studied by using speckle-tracking echocardiography in 40 healthy subjects. At the basal level the inferoseptal segments rotated significantly more clockwise during systole than the opposing anterolateral segments. At the papillary level the inferoseptal segments differed significantly from the anterolateral segments, where the inferoseptal segments rotated clockwise and the anterolateral segments rotated counter-clockwise. The apical level showed significant difference in regional rotation only at aortic valve opening. In early systole, untwist before the main systolic twist was seen at the basal and apical levels; however, the duration of the basal untwist was much longer than that of the apical. The diastolic phases of rotation at the basal and apical levels matched the different filling phases. CONCLUSION: Large regional differences in rotation are present at the basal and papillary levels in healthy subjects. The diastolic untwist matches the phases of both the E-wave and A-wave and seems to be related with intraventricular pressure differences, indicating that untwist plays an important role in the filling of the ventricle.

  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Waldenström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Apical circumferential motion of the right and the left ventricles in healthy subjects described with speckle tracking2008In: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, ISSN 0894-7317, E-ISSN 1097-6795, Vol. 21, no 12, 1326-1330 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The aim of this study was to determine whether right ventricular (RV) apical rotation could be of importance in RV function and compare this with left ventricular (LV) apical rotation.

    Methods

    Short-axis images at the apical level of both ventricles were simultaneously recorded in 14 healthy subjects (mean age, 62 ± 11 years).

    Results

    There was a significant difference in mean rotation between the two ventricles in the time interval between 50% of ejection and aortic valve closure (P < .05). At aortic valve closure, LV rotation was 10.9 ± 4.8° counterclockwise, and RV rotation was 1.1 ± 5.8° clockwise. The anterior and inferior parts of the right ventricle rotated in opposite directions toward the septum. The septal segments of both ventricles rotated inferiorly, thus likely reducing interventricular stress.

    Conclusion

    This study showed clear differences in apical rotation between the two ventricles. Whereas the left ventricle displayed uniform rotation, the right ventricle showed heterogeneous rotation, resulting overall in almost no rotation but in a “tightening belt” motion.

  • 24.
    Gustavsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Granåsen, Gabriel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Grönlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics (CMTF).
    Wiklund, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Henein, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Suhr, Ole B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Can echocardiography and ECG discriminate hereditary transthyretin V30M amyloidosis from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?2015In: Amyloid: Journal of Protein Folding Disorders, ISSN 1350-6129, E-ISSN 1744-2818, Vol. 22, no 3, 163-170 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Hereditary transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis with increased left ventricular wall thickness could easily be misdiagnosed by echocardiography as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Our aim was to create a diagnostic tool based on echocardiography and ECG that could optimise identification of ATTR amyloidosis. Methods: Data were analysed from 33 patients with biopsy proven ATTR amyloidosis and 30 patients with diagnosed HCM. Conventional features from ECG were acquired as well as two dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, speckle tracking derived strain and tissue characterisation analysis. Classification trees were used to select the most important variables for differentiation between ATTR amyloidosis and HCM. Results: The best classification was obtained using both ECG and echocardiographic features, where a QRS voltage >30 mm was diagnostic for HCM, whereas in patients with QRS voltage <30 mm, an interventricular septal/posterior wall thickness ratio (IVSt/PWt) >1.6 was consistent with HCM and a ratio <1.6 supported the diagnosis of ATTR amyloidosis. This classification presented both high sensitivity (0.939) and specificity (0.833). Conclusion: Our study proposes an easily interpretable classification method for the differentiation between HCM and increased left ventricular myocardial thickness due to ATTR amyloidosis. Our combined echocardiographic and ECG model could increase the ability to identify ATTR cardiac amyloidosis in clinical practice.

  • 25.
    Gustavsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Pilebro, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Westermark, P.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Suhr, Ole B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Gender related differences in cardiac function in patients with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis2015In: European Journal of Heart Failure, ISSN 1388-9842, E-ISSN 1879-0844, Vol. 17, 64-65 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Hagström, Linn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Karp, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Waldenström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Impact of age and sex on normal left heart structure and function2016In: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Accurate age- and sex-related normal reference values of ventricular structure and function are important to determine the level of dysfunction in patients. The aim of this study therefore was to document normal age range sex-related measurements of LV structural and functional measurements to serve such purpose.

    METHODS: We evaluated left ventricular structure and function in 293 healthy subjects between 20 and 90 years with equally distributed gender. Doppler echocardiography was used including measure of both systolic and diastolic functions.

    RESULTS: Due to systolic LV function, only long axis function correlated with age (r = 0·55, P<0·01) and the correlation was stronger in females. Concerning diastolic function, there was a strong age correlation in all parameters used (r = 0·40-0·74, P<0·001). Due to LV structural changes over age, females showed a larger reduction in end-diastolic volumes, but no or trivial difference in wall thickness after the age of 60 years.

    CONCLUSION: Age is associated with significant normal changes in left ventricular structure and function, which should be considered when deciding on normality. These changes are related to systemic arterial changes as well as body stature, thus reflecting overall body ageing process. Furthermore, normal cardiac ageing in females might partly explain the higher prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection in females.

  • 27.
    Henein, Mark
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Bajraktari, Gani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Left atrial function in idiopathic pulmonary hypertensionArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Henein, Mark
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Henein, Michael Y.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Suppressed left atrial function in PAF2012In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 157, no 2, 272-272 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Henein, Mark
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Gonzalez, Manuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Tossavainen, Erik
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Left atrial strain rate using speckle tracking echocardiography during atrial systole in estimation of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure: a simultaneous echocardiography and cardiac catheterization studyArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Henein, Mark
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Tossavainen, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Grönlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Gonzalez, Manuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Left atrial strain rate estimates PCWP2013In: International cardiovascular forum, ISSN 2409-3424, no 1, 25-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Raised left atrial (LA) pressure is a common pathway for many pathologies and is known for its complications. It has a direct effect on LA cavity size and potentially also its function. We hypothesized that raised LA pressure, as shown by pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), correlates with severity of global LA deformation abnormalities during atrial systole (LASRa). DESIGN AND PATIENTS: We prospectively studied 46 consecutive patients, mean age 61 ±13 years, 17 males, of various etiologies who underwent right heart catheterization and simultaneous Doppler echocardiography using spectral, tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography techniques for assessing LA structure and function. RESULTS: PCWP correlated with direct measurements of LA structure and function: LA volume (r= 0.43, p<0.01) and LASRa (r=0.79, p<0.001). PCWP correlated also with other indirect measures of LA pressure such as E/A (r=0.65, p<0.001), E wave deceleration time (r=0.54, p<0.001), E/e’ (r=0.49, p<0.001) and LA systolic filling fraction (r=0.52, p<0.001). However, LASRa together with LA systolic filling fraction, had the highest areas under the curve (0.83 and 0.87, respectively) for identifying patients with PCWP > 15 mmHg. CONCLUSION: PCWP correlates with LA deformation rate during atrial systole and to a higher extent than conventional Doppler measures of raised LA pressures. These findings should have significant clinical implications in correctly identifying breathless patients due to raised LA pressure.

  • 31.
    Henein, Mark
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Zhao, Ying
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Disturbed left atrial mechanical function in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a speckle tracking study2012In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 155, no 3, 437-441 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess left atrial (LA) intrinsic myocardial function and its relationship to left ventricular (LV) filling pattern in a group of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) patients.

    METHODS: Twenty-three PAF patients (age 68±7year, 10 males) were studied using speckle tracking echocardiography and compared with 18 age and sex matched controls. LA segmental longitudinal strain (S), strain rate (SR) and myocardial velocities during atrial systole were measured as were LA diameters. E/A and E/Em were also measured.

    RESULTS: LA longitudinal diameter was larger in patients (5.5±0.6 vs. 4.8±0.6cm, p<0.01) and global LA S (-9.2±4.3 vs. -12.9±4.6%, p=0.01) and SR (-1.1±0.5 vs. -1.6±0.7 1/s, p<0.01) were reduced and correlated with E/A (r=0.52, p=0.01 and r=0.43, p<0.05, respectively). LA lateral S and SR were uniformly reduced compared with controls (p<0.05 for all). Both septal and lateral wall SR correlated with E/A (p<0.05 for all), only septal S correlated with E/A (p<0.05). LA myocardial velocities were highest at the annular level and lowest at the rear in both patients and controls (p<0.01 for all).

    CONCLUSION: In PAF patients, LA systolic function is suppressed and is directly related to the pattern of LV filling which itself may suggest raised pressures. While intrinsic global and segmental function can reproducibly be studied by S and SR, myocardial velocities reflect only regional motion, thus less sensitive in demonstrating localize dysfunction.

  • 32.
    Henein, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Arvidsson, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Pilebro, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Backman, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Long mitral valve leaflets determine left ventricular outflow tract obstruction during exercise in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy2016In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 212, 47-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Development of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is important for explaining symptoms and designing management. LVOTO is mostly caused by a combination of septal hypertrophy and systolic anterior movement of the mitral valve (SAM). The aim of the present study was to determine predictors of exercise induced LVOTO in a group of HCM patients.

    METHODS: We performed supine exercise Doppler echocardiography, including measurements of LV morphology and function and anterior mitral leaflet length, in 51 mildly symptomatic HCM (septal thickness≥15mm) and compared them with 50 healthy controls. Measurements were made at 1) rest, 2) Valsalva maneuver, 3) peak exercise and 4) post exercise. LVOTO was diagnosed as a LVOT gradient of >30mmHg at rest, after Valsalva and after exercise or ≥50mmHg at peak exercise.

    RESULTS: All patients stopped exercise because of exhaustion. 35% of the patients had resting LVOTO and 48% during Valsalva. At peak exercise, only 37% had LVOTO, who increased to 64% post exercise. Patients who developed LVOTO at peak exercise were more prone to continue having it post exercise (p<0.001), to have attenuated systolic blood pressure rise (p=0.011) and to have long anterior mitral valve leaflets (p<0.001). Backward multiple regression analysis showed the anterior mitral leaflet length as the strongest single independent predictor (β=0.36, p=0.010) for increased LVOT velocities, followed by basal septal thickness.

    CONCLUSION: In patients with HCM, LV outflow tract obstruction seems to be relatively uncommon during exercise but rather occurring minutes after stopping exercise. Exercise LVOTO seems to be determined by long anterior mitral leaflets in addition to the well established septal hypertrophy.

  • 33.
    Henein, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Holmner, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Long anterior mitral leaflet causing outflow tract obstruction in a symptomatic patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the role of mitral valve surgical correction2016In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 204, 86-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Henein, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindmark, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Impaired left ventricular systolic function reserve limits cardiac output and exercise capacity in HFpEF patients due to systemic hypertension2013In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 168, no 2, 1088-1093 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Heart failure (HF) patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) (HFpEF) due to systemic hypertension (SHT) are known to have limited exercise tolerance. Despite having normal EF at rest, we hypothesize that these patients have abnormal systolic function reserve limiting their exercise capacity. METHODS: Seventeen patients with SHT (mean age 68±9years) but no valve disease and 14 healthy individuals (mean age of 65±10years) underwent resting and peak exercise echocardiography using conventional, tissue Doppler and speckle tracking techniques. The differences between resting and peak exercise values were also analyzed (Δ). Exercise capacity was determined as the workload divided by body surface area. RESULTS: Resting values for left atrial (LA) volume/BSA (r=-0.66, p<0.001) and global longitudinal strain rate (GLSR) in early (e) and late (a) diastole (r=0.47 and 0.46, p<0.05 for both) correlated with exercise capacity. LVEF increased during exercise in normals (mean Δ EF=10±8%) but failed to do so in patients (mean Δ EF=0.6±9%, p<0.001 between groups). LV GLSR during systole (s) also failed to increase with exercise in patients, to the same extent as it did in normals (0.2±0.2 vs. 0.6±0.3 1/s, p<0.001). The difference between rest and exercise (Δ) in LV lateral wall systolic velocity from tissue Doppler (s') (0.71, p<0.001), Δ in cardiac output (r=0.60, p<0.001) and Δ GLSRs (r=0.48, p<0.05) all correlated with exercise capacity independent of changes in heart rate. CONCLUSION: HFpEF patients with hypertensive LV disease have significantly limited exercise capacity which is related to left atrial enlargement as well as compromised LV systolic function at the time of the symptoms. The limited myocardial systolic function reserve seems to be underlying important explanation for their limited exercise capacity.

  • 35.
    Henein, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Waldenström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Umeå Heart Center.
    The normal impact of age and gender on right heart structure and function2014In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 31, no 1, 5-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As the proportion of elderly population increases rapidly, it might be difficult to differentiate physiological changes in cardiac function due to age from the pathophysiological ones. In addition, cardiac function variations with gender are well established. The right ventricular (RV) plays an important role in the overall cardiac function, but reference values varying with age and gender are lacking.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 255 healthy individuals from a general population register, mean age of 58 ± 19 (range 22-89) years, 125 were females. We used 2D and M-mode echocardiography to measure RV inflow tract (RVIT) and RV outflow tract (RVOT) dimensions and fractional shortening (fs). Spectral Doppler echocardiography was also used.

    RESULTS: We found a modest decrease in RVIT dimensions (P < 0.05), but increase in RVOT dimensions with advancing age (P < 0.05). A small decrease in RVOT fs with age was also found (P < 0.05). Estimated pulmonary pressures and pulmonary vascular resistance increased (P < 0.001) as did RVOT wall thickness (P < 0.001), but RV diastolic function was not altered (P < 0.001) with age. Despite correction for the BSA, males showed larger RVIT dimensions (P < 0.001 for both), but RVOT end-diastolic dimension was larger in females (P < 0.05). RVIT and RVOT fractional shortening were increased in females (P < 0.01 for both).

    CONCLUSION: In a cohort of normal individuals, age has significant impact on RV structure and function, inlet area falls and outflow tract dimensions increase and fractional shortening also increase in females. In addition, RVOT wall thickness significantly increases and Doppler markers of pulmonary vascular resistance show a consistent rise. The age-related changes should carefully be considered when commenting on normality and when using absolute values.

  • 36.
    Henein, Michael Y
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Grönlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Tossavainen, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Gonzalez, Manuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Right and left heart dysfunction predict mortality in pulmonary hypertension2017In: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, Vol. 37, no 1, 45-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In pulmonary hypertension (PH), the right heart dysfunction is a strong predictor of adverse clinical outcome, while the role of the left heart is not fully determined. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of mortality in precapillary PH including measures of both right and left heart function. We studied 34 patients (mean age 64 ± 13, range 31-82 years, 24 females) with precapillary PH, all of whom underwent detailed Doppler echocardiographic examination of the right and left heart function using conventional and speckle-tracking echocardiography. Patients were followed up for up to 8 years (mean 4·2 ± 1·9 years). At follow-up, 16 patients survived. Left ventricular (LV) filling time (P = 0·007), pulmonary artery acceleration time (P = 0·009), right atrial pressure (RAP) (P<0·001) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) severity (P = 0·007) were worse in the deceased group. RV global longitudinal strain (GLS) (P = 0·001), RAP (P≤0·001), LV filling time (P<0·001) and TR severity (P<0·001) were the most accurate predictors, having the largest AUC (>0·65) and carried the highest risk for mortality (P<0·001 for all). The strongest predictors of mortality in precapillary PH indirectly reflect both left and right heart dysfunction including atrial structure and function disturbances. While an interaction pattern is observed, it needs to be confirmed in a larger cohort.

  • 37.
    Henein, Michael Y
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Left atrial function in volume versus pressure overloaded left atrium2015In: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, ISSN 1569-5794, E-ISSN 1875-8312, Vol. 31, no 5, 959-965 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Left atrial (LA) pressure and volume overload both result in cavity enlargement and complications. LA volume has been shown to predict such complications, but it does not reflect myocardial function, which can be accurately assessed using myocardial deformation measurements. We hypothesized that volume overloaded LA have maintained myocardial function compared to pressure overloaded ones. We tested this hypothesis in 44 patient (mean age 62 ± 12 years) with LA volume overload (LAVOL) due to severe mitral regurgitation (MR) with no indirect signs of elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures based on Doppler measured isovolumic relaxation time >60 ms. We compared them with 24 (mean age 64 ± 12 years) patient with LA pressure overload (LAPOL) who proved to have PCWP >15 mmHg on right heart catheterization. Twenty-seven healthy controls (mean age 57 ± 10 years) constituted a control group. Patients with LAVOL had larger LA volumes, higher LV ejection fraction, global LV strain (LVGLS) and transmitral and pulmonary veins flow velocities (p < 0.05) and better LA atrial strain rate (LASR) function compared to LAPOL (p < 0.001). In LAVOL, the LASR during atrial contraction (LASRa) was lower than in controls (p < 0.05) indicating LA mechanical disturbances. LVGLS correlated with peak atrial longitudinal systolic strain in the whole group (r = -0.65, p < 0.001) and less so with LASRa (r = -0.43, p < 0.001) Conclusion: Irrespective of a smaller LA volume, LAVOL had less negative effect on LA myocardial function than LAPOL. Thus, monitoring atrial myocardial contraction might be useful in following patients with significant MR.

  • 38.
    Henein, Michael Y
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Zhao, Ying
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Nicoll, Rachel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Sun, Lin
    Khir, Ashraf W
    Franklin, Karl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    The human heart: application of the golden ratio and angle2011In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 150, no 3, 239-242 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The golden ratio, or golden mean, of 1.618 is a proportion known since antiquity to be the most aesthetically pleasing and has been used repeatedly in art and architecture. Both the golden ratio and the allied golden angle of 137.5° have been found within the proportions and angles of the human body and plants. In the human heart we found many applications of the golden ratio and angle, in addition to those previously described. In healthy hearts, vertical and transverse dimensions accord with the golden ratio, irrespective of different absolute dimensions due to ethnicity. In mild heart failure, the ratio of 1.618 was maintained but in end-stage heart failure the ratio significantly reduced. Similarly, in healthy ventricles mitral annulus dimensions accorded with the golden ratio, while in dilated cardiomyopathy and mitral regurgitation patients the ratio had significantly reduced. In healthy patients, both the angles between the mid-luminal axes of the pulmonary trunk and the ascending aorta continuation and between the outflow tract axis and continuation of the inflow tract axis of the right ventricle approximate to the golden angle, although in severe pulmonary hypertension, the angle is significantly increased. Hence the overall cardiac and ventricular dimensions in a normal heart are consistent with the golden ratio and angle, representing optimum pump structure and function efficiency, whereas there is significant deviation in the disease state. These findings could have anatomical, functional and prognostic value as markers of early deviation from normality.

  • 39.
    Hörnsten, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Pennlert, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Jensen, Steen M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Suhr, Ole B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Heart complications in familial transthyretin amyloidosis: impact of age and gender.2010In: Amyloid: Journal of Protein Folding Disorders, ISSN 1350-6129, Vol. 17, no 2, 63-68 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heart arrhythmia is common in Swedish patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), as well as cardiomyopathy. We investigated the relationship between Holter ECG and echocardiographic findings in 108 FAP patients, with particular focus on age and gender differences. Female patients were younger than male patients at symptom onset (p < 0.01). Only 4 of 39 patients with septal hypertrophy were females. Regression analysis showed that age of onset, gender and duration of disease were significantly related with intraventricular septum (IVS) thickness. Sixty-five patients (25 females) presented with abnormal 24-h ECG recordings. IVS thickness was not significantly related to conduction disturbances or the presence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA). However, IVS thickness and atrial dimension were both related to increased rate of supraventricular arrhythmia (SVA). Male gender was clearly associated with more pronounced septal thickness of the heart. Conduction disturbances were not related to IVS thickness, indicating that the distribution and extent of infiltration of the heart by amyloid are heterogeneous and related to gender and age of onset. These findings highlight the necessity of 24-h ECGs to detect conduction disturbances, due to their occurrence in the absence of echocardiographic evidence of amyloid deposition in the myocardium.

  • 40. Ihse, E
    et al.
    Ybo, A
    Suhr, Ole B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Kardiologi.
    Backman, Christer
    Westermark, P
    Amyloid fibril composition is related to the phenotype of hereditary transthyretin V30M amyloidosis.2008In: Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0022-3417, E-ISSN 1096-9896, Vol. 216, no 2, 253-261 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41. Lam, Yat-Yin
    et al.
    Bajraktari, Gani
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Mole, Roberta
    Li, Wei
    Duncan, Alison
    Ding, Wen-Hong
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Mondillo, Sergio
    Pepper, John R
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Prolonged total isovolumic time is related to reduced long-axis functional recovery following valve replacement surgery for severe aortic stenosis2012In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 159, no 3, 187-191 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The left ventricular (LV) long axis (Lax) function is very sensitive in documenting myocardial abnormalities in aortic stenosis (AS). We hypothesized that Lax recovery after aortic valve replacement (AVR) is related to the extent of cavity dyssynchrony measured by total isovolumic time (t-IVT).

    METHODS: A consecutive 107 patients (aged 70±7years, 70 male) with severe AS and Lax impairment were studied. T-IVT was measured before and after AVR. Reduced Lax function and its post-operative recovery were defined as mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) ≦10mm and an increase of MAPSE >10%, respectively.

    RESULTS: LV function improved (EF: 43±8 to 48±10%; MAPSE: 7.9±1.0 to 11.0±2.4mm) and t-IVT shortened (9.7±3.7 to 7.0±2.8s/min, p<0.01 for all) after AVR. Sixty-five (61%) patients had Lax recovery after a median of 32-month follow-up. Univariate predictors were LV size, LA dimensions, the presence of restrictive LV filling and prolonged t-IVT. Only LV end-systolic dimension, restrictive filling and t-IVT (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47-0.79, p<0.01) were independent predictors. A pre-operative t-IVT≦9.3s/min was 81% sensitive and 63% specific in predicting Lax recovery (AUC 0.81, p<0.001). The prevalence of CAD or concomitant CABG were similar in 2 patient groups with different t-IVT.

    CONCLUSIONS: Lax recovery was evident in the majority of AS patients after AVR. The lower prevalence of Lax recovery seen in patients with prolonged t-IVT suggests that dyssynchrony may play an important role in the process of adverse LV remodeling.

  • 42.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Bajraktari, Gani
    Molle, Roberta
    Palmerini, Elizabetta
    Holmgren, Anders
    Mondillo, Sergio
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Valve replacement for aortic stenosis normalizes subendocardial function in patients with normal ejection fraction.2010In: European Journal of Echocardiography, ISSN 1525-2167, E-ISSN 1532-2114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: Long-standing aortic stenosis (AS) causes various degrees of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, which may improve after valve replacement. The aim of this study was to assess the nature of LV subendocardial abnormalities in AS and their response to valve replacement (AVR). METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 41 consecutive symptomatic patients (age 64 +/- 13 years) with severe AS, normal LV ejection fraction (EF), but no obstructive coronary artery disease before, a week after AVR, and 6 months after AVR. LV subendocardial function was studied from recordings of long-axis M-mode (amplitude), tissue-Doppler (myocardial velocities) and speckle tracking (myocardial strain) echocardiographic techniques. Results were compared with those from 20 age- and gender-matched controls. In patients, LV dimensions and markers of asynchrony, total isovolumic time (t-IVT), and Tei index were not different from controls before AVR and remained unchanged afterwards. LV lateral long-axis amplitude, as well as lateral and septal systolic velocities and strain, were reduced (P < 0.001 for all) and E/E' was modestly raised. Lateral long-axis amplitude, systolic and diastolic velocities normalized within a week of AVR but strain lagged behind until 6 months later. The reduced septal long-axis amplitude remained permanently unchanged (NS) despite the early normalization of its systolic velocities (P < 0.001) and strain (P < 0.001). LV mass normalized at 6 months after AVR (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe AS and maintained LV ejection fraction, subendocardial function is globally abnormal showing reduced amplitude of motion, velocities, and strain. The different response of its components suggests an evidence for differential reverse remodelling, irrespective of myocardial mass regression.

  • 43.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Borgström, E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Gustafsson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Asynchronous normal regional left ventricular function assessed by speckle tracking echocardiography: appearances can be deceptive2009In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 134, no 2, 195-200 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is an angle independent method with high temporal resolution, which offers quantification of regional left ventricular (LV) wall motion. We studied radial and longitudinal LV wall motion by STE in healthy subjects with normal wall motion analysis (WMA) by eye-balling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen healthy subjects were studied. We acquired parasternal short and apical long axis projections to determine the basal, mid and apical radial and longitudinal functions. At each level we measured; (I) radial and longitudinal peak displacement and displacement at aortic valve closure (AVC) and (II) the time interval from the Q-wave to the AVC and peak displacement. RESULTS: WMA indicated normal wall motion in all subjects. The mean peak radial displacement varied in different segments (range 3.9-9.8 mm) with highest values in the mid-level (6.9+/-1.5 mm), compared to basal level (5.9+/-1.0 mm, p<0.01) and apical level (5.4+/-1.0 mm, p<0.001). The time from Q-wave to AVC was 393 ms and in 89% of the analysed segments peak radial displacement occurred after AVC, thus mean peak radial displacement occurred 60 ms after AVC. The peak longitudinal amplitude was more synchronous with respect to AVC and with the highest amplitudes found in the two basal segments. CONCLUSIONS: In normal LV function, significant differences in peak displacement exist between segments at various LV levels using STE. In addition, in early diastole, significant discrepancy occurs between radial and longitudinal time of peak displacement, suggesting a shape change. Finally, while radial displacement was highest at mid-cavity level longitudinal displacement was highest at basal level.

  • 44.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Broyd, Chris
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    E/E': a prime number?2009In: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, ISSN 1569-5794, Vol. 25, no 1, 41-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Calcutteea, Avin
    Henein, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Echocardiography in the assessment of right heart function.2008In: European Journal of Echocardiography, ISSN 1525-2167, E-ISSN 1532-2114, Vol. 9, no 2, 225-234 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall.
    Henein, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Royal Brompton Hospital, London.
    Kazzam, Elsadig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Mälar Hospital, Eskilstuna.
    Right ventricular outflow-tract fractional shortening: an applicable measure of right ventricular systolic function.2003In: European Journal of Echocardiography, ISSN 1525-2167, E-ISSN 1532-2114, Vol. 4, no 1, 29-35 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: Assessment of right ventricular function is important. However, this is not easy to achieve due to the complex anatomy and geometry of the right ventricle, making the evaluation of its function limited. Therefore, a simple reliable and easy method is needed. This study was performed (1) to evaluate the use of right ventricular outflow tract fractional shortening obtained by M-mode echocardiography as a measure of right ventricular systolic function and (2) to determine the relationship between this parameter and other established measurements of right ventricular function such as long axis excursion.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-two consecutive patients referred for echocardiographic assessment of left and right ventricular function, age mean+/-SD was 68+/-14 years, were investigated. Twenty healthy controls, age 46+/-12 years were also studied. M-mode echocardiography was used to measure right ventricular outflow tract fractional shortening and right ventricular long axis excursion. Doppler echocardiography was used for the estimation of right ventricular-right atrial pressure drop and pulmonary artery acceleration time. Right ventricular outflow tract fractional shortening (P<0.0001), right ventricular long axis excursion (P<0.0001) and pulmonary acceleration time (P<0.0001) were reduced in patients compared to controls. Right ventricular outflow tract fractional shortening correlated with long axis excursion (r=0.66 P<0.0001), pulmonary artery acceleration time (r=0.80 P<0.0001) and right ventricular-right atrial pressure drop (r=-0.53 P<0.0001). Right ventricular long axis excursion correlated with right ventricular-right atrial pressure drop though to a lesser significance (r=-0.27 P <0.001). Furthermore, right ventricular outflow tract fractional shortening was reduced in patients with pulmonary hypertension compared to patients without, this difference was not observed in the right ventricular systolic long axis excursion.

    CONCLUSION: Right ventricular outflow tract fractional shortening provides a simple and non-invasive measure of right ventricular systolic function. In combination with long axis excursion and Doppler velocities they should provide comprehensive assessment of right ventricular function.

  • 47.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Henein, Michael Y.
    Right Heart Failure2010In: Heart Failure in Clinical Practice / [ed] Michael Y. Henein, Springer London, 2010, 139-151 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiac output is determined by the efficient left and right ventricular performance; therefore, one should always see the right ventricle as an important integral part of the overall cardiac pump function. A strong evidence supporting the role of the right ventricle in determining exercise tolerance as well as clinical outcome in patients with heart failure exists.

  • 48.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Henein, Michael Y.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension2012In: Imaging in Medicine, ISSN 1755-5191, Vol. 4, no 6, 657-665 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The right ventricle has recently attracted a lot of attention, having been shown to have a central function in overall cardiac performance in heart failure, cardiac surgery and congenital heart disease. Furthermore, in most of these cases the right ventricle has shown a strong prognostic value, irrespective of other cardiac disturbances. This has stimulated clinicians and researchers to identify noninvasive markers of right ventricular dysfunction using various technologies, for example, echocardiography and cardiac MRI. This review summarizes the role of right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension and the most reliable markers of dysfunction, which should be routinely used in managing such cases.

  • 49.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Kardiologi.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Folkhlsa och klinisk medicin, Kardiologi.
    Wikström, Gerhard
    Right ventricular myocardial velocities and timing estimate pulmonary artery systolic pressure.2009In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 137, no 2, 130-136 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Zhao, Ying
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Effect of pericardial repair after aortic valve replacement on septal and right ventricular function2012In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 155, no 3, 388-393 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is associated with reversed septal motion and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction but the cause remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of pericardial repair after AVR on septal and RV function.

    METHODS: Thirty patients (62±11years, 18 males) with severe aortic stenosis were studied before and after AVR surgery using echocardiography. Patients were randomly allocated to pericardial repair vs. open pericardium. RV long axis displacement and outflow tract fractional shortening (fs) were measured. RV and right atrial (RA) tissue Doppler and strain rate (SR) were measured as well as RA area. Systolic interventricular septal motion towards and away from the RV was also determined. Stroke volume (SV) was measured by conventional Doppler method. Pre-operative data were compared with those from 30 normal gender and age matched controls.

    RESULTS: Post-operatively, global RV ejection function was preserved as shown by SV. However, RV outflow tract fs and long axis displacement both fell (p<0.01) but not SR. RA area remained unchanged but RA SR fell (p<0.01). RV displacement correlated with the extent of reversed septal motion (r=0.60, p<0.001) as well as RA SR (r=0.54, p<0.001). None of the RV or septal measurements was affected by the pericardial repair procedure.

    CONCLUSION: After AVR, septal motion is reversed and correlated directly with RV long axis function. The latter is not affected by pericardial repair but likely related to right atrial surgery injury.

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