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  • 1.
    Dennis, Richard
    et al.
    University College London.
    López Galviz, Carlos
    School of Advanced Study.
    Merrill, Samuel
    University College London.
    Introduction: 150 Years of the London Underground2013In: London Journal, ISSN 0305-8034, E-ISSN 1749-6322, Vol. 38, no 3, 175-176 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Merrill, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    “Beachten Sie die Lücken”: reviewing the cultural histories and geographies of public transport in Berlin2017In: Mobility in History, ISSN 2296-0503, E-ISSN 2050-9197, Vol. 8, no 1, 77-84 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Berlin’s U-Bahn an announcement cautions passengers: “Bitte beachten Sie beim Aussteigen die Lücke zwischen Zug und Bahnsteigkante.” This fastidious rendition of the London Underground’s “mind the gap” warning reveals audio equivalencies between the two transport networks. However, the more numerous curved platforms of the Underground—originally designed for the shorter trains of the past—mean that its gaps are more pronounced than those of the U-Bahn. When it comes to the cultural investigation of each city’s broader public transport histories and geographies, the reverse is true. Unlike in London, public transport in the German capital has escaped the significant scholarly attention of historians in recent years.

  • 3.
    Merrill, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Cultural Memories of Nonviolent Struggles – Powerful Times2016In: Media Culture and Society, ISSN 0163-4437, E-ISSN 1460-3675, Vol. 38, no 5, 784-786 p.Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Merrill, Samuel
    University College London.
    Frederick Abrams' Underground Cathedral: journeys of artistic discovery in the undergrounds of the world2013In: Going Underground: New Perspectives / [ed] Samuel Merrill and Carlos Lopez Galviz, London: London Transport Museum , 2013, 75-83 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Merrill, Samuel
    University College London.
    Graffiti at Heritage Places: Vandalism as Cultural Significance or Conservation Sacrilege?2011In: Time and Mind The Journal of Archaeology, Consciousness and Culture, ISSN 1751-696X, Vol. 4, no 1, 59-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current heritage best practice aims to avoid strategies that focus solely on single, often arbitrary periods or narratives in a site's history in favor of those that recognize all of the site's layers of significance. This situation was born from similar concerns to those that made archaeology critically self reflect and adopt positions that attempted to overcome inherent preconceptions and biases. However, the treatment of forms of vandalism at heritage sites, such as graffiti, often stands in juxtaposition to the sites' other layers of significance and reveals that heritage management is yet to address all of its own biases. This article discusses the cultural significance of graffiti vandalism at heritage sites. It argues that new ways of theorizing about heritage and its destruction are required and that heritage management should adopt perspectives akin to archaeology's post-processualism in order to ensure that the significance of contemporary graffiti vandalism is not lost by strategies that view it primarily as conservation sacrilege. To do this, the article considers the origin, definition, and types of heritage vandalism before focusing on graffiti in relation to three case studies and then examining the relevant perspectives that archaeological and heritage theory can offer. The article aims to provide a further departure point from which to discuss the significance of vandalism at heritage places and in particular graffiti and its treatment.

  • 6.
    Merrill, Samuel
    University of London; Technische Universität Berlin.
    Identities in transit: the (re)connections and (re)brandings of Berlin's municipal railway infrastructure after 19892015In: Journal of Historical Geography, ISSN 0305-7488, E-ISSN 1095-8614, Vol. 50, 76-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses urban railway infrastructures as landscapes in order to reveal their role as constructions and constructors of collective and individual identities. It does this by introducing the notion of 'identities in transit', a rhetorical category that problematises the tendency to consider the nexus of urban infrastructure and identity formation only during discrete moments and in relation to abstract subjectivities. Specifically, it explores the (re)connections and (re)brandings that Berlin's municipal railway infrastructure, the Stadtschnellbahn (S-Bahn) and Untergrundbahn (U-Bahn), experienced in the years surrounding the fall of the Berlin Wall, and considers their contribution to the formation of post-unification municipal identities. These discussions are historicised and contextualised by an account of the consequences of Berlin's Cold War division on its transport infrastructure. The article then considers the subsequent impact of the city's reunification and how the S- and U-Bahn became a means of constructing more unified municipal identities. It considers the process by which Berlin's municipal railway networks were reconnected after November 1989 and frames this process as a metaphor for both the different durations and protracted process of the city's reunification and the identities these gave rise to. Thereafter, the article argues that the rebranding strategy pursued by one of the city's municipal transport authorities provides one of the earliest examples of an attempt to manufacture a unified identity for the New Berlin. The article highlights that while processes at the municipal level emphasised the unification of collective identities, experiences of the infrastructures themselves often involved persisting divides and forms of subversion and social conflict that highlighted the meeting of more diverse individual identities.

  • 7.
    Merrill, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Insurgent Strongholds: The ‘Hidden City’ of Viengxay2016In: Global Undergrounds Exploring Cities Within / [ed] Paul Dobraszczyk, Carlos López Galvis, Bradley L. Garrett, London: Reaktion Books, 2016, 156-158 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Merrill, Samuel
    University College London.
    Keeping it real?: Subcultural graffiti, street art, heritage and authenticity2015In: International Journal of Heritage Studies (IJHS), ISSN 1352-7258, E-ISSN 1470-3610, Vol. 21, no 4, 369-389 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers the implications of framing subcultural graffiti and street art as heritage. Attention is paid to subcultural graffiti's relationship to street art and the incompatibility of its traditions of illegality, illegibility, anti-commercialism and transience with the formalised structures of heritage frameworks. It is argued that the continued integration of street art and subcultural graffiti into formal heritage frameworks will undermine their authenticity and mean that traditional definitions of heritage, vandalism and the historic environment will all need to be revisited. The article contributes to the current re-theorisation of heritage's relationship with erasure by proposing that subcultural graffiti should be perceived as an example of 'alternative heritage' whose authenticity might only be assured by avoiding the application of official heritage frameworks and tolerating loss in the historic environment.

  • 9.
    Merrill, Samuel
    University College London.
    London Underground: A Cultural Geography: David Ashford2014In: Journal of Transport History, ISSN 0022-5266, E-ISSN 1759-3999, Vol. 35, no 1, 134-136 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Merrill, Samuel
    University College London.
    Looking Forward to the Past: London Underground's 150th Anniversary2012In: Journal of Transport History, ISSN 0022-5266, E-ISSN 1759-3999, Vol. 33, no 2, 243-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Merrill, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Marek Tamm (ed.), Afterlife of Events: Perspectives on Mnemohistory2016In: Cultural History, ISSN 2045-290X, E-ISSN 2045-2918, Vol. 5, no 1, 109-111 p.Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Merrill, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Negotiating the memories and myths of World War II civilian suffering in the railways beneath London and Berlin2016In: Battlefield Events: Landscape, Commemoration and Heritage / [ed] Keir Reeves, Geoffrey R. Bird, Laura James, Birger Stichelbaut, Jean Bourgeois, New York: Routledge, 2016, 200-216 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter approaches the subterranean sections of the London Underground and the Berlin Untergrundbahn and Stadtschnellbahn as former landscapes of war. It demonstrates how their landscapes witnessed and continue to play host to an array of World War Two (WWII) civilian experiences, memories and myths, which have repeatedly demanded public negotiation, been produced across and between the material, representational and experiential stratum, and influenced by the interplay of a range of mnemonic actors, processes, and structures. It charts these subterranean railways’ WWII histories and characteristics before highlighting the dominant cultural tropes and mnemonic discourses that shape the remembrance and heritagisation of subterranean civilian wartime experiences. Two cases illustrate the extent to which these experiences are commemorated and memorialised within the networks’ landscapes today. In Berlin, the absences and myths relating to the U- and S-Bahn’s deliberate flooding at the end of the WWII in Europe is considered, before attention is shifted to London and the earlier Bethnal Green Tube shelter disaster of March 1943. Reflections are drawn to suggest that each case’s public negotiation might usefully inform the other to provide unique contexts in which to address the sensitive and often controversial subject of commemorating WWII civilian suffering.

  • 13.
    Merrill, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Networked remembrance: excavating buried memories in the railways beneath London and Berlin2017Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Networked Remembrance is the first book to explore questions of urban memory within what are some of the most commonly experienced subterranean margins of the contemporary city: underground railways. Using London's and Berlin's underground railways as comparative case studies, this book reveals how social memories are spatially produced – through practices of cartography and toponymy, memory work and memorialization, exploration and artistic appropriation – within the everyday and concealed places associated with these transport networks.

    Through numerous empirical excavations, this book highlights an array of different mnemonic actors, processes, structures and discourses that have determined the forms of «networked remembrance» associated with the subterranean stations and sections of the London Underground and Berlin U- and S-Bahn. In turn, it invites readers to descend into the «buried memories» that are often imperceptible to those travelling by rail beneath the British and German capitals and encourages them to ask what other memories might lie latent in the infrastructural landscapes beneath their feet.

    This book was the winner of the 2014 Peter Lang Young Scholars Competition in Memory Studies.

  • 14.
    Merrill, Samuel
    Department of Geography, UCL, UK.
    New York’s Subterranean Paradoxes: A Review of Subway2014In: Opticon1826, ISSN 2049-8128, no 16, 5Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review considers the recent re-publication of Bruce Davidson’s Subway series of photographs, and their exhibition at C/O in Berlin, Germany. As such, this review positions Davidson’s photographs both in relation to wider cultural analyses that highlight the paradoxical nature of subterranean space, and within a selective genealogy of subway representations. Furthermore, it views the reinvigorated interest in Davidson’s work to be reflective of the growing popularity of subterranean space that has recently re-emphasised its cultural potential.

  • 15.
    Merrill, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Punching Nazis: What would indiana Jones do?2017In: The Conversation GlobalArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Merrill, Samuel
    Brandenburg Technical University, Germany .
    Review of Ancient Hampi2009In: History Australia, ISSN 1449-0854, Vol. 6, no 3, 80.1-80.2 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Merrill, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sinking Histories: Berlin’s S- and U-Bahn Tunnels2016In: Global Undergrounds Exploring Cities Within / [ed] Paul Dobraszczyk, Carlos López Galvis, Bradley L. Garrett,, London: Reaktion Books, 2016, 89-91 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Merrill, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Striving Underground: Stockholm’s Atomic Bomb Defences2016In: Global Undergrounds Exploring Cities Within / [ed] Paul Dobraszczyk, Carlos López Galvis, Bradley L. Garrett, London: Reaktion Books, 2016, 121-123 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Merrill, Samuel
    University College London.
    The London Underground Diagram: Between Palimpsest and Canon2013In: The London Journal, ISSN 0305-8034, Vol. 38, no 3, 245-264 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates how the London Underground Diagram can be characterized as both palimpsest and canon, contributing to the collective memory and identity of London as a representational component of the cultural landscape of the London Underground. It explicitly considers the processes that have determined the increasing canonization of the diagram and the normative past that it embodies since its inception in 1931 by: investigating its design history and context of success; reviewing its popular iconization and the official acknowledgement of its origins; highlighting the history of its copyright and commercialization; charting the creative phenomenon of map-mashing and its copyright consequences; and questioning the diagram’s status in a continuing digital world.

  • 20.
    Merrill, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Walking together? The mediatised performative commemoration of 7/7’s tenth anniversary2017In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the #WalkTogether initiative which commemorated the 10th anniversary of the 7 July 2005 London bombings by encouraging people to individually re-enact and share on social media the moment when following the bombings, in the absence of a functioning public transport network, Londoners walked to and from work together. It asks what forms of togetherness did the initiative promote and what was the role of professional journalists and news organisations in facilitating this togetherness? To answer these questions, the article conceives of togetherness as hybrid and unfolding within broader media and memory ecologies. This encourages the use of innovative combinations of methods and the introduction of the concepts of ‘mediatised performative commemoration’ and ‘digital gestural remains’. In turn, this allows a number of specific enquiries into the characteristics of #WalkTogether’s commemoration, communities, remembrance and reporting a decade after 7/7 took place and a discussion of the extent to which the initiative resulted in forms of clicktivism and commemorative silos.

  • 21.
    Merrill, Samuel
    Brandenburg Technical University .
    World Heritage, Tourism and the Millennium Development Goals: From Sites to Systems2012In: World Heritage Today: Challenges for Interpretation, Conservation and Development / [ed] Andreza André de Rocha, Berlin: Verlag Dr.Köster , 2012, 161-184 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Merrill, Samuel
    et al.
    University College London.
    Galviz, Carlos LopezSchool of Advanced Study .
    Going Underground: New Perspectives2013Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Merrill, Samuel
    et al.
    University College London.
    Galviz, Carlos Lopez
    School of Advanced Study.
    Introduction2013In: Going Underground: New Perspectives / [ed] Samuel Merrill and Carlos Lopez Galviz, London: London Transport Museum , 2013, 1- p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Merrill, Samuel
    et al.
    University College London.
    Hack, Hans
    Exploring Hidden Narratives: Conscript Graffiti at the Former Military Base of Kummersdorf2013In: Journal of social archaeology, ISSN 1469-6053, E-ISSN 1741-2951, Vol. 13, no 1, 101-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the cultural significance and interpretative potential of graffiti left by Soviet conscripts at Kummersdorf, a former military base in the German federal state of Brandenburg. The graffiti is framed as war art and its typology, distribution and content is studied in detail. In this way opportunities for further research are highlighted, as well as the potential for the graffiti to contribute to interpretative and conservation strategies. We demonstrate how the graffiti embodies multi-level interpretative narratives which can help to reveal hidden aspects of Soviet conscript life and cultural practices whilst alluding to global events and Soviet and Russian military policy. More generally, the article aims to promote the potential of graffiti and other forms of what is traditionally considered vandalism to contribute to the cultural significance and interpretation of heritage sites.

  • 25.
    Merrill, Samuel
    et al.
    University College London.
    Jasper, Sandra
    Was ist so Berlin? Eine kritische Rezension aktueller Linien und Fragestellungen der Stadtforschung in der deutschen Hauptstadt2014In: sub\urban - zeitschrift für kritische stadtforschung, ISSN 2197-2567, Vol. 2, no 2, 143-154 p.Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Merrill, Samuel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Mould, Oliver
    Royal Holloway University of London .
    Can memorialisation be a form of urban protest?2016In: Open Democracy UKArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Merrill, Samuel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Public Archaeology 2015 Collective, /
    Archaeology of Austerity - A Line Across London: The Buried Memories of Austerity Past: The Moorgate Tube Crash and King's Cross Fire2017In: The Living Maps Review, Vol. 3, 1-2 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
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