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  • 1.
    Faria, Luísa
    et al.
    Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Porto/Portugal.
    Lima Santos, Nelson
    Fernando Pessoa University, Porto/Portugal.
    Takšic, Vladimir
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science and Arts, University of Rijeka/Croatia.
    Räty, Hannu
    Department of Psychology, University of Joensuu/Finland.
    Molander, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Avsec, Andreja
    Department of Psychology, University of Ljubljana/Slovenia.
    Extremera, Natalio
    Department of Psychology, University of Málaga/Spain.
    Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
    Department of Psychology, University of Málaga/Spain.
    Toyota, Hiroshi
    Nara University of Education, Takabatake-cho, Nara/Japan.
    Cross-cultural validation of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ)2006In: Psicologia, ISSN 0874-2049, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 95-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the cross-cultural validation of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ), which consists of 45 items divided into three subscales – (i) perceiving and understanding emotion (PU), (ii) expressing and labelling emotion (EL), and (iii) managing and regulating emotion (MR) – and is classified as a “trait emotional intelligence” or “perceived emotional intelligence” measure.

    Originally, it was developed in Croatian settings using a theoretical framework from the emotional intelligence model (Mayer & Salovey, 1997), but it has already been translated into English and presented in 2001 at the 7th European Congress of Psychology in London.

    The psychometric qualities and the relations of ESCQ with several relevant constructs in Croatian, Portuguese, Finnish, Swedish, Slovene, Spanish, and Japanese contexts are here presented, using target samples of mainly high school and university students, as well as older subjects (workers and supervisors), highlighting construct, convergent, divergent and concurrent validity. However, the Cronbach alpha of the MRscale needs improvement, stressing the need to further pursue the validity studies of the ESCQ.

  • 2.
    Ford, Paul R.
    et al.
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United .
    Carling, Christopher
    Institute of Sports Performence, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom, and LOSC Lille Métropole Football Club, Medical Lille, France.
    Garces, Marco
    Universidad del Futbol y Ciencias del Deporte, Pachuca FC, Pachuca, Mexico, .
    Marques, Mauricio
    PUC Minas/Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF), Brazilian School of Football (EBF), Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Miguel, Carlos
    Faculty of Sports, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Farrant, Andrew
    Right to Dream Academy, Accra, Ghana.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Moreno, Jansen
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Le Gall, Franck
    LOSC Lille Métropole Football Club, Medical Lille, France.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Salmela, John H.
    School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Williams, Mark
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom,.
    The developmental activities of elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden2012In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 30, no 15, p. 1653-1663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The developmental activities of 328 elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden were examined using retrospective recall in a cross-sectional research design. The activities were compared to the early diversification, early specialisation, and early engagement pathways. Players started their involvement in soccer at approximately 5 years of age. During childhood, they engaged in soccer practice for a mean value of 185.7, s ¼ 124.0 h _ year71, in soccer play for 186.0, s ¼ 125.3 h _ year71, and in soccer competition for 37.1, s ¼ 28.9 h _ year71. A mean value of 2.3, s ¼ 1.6 sports additional to soccer were engaged in by 229 players during childhood. Players started their participation in an elite training academy at 11 to 12 years of age. During adolescence, they engaged in soccer practice for a mean value of 411.9, s ¼ 184.3 h _ year71, in soccer play for 159.7, s ¼ 195.0 h _ year71, and in soccer competition for 66.9, s ¼ 48.8 h _ year71. A mean value of 2.5, s ¼ 1.8 sports other than soccer were engaged in by 132 players during this period. There were some relatively minor differences between countries, but generally the developmental activities of the players followed a mixture of the early engagement and specialisation pathways, rather than early diversification.

  • 3. Hasson, Henna
    et al.
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karanika-Murray, Maria
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Improving organizational learning through leadership training2016In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 115-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to evaluate whether training of managers at workplaces can improve organizational learning. Managers play a crucial role in providing opportunities to employees for learning. Although scholars have called for intervention research on the effects of leadership development on organizational learning, no such research is currently available.

    Design/methodology/approach - The training program consisted of theoretical and practical elements aimed to improve line managers' transformational leadership behaviors and, in turn, improve organizational learning. The study used a pre- and post-intervention evaluation survey. Line managers' and their subordinates' perceptions of organizational learning were measured with the Dimensions of Organizational Learning Questionnaire and with post-intervention single items on organizational learning.

    Findings - Comparisons between pre- and post-intervention assessments revealed that managers' ratings of continuous learning and employees' ratings of empowerment and embedded systems improved significantly as a result of the training. The leadership training intervention had positive effects on managers' perceptions of individual-level and on employees' perceptions of organizational-level aspects of organizational learning.

    Originality/value - The study provides empirical evidence that organizational learning can be improved through leadership training. Both line managers and their subordinates perceived that organizational learning had increased after the training intervention, albeit in different ways. Implications for developing leadership training programs and for evaluating these are discussed.

  • 4.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Workplace stress measured by Job Stress Survey and relationships to musculoskeletal complaints2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate and test the Job Stress Survey (JSS, Spielberger, 1991; Spielberger & Vagg, 1999), a self-report instrument which assesses workplace stress. In the thesis a thorough evaluation is made of JSS scales and items, and the relations to health, particularly musculoskeletal complaints. The aim of Study I was to evaluate the factor structure and the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the JSS. The instrument was distributed to medical service personal and metal industry workers (n=1186). Factor analyses demonstrated a good resemblance between the present version and the American original version. The results also showed that the internal consistencies, as well as the test-retest reliabilities of the scales are high, and the concurrent validity are good. Study II examined work-related stress measured by JSS for the subgroups of gender, industry workers and medical service personnel, and special attention was given to the problem of differential item functioning (DIF) on these subgroups. The main findings were that both gender and occupation has a substantial impact on specific sources of work-related stress assessed by JSS scales and individual items. The result of the DIF analyses showed no item bias in the gender subgroup, but for the occupational subgroups there where items showing DIF in two of the scales. These items do not jeopardize the conclusions made on scale level since the number of items showing DIF are too few to make an impact on the overall result on the different scales. In Study III the relation between self-reported stress and health, particularly musculoskeletal problems were examined longitudinally in two metal industry factories. Results showed high levels of stress and musculoskeletal complaints in these factories and significant and strong relationships between the JSS scales and musculoskeletal, as well as psychosocial ratings. Lack of Organizational Support was found to be more related to musculoskeletal pain than Job Pressure. Longitudinal differences were found between the factories and between different types of musculoskeletal complaints. The general conclusions from the studies are that the present version of JSS shows a good resemblance with the American original, and that JSS is a useful instrument for studying relationships between stress and health.

  • 5.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychologicalflexibility, self-compassion and well-being among youth elite athletes.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elite youth athletes with dual careers are under pressure to thrive in sport as well academically. Mental factors are important for development in both the short and long perspective. Psychological flexibility and self-compassion has in earlier studies been highlighted as vital aspects for enhancing athletes’ performance and their well-being. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological flexibility, self-compassion, fear of failure and if these factors can predict psychological well-being in young elite athletes. Participants are between 16 and 19 years old and compete on junior elite level in both team and individual sports, and were enrolled at a Swedish sport academy. The results shows that psychological flexibility and self-compassion can predict psychological well-being. This point out the necessary for athletes to develop both psychological flexibility and self-compassion to enhance psychological well-being.

  • 6.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation between motivation and health in dual carrier athletes2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual carrier students face many different challenges when combine an elite sporting career with education. One challenge is to keep practicing on high level over long periods of time, another challenge is to stay healthy both physically and mentally. Psychological factors are vital to athlete’s performance and development in both the short and long perspective. Several previous studies have suggested that motivation and motivational climate can be protective factors while fear of failure is a risk factor. Epidemiological cross-sectional studies have shown that adolescents report frequently different psychological complaints and problems. Unfortunately, there are few studies on elite young athletes with dual careers and psychological health.  

     

    This study is part of a larger longitudinal interdisciplinary project with the purpose to identify different factors that influence elite young athletes positively and negatively during the high school period. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between different aspects of motivation and psychological health among students with dual-carriers. The study consisted of 183 participants (age 16-19 years) competing on junior elite level in both team and individual sports, and were enrolled at a Swedish sport academy.

     

    To study health, parts of the questionnaire from the public health survey (HLV, the Public Health Agency, 2014) and the 12 items General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg & Williams, 1988) was used. To measure motivation the SMS-II (Pelletier et al., 2013), Basic Need Satisfaction in Sport Scale (Ng, Lonsdale, & Hodge, 2010), Interpersonal Supportiveness Scale (Wilson, Gregson, & Mack, 2009) and Peer Motivational Climate in Youth Sport (Ntoumanis & Vazou, 2005) were used. The results supports earlier findings between motivation and psychological health. To better understand how different motivation factors affects psychological health, longitudinal studies is needed to follow the development of elite athletes with dual carriers over a longer period of time.

  • 7.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindberg, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Entrepreneurship education as a tool for helping the psychologist to meeting new and different demands2015In: NERA 2015: the 43rd Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association, 2015, Vol. 43, p. 79-79Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychologist profession has been characterized by an attitude to education for employment, and often employment in the public sector. The outside world has changed and so also the labour market for the psychologist. Today, it's not as obvious to the psychology program only to prepare students for a working life as an employee, but also for a working life with elements of self-employment and entrepreneurship. The aim of this paper is to describe how we developed one course in the education of psychologist to meet this challenge.

    The purpose of this course has been to influence attitudes towards entrepreneurship and to develop skills to apply entrepreneurship. To meet this challenge as educator, cooperation between the Department of Psychology and Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE) were initiated for the course on the Masters Programme in Sports Psychology. To our knowledge this is unique in educating future psychologists in Sweden.

    One important aim with the course is that the students are going to learn how to combine their knowledge in psychology with entrepreneurship and use it in an applied way. One main moment of the course is to stimulate their creative ability and innovation to increase their opportunity recognition, entrepreneurial orientation and risk willingness. To achieve this the students are encourage to create their own business ideas, where they take their knowledge in psychology and generate a new service or product to use in the field of sports and health. At the end of the course they present their business idea in front of bankers, business consultants and business angels. Results from our measurements and evaluation go in the same direction as proposed by Fayol (2001), and that entrepreneurship can be taught. After the course the students are better prepared for the future working life as a clinical psychologist, both as employed and self-employed. This approach should also be considered for other educational programs, because the working life is changing for them as well. One benefit for the students has been the interdisciplinary collaboration between psychology and business administration.

  • 8.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindberg, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Jansson, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Entrepreneurial education embedded in sport psychology: a Swedish case study2016In: Journal of Education and Training, ISSN 2330-9709, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 126-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to provide a contribution to the entrepreneurship education field through evaluating and describing changes in students' attitudes towards entrepreneurship. A pre-test and post-test design was used to evaluate a course design where sport psychology was the main topic with an embedded element of entrepreneurship education. The course was part of university program in Masters Programme in Sports Psychology or Physical Trainer Programme. Sport psychology-students are not the traditional group of students that are selected and trained to get both skills and a positive entrepreneur mindset. There were 39 students completing both the pre-test and post-test questionnaire (response rate 84.4%), mean age 23 years (SD=2.90). Both the pre- and post-test results showed that the sport psychology students had positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship, and the embedded course design have significant effect on students' subjective perception of their ability to create and commercialize new ideas. The results from this case study shown that an embedded course design with sport psychology and entrepreneurial education make it possible to strengthen students' entrepreneurial attitudes. The positive results point out that it is important to continue examine embedded coursed designs between entrepreneurial education and non-traditional areas (e.g., physiotherapists, dentists, architects, e.g.).

  • 9.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    2Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Acceptance, Defusion and Action Questionnaire: Evaluation of a measure of psychological flexibility in sport settings2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an increasing interest in applying the concepts of acceptance, mindfulness, and value based intervention to enhance athletes’ psychological flexibility as well as their performance and wellbeing. Development of instruments for the measurement of psychological flexibility in sport settings has not kept the same pace. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II (AAQ-II; Bond et al., 2011) is often used to assess psychological flexibility in various interventions. However, AAQ-II provides a measure of the psychological flexibility in general. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an instrument, the Acceptance, Defusion and Action Questionnaire (ADAQ), which measures psychological flexibility in sport contexts. A nine-item version of ADAQ was used for the study of 173 participants between the ages of 16 to 19. All of them were athletes at elite level in team and individual sports and enrolled at Swedish sport academies. Preliminary results from a confirmatory factor analysis indicated a reasonable fit of the model (Chi square=65,88; df=27; p-value=,000; RMSEA=,89). This and other psychometric results will be discussed.

  • 10.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Molander, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Gender, occupation, and item bias: job stress assessed by job stress surveyManuscript (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Molander, Bo
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Work-related stress and musculoskeletal problems in metal industry: A longitudinal studyManuscript (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Molander, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Barnekow-Bergqvist, Margareta
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Gävle University, Sweden.
    Evaluation of a Swedish version of the Job Stress Survey2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 277-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study assesses and evaluates the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Job Stress Survey (JSS; Spielberger, 1991; Spielberger & Vagg, 1999). This instrument is constructed to measure generic sources of occupational stress encountered by employees in a wide variety of work settings, settings that often result in psychological strain. The JSS was administered to metal assembly industry workers and medical service personnel in northern Sweden (n= 1186). The exploratory factor analysis showed that there is a high similarity between the present Swedish version and the original American version. Internal reliabilities of the scales, as well as test-retest reliabilities were shown to be high, and concurrent validity, as examined by comparisons with the Perceived Stress Questionnaire Index ( Levenstein et al., 1993 ) was found to be satisfactory. The consistency of these findings is discussed with particular focus on groups of employees, gender, and cross-cultural evaluations.

  • 13.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Molander, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Taksic, Vladimir
    Dept of Psychology, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia.
    Analysis of item bias in the emotional skills and competence questionnaire: a cross-cultural comparison2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hauer, Esther
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychological flexibility as a buffer in early-career psychologists and social workers in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale

    The overall objectives of this research were to study the relationships between the transfer from higher education to working life for psychologists and social workers. We were interested in early career experiences of emotional demands, ability to influence work, and professional isolation. Finally, we expected psychological flexibility to be an important buffer in the performance of human services work and therefore investigated its potential moderating effect.

    Method

    A postal survey was sent to 5213 psychologists and social workers in Sweden who had graduated within three years of the spring of 2017. There were 2514 respondents, and after exclusion criteria, a final sample consisted of 2224 participants (642 psychologists; 1582 social workers). The gender distribution shows that substantially fewer men participated.

    Results

    The results of hierarchical multiple regressions with emotional exhaustion and physical fatigue and cognitive weariness as outcome variables explained 34.5% and 35% respectively. Significant main effects were found for emotional demands, influence, professional isolation and work-related psychological flexibility (-.15 (p<.001) for emotional exhaustion and physical fatigue respective -.27 (p<.001) for cognitive weariness); there was no significant effect for age and profession or any interaction terms.

    In a cluster analysis derived from perceived influence, professional isolation, and most recent transition, work-related psychological flexibility is one of the constructs which could distinguish between the different clusters.

    Implications

    Our preliminary results show that work-related psychological flexibility affects emotional exhaustion and physical fatigue and cognitive weariness. By increasing psychological flexibility, we can decrease emotional exhaustion, and in turn buffer against work-related stress.

  • 15.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Talent Development Environment and its Impact on Athletes Motivation2013In: The 5th International Conference on Self-Determination Theory (SDT) / [ed] Richard Ryan and Edward Deci, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in different sports to optimize talent development, and the purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of the environment on psychological aspects of talent development, following the work of Martindale and colleagues (Martindale et al., 2010; Wang, Sproule, McNeill, Martindale, & Lee, 2011). This was done by examining athletes perceptions of key features in their talent development environment with the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire and its’ impact on important factors, such as perceived competence, fear of failure, and motivation. The participants (age 16-19 years) in this study were playing team sports on junior elite level, and were enrolled at Swedish sport academies. The results showed positive relationships between a positive talent development environment, competence, and autonomous motivation, as well as positive relationships between an adverse environment, fear of failure, and controlled motivation. These findings highlight differential effects of environmental factors on athletes’ development.

  • 16.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davidsson, P.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagström, A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Långström, J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fallby, J.
    Swedish Football Association.
    The talent development environments in two Scandinavian soccer academies’2012In: 3rd World Conference on Science and Soccer, 14-16 May 2012, Ghent, Belgium, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research on psychological aspects of talent development has tended to focus on individual athletes and their micro-environments. In this study the talent development environments of a Swedish and a Danish soccer academy were examined, each club with a history of successfully producing top-level senior athletes from among its juniors. The aim was to explore and compare the clubs work on individual development within specifically defined areas (managing competition, career transitions, introduction of new players, injuries, challenges and support in life, school and family).

     

    Method: A qualitative methodology was used and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 17 participants: four players and three leaders of the Swedish Club, and three players and seven leaders from the Danish club.

     

    Results and Conclusion: In both the Swedish and Danish club have a specified goal that the youth academy should prioritize individual development before the outcome of the game. Work on the development of the players individual skills are organized in different ways in the Swedish and Danish club. The Danish club has a much clearer structure on how to work with individual development, they use development plans in greater degree, plans which is anchored with the players and a more individualized training plans for the player's position and needs. Both clubs stresses the importance of developing the whole individual, not just play soccer characteristics, but also school work and the wellbeing of the individual player. The combination of soccer practice and school work was one thing that players from both clubs highlighted as challenging and stressful.

  • 17. Lundkvist, E.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, H.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lemyre, N.
    Ivarsson, A.
    The temporal relations across burnout dimensions in athletes2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 1215-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout is a construct that has garnered considerable attention in sport psychology within recent years. Several hypothesized models regarding how the three dimensions (exhaustion, devaluation, and reduced sense of accomplishment) temporally relate to each other have been advanced. One proposal outlined by Maslach and Leiter suggests that exhaustion predicts devaluation which predicts reduced sense of accomplishment. However, there is no consensus among researchers as it has been argued that exhaustion predicts devaluation and reduced accomplishment separately. The aim of this study was to test multiple alternative hypotheses regarding the relationships of the burnout dimensions in athletes. Two samples of Swedish youth elite athletes with differing time spans between measurements were used. Specifically, one sample involved time-intensive measures collected every week over an eight-week period, and the other sample included four measurement points across an 18-month period. Results showed that none of the previously proposed models outlining the temporal relations of burnout dimensions were supported. Statistical analysis of the models including the cross-lagged predictions of dimensions did not have any statistically significant impact except when exhaustion negatively predicted devaluation between time 1 (month 0) and time 2 (month 6) in the 18-month sample; this relation faded in the following time points. Further, issues regarding the stability of devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment emerged as their autocorrelation were very weak in the time-intensive sample. These findings raise a number of points for further theoretical and practical discussions about the athlete burnout construct.

  • 18.
    Molander, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tacsic´, Vladimir
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Rijeka, Croatia.
    South and North: DIF Analyses of University-Student Responses to the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire2011In: Psychological Topics, ISSN 1332-0742, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 425-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a study of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire instrument (ESCQ; Takšić,1998) three samples of university students from Balkan countries (Croatia, Serbia, and Slovenia) were contrasted with two samples of university students from Nordic countries (Finland and Sweden). In total, 1978 students participated. Effects of country and gender were obtained from the ESCQ total scores, as well as from the subscale scores. The subsequent analyses of item bias, that is, differential item functioning (DIF), revealed a number of DIF items in pair wise comparisons of the samples, thus creating doubts about the fairness in comparing mean scores. Further analyses of the DIF items showed, however, that most of the item curve functions were uniform, and that effect sizes were low. It was also shown that the number of DIF items depended on which countries were compared. Spearman correlations between measures of number of DIF items and cultural values as measured by World Value Survey data were very high. Implications of these findings for future cross-cultural studies of the ESCQ instrument are discussed.

  • 19.
    Molander, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Taksic, Vladimir
    Department of Psychology, University of Rijeka, Croatia.
    Cross-cultural and sex differences in the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire scales: Challenges of differential item functioning analyses2009In: Psiholoska obzorja/Horizons of Psychology, ISSN 1318-187, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 35-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Molander, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Takšić, Vladimir
    2Department of Psychology, University of Rijeka, Croatia.
    Differential Item Functioning in the Croatian-Swedish study of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hauer, Esther
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Supporting early-career psychologists and social workers: Psychological flexibility moderates between isolation at work and cognitive weariness2018In: , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper falls on ‘new’ employees; more specifically, social workers who start their first position after their studies, and psychologists who start their first position after their one year of practical training, following completion of their studies. This work firstly makes the assumption that both social workers and psychologists are exposed to emotionally demanding situations in their work life – even from early on. Early on in a new chosen career may typically be the time when a new employee experiences the least ability to influence their work – for example whom they work with and what kinds of tasks they work on. Also, this may also very likely be the time such an employee feels most isolated from other professionals in the same occupation – One is typically employed for one’s unique skills, but works with other professionals, with different skills sets. Lastly, how successfully one perceives oneself to have transitioned from academic to professional life may be an influencing factor.

    A postal survey was sent to 5213 (respondents=2514, not target group=103, response rate 49%) psychologists and social workers in Sweden who had graduated within three years of the spring of 2017. In the analysis, psychology students who had not yet reached independent registration as psychologist were also excluded (Final sample=2224: 642 psychologists; 1582 social workers)

    The central hypothesis was that emotional demands, perceived influence at work, and experienced isolation at work may contribute to the burnout (as indicated by the dimensions of cognitive weariness and physical fatigue) of psychologists and social workers. The paper set out to investigate a regression model where work-related variables relates to two dimensions of burnout (physical fatigue and cognitive weariness). Work-related variables to consider were self-rated transition from studies to work, emotional demands, influence at work and professional isolation, and work-related psychological flexibility was considered as a moderator.

    Regarding physical fatigue, the results (34% explained variance) show that females and younger employees scored higher. Working as a psychologist vs. as social worker was not a significant predictor. In terms of the independent variables, a successful transition between studies and work (self-rated), emotional demands, influence at work, isolation at work and psychological flexibility all made significant direct contributions to physical fatigue. No evidence of moderation was found.

    Regarding cognitive weariness, the results (35% explained variance) show that females scored higher. Age, and whether employees were working as a psychologist vs. as a social worker were not significant. In terms of the independent variables, a successful transition between studies and work (self-rated), emotional demands, influence at work, isolation at work and psychological flexibility all made significant direct contributions to cognitive weariness. A test of interaction effect showed that there is a positive relationship between cognitive weariness and isolation at work, for individuals who also score low on psychological flexibility.

  • 22.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hauer, Esther
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The interrelationships between individual, contextual and processual constructs and stress and wellbeing among psychologists2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hauer, Esther
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    PsychosocialRisk and Health Profile Groups Among Early Career Psychologists and SocialWorkers.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both social workers and psychologists are exposed to emotionally demanding situations in their work life – even from early on. The focus of this paper falls on social workers who start their first position after their studies, and psychologists who start their first position after their one year of practical training, following completion of their studies. Early on in a new career would typically be when a new employee experiences the least ability to influence their work situation – for example whom they work with and what kinds of tasks they work on. Also, this may also very likely be the time such an employee is vulnerable if professionally isolated, at time when crucial skills and competences are formed – One is typically employed for one’s unique skills, but works with other professionals, with different skills sets. Lastly, how successfully one perceives oneself to have transitioned from academic to professional life may be an influencing factor.

    A postal survey was sent to 5213 (respondents=2514, not target group=103, response rate 49%) psychologists and social workers in Sweden who had graduated within three years of the spring of 2017. In the analysis, graduated psychology students who had not yet reached independent registration as psychologist were excluded (Final sample=2224: 642 psychologists; 1582 social workers)

    The central hypothesis was that emotional demands, perceived influence at work, and experienced isolation at work may contribute to burnout-related symptoms (as indicated by the dimensions of cognitive weariness and physical fatigue) among psychologists and social workers in the beginning of their careers. We set out to investigate a regression model where work-related variables relates to two dimensions of burnout (physical fatigue and cognitive weariness). The work-related variables were self-rated transition from studies to work, emotional demands, influence at work and professional isolation, and work-related psychological flexibility was considered as a moderator.

    The results indicate that females and younger employees in general rated higher on physical fatigue (34% explained variance). Working as a psychologist vs. as social worker was not a significant predictor. In terms of the independent variables, a deemed-as-unsuccessful transition between studies and work (self-rated), high emotional demands, low influence at work, experienced isolation at work and lower psychological flexibility all made significant direct contributions to physical fatigue. No evidence of moderation was found.

    Regarding cognitive weariness, the results (35% explained variance) show that females scored higher. Age and line of work were not significant predictors. In terms of the independent variables, a deemed-as-successful transition between studies and work (self-rated), higher emotional demands, lower influence at work, higher isolation at work and lower psychological flexibility all made significant direct contributions to cognitive weariness. A test of interaction showed that there is a positive relationship between cognitive weariness and isolation at work, for individuals who also score low on psychological flexibility.

    Our results are informative for early career management of psychologists and social workers.

  • 24.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Canberra, Faculty of Health.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Implicit beliefs of ability, approach-avoidance goals and cognitive anxiety among team sport athletes2014In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 720-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People’s implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes’ approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery- avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes’ anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes’ well-being and performance.

  • 25.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Evidence of relative age effects in Swedish women's ice hockey2014In: Talent Development and Excellence, ISSN 1869-0459, E-ISSN 1869-2885, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to consequences of differences in chronological age among individuals within age-grouped cohorts. RAEs advantage relatively older players and have consistently been found in male ice hockey, but research in women’s ice hockey is scarce. This study examined RAEs in Swedish women’s elite (N = 688) and junior elite (N = 399) ice hockey and a moderator of RAEs, playing position. RAEs were also examined in the entire population of youth female ice hockey players (N = 2811). Chi-square analyses showed significant RAEs (p < .05) in all three samples. The elite and junior elite sample showed RAEs among defenseman and forwards, but not among goalies. In the youth sample, RAEs were evident in all age groups. RAEs were present in all age groups, from the youngest players (5-6 years) to the elite players. Despite a weak depth of competition, RAEs were displayed in Swedish women´s ice hockey, indicating that other mechanisms seem to influence RAEs.

  • 26.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Talangjakt = talangslakt?2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 19-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Approach-avoidance goals in team sport athletes’: the predictive ability of the motivational climate2011In: New horizons from a world heritage city / [ed] N. Tim Cable and Keith George, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The motivational climate is an important determinant of athletes’ achievement goals. The relationship between the motivational climate and athletes’ achievement goals is also well examined within the dichotomous achievement goal framework. However, the relationship between the motivational climate and athletes’ approach-avoidance achievement goals (Elliot, 1999) is still an unexplored area in competitive sports. The only study to date in competitive sports included the higher order dimensions, mastery and performance climate, not the six underlying dimensions (Morris & Kavussanu, 2008). The purpose of this study was to examine whether motivational climate dimensions can predict team sport athletes’ approach-avoidance achievement goals.

     Methods: 319 team-sport athletes’ (males=156, females=163, mean age=20 years, SD=3.6) completed measures of the perceived motivational climate (PMCSQ-2) and approach-avoidance achievement goals (AGQ-S). Hierarchal regression analyses for each of the four achievement goals were performed, while controlling for the effect of age and gender. Two sets of analyses were performed: (1) using the higher order dimensions as predictors; and (2) using the six underlying dimensions as predictors.

     Results: The first set of analyses showed that mastery-approach goals were positively predicted by a mastery climate; mastery-avoidance goals were positively predicted by a performance climate and also influenced by age and gender; performance-approach goals were positively predicted by a mastery climate and a performance climate; and performance-avoidance goals were positively predicted by a performance climate and also influenced by age. The second set of analyses showed that mastery-approach goals were positively predicted by Effort/Improvement; mastery-avoidance goals were positively predicted by Punishment for Mistakes and also influenced by age and gender; performance-approach goals were positively predicted by Intra-Team Member Rivalry; whereas performance-avoidance goals were only influenced by age. Discussion: These findings indicate differential relationships between the motivational climate dimensions and competitive athletes’ approach-avoidance goals. The cross-over effects from social-environmental to individual achievement goals (e.g., that a performance climate predicted mastery-avoidance goals) highlight the need for future research to develop measures addressing both approach and avoidance aspects of the motivational climate.

  • 28. Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Hasson, Henna
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Are Formal Leaders the Only Ones Benefitting From Leadership Training?: A Shared Leadership Perspective2019In: Journal of leadership & organizational studies, ISSN 1548-0518, E-ISSN 1939-7089, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 32-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership training most often involves training of formal leaders, and little is known about the potential benefits of leadership training for other members of an organization. Using theories of shared leadership, the current study examined outcomes of transformational leadership training that targets both formal and informal leaders (i.e., both vertical and shared leadership). The training was set in a Swedish paper pulp factory and involved formal and informal leaders participating in 20 days of training over a period of 16 months. Based on employee survey data collected both pre- and postintervention our analyses revealed that both formal and informal leaders significantly improved their transformational leadership behaviors. Interestingly, the improvement in transformational leadership behaviors of formal and informal leaders tended to predict employee efficiency and well-being in different ways. Improvements in formal leaders' transformational leadership were related to employee well-being, while informal leaders' increases in transformational leadership were associated with efficiency. The results point toward the benefit of a shared leadership perspective on leadership training and indicate that improvements in transformational leadership may affect employees differently depending on who in the organization displays them.

  • 29.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Henna
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Häsänen, Lars
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Organizational behaviour managemant (OBM) as an intervention in occupational health psychology2012In: Proceedings of the 10th European Academy of Occupational Health psychology Conference / [ed] Aditya Jain, David Hollis, Nicholas Andreou, Flavia Wehrle, European Academy of Occupational Health psychology, eaohp, 2012, p. 350-350Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Takšic, Vladimir
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science and Arts, University of Rijeka/Croatia.
    Mohorić, Tamara
    Department of Psychology, University of Rijeka, Croatia.
    Ćosić Pilepić, Ana
    Department of Psychology, University of Rijeka, Croatia.
    Molander, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Validationof different procedures for the assessment of measurement invariance incross-cultural studies2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Takšic, Vladimir
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science and Arts, University of Rijeka/Croatia.
    Molander, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mohorić, Tamara
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science and Arts, University of Rijeka/Croatia.
    Differential Item Functioning (DIF) in cross cultural studies of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ)2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differential Item Functioning (DIF) exists if an item is more difficult or discriminating for one group of participants than for another. When translating items into other languages a DIF analysis is especially valuable for evaluating the agreement among items translated into different languages. Different approaches to measure DIF will be reviewed and commented. Some results on the relationship between DIF analyses on the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ). It is self-rating instrument developed in Croatian settings. The questionnaire consists of 45 items and three scales: Perceive and Understand, Express and Label, and Manage and Regulate. Responses are given in accordance with a 5-point Likert scale. The ESCQ has been translated to a number of languages in four continents (Europe, Asia, North and South America). In the present context special focus is directed to problems related to translation and adaptation of the instrument from Croatian to Swedish.

  • 32.
    Takšić, Vladimir
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Rijeka, Croatia.
    Mohorić, Tamara
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Rijeka, Croatia.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cross-cultural studies of trait emotional intelligence using the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire2018In: Emotional intelligence: perceptions, interpretations and attitudes / [ed] María del Carmen Pérez Fuentes, María del Mar Molero Jurado, and José Jesús Gázquez Linares, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2018, p. 29-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When translating and adapting psychological measures in different countries, besides the problem of language translations, there are several other problems a researcher has to be aware of, since there are some common methodological problems that all cross-cultural studies share. The Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ; Takšić, 1998) was developed in Croatian settings using the theoretical framework from the Mayer and Salovey emotional intelligence model (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). The ESCQ consists of 45 items, divided into three subscales which measure: the ability to Perceive and Understand emotions, the ability to Express and Label emotions, and the ability to Manage and Regulate emotions. The ESCQ is used in a large number of studies and has showed satisfying psychometric characteristics. It was translated and validated in several countries (Avsec, Takšić & Mohorić, 2009; Faria at al., 2006; Costa & Faria, 2016). In different cross-cultural studies, the ESCQ was applied to a large sample of university students, confirming the three-factor [BM1] structure. The question of cultural impact on the items in the ESCQ was examined by Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analyses. In the chapter, common cross-cultural methodology and statistical procedures performed on ESCQ data in various countries will be compared and discussed.

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