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  • 1.
    Hedlund, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Growth and decline in rural Sweden: geographical distribution of employment and population 1960–20102017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the combination of changes in the population and employment into sectors in rural Sweden for the period 1960-2010. The aim is to describe and analyze the demographic changes together with the labour market changes, and to account for the spatial outcome of these changes by considering the heterogeneity of rural areas. The analysis departs from the framework of rural restructuring, where changes in employment and population in rural Sweden are interpreted as local products of the global processes of technological development, social modernization and globalization. Empirically, the analysis is based on a combination of longitudinal censuses and register data on the Swedish population covering the period 1960-2010.

    The first part of the aim is achieved by applying a life-course perspective and exploiting the longitudinal nature of the data. The life-course perspective distinguishes between historical time and the age of individuals, making it possible to situate changes in employment and migration on the individual level. The second part of the aim is achieved through developing a typology of rural Sweden by doing a cluster analysis on SAMS-areas.

    The results show that rural change after 1980 was characterized by de-industrialization and the rise of the urban service sector. The period was also characterized by regional urbanization rather than local urbanization. Peripheral urban and rural areas based on industrial employment found themselves with a declining economic motor, which meant that people had to find their source of income elsewhere. The migration stream in this period was thus increasingly directed towards metropolitan or large city centers, and their rural surroundings within commuting distance. However, the more fine-tuned spatial typology reveals that also a few areas in the rural periphery have experienced growth, these areas are mainly attractive places based on various kinds of tourism. It can thus be concluded that different rural areas have experienced, and will continue to experience, the shift from manufacturing to services differently, where some areas have grown in both demographic and employment terms while others have declined. In this sense the heterogeneity of rural areas are a product of both growth and decline – of old development paths that is reaching their end and of new development paths that will continue into the future.

  • 2.
    Hedlund, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Mapping the Socioeconomic Landscape of Rural Sweden: Towards a Typology of Rural Areas2016Ingår i: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 50, nr 3, 460-474 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Definitions of the rural have been the subject of numerous academic papers. This paper argues that the a priori urban–rural continuum model should be abandoned in favour of a more open approach. In advancing this argument, a socioeconomic typology of rural Sweden is developed by means of cluster analysis. A total of 3983 areas were sorted into five clusters and16 sub-clusters. One-third of the rural population lives in the middle-class countryside within the urban shadow (12%) and working-class countryside within the urban shadow (22%); the bulk of the rural population lives in countryside outside the urban shadow (25%) and manufacturing periphery (28%); and a smaller share resides in the resource periphery (12%). It is concluded that location-specific typologies based on high-resolution data that avoid a priori assumptions of rurality give great insight into rural heterogeneity.

  • 3.
    Hedlund, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Rural restructuring and its socioeconomic manifestations: A case study of Sweden2013Ingår i: Natural resources and regional development theory / [ed] Linda Lundmark, Camilla Sandström, Umeå: Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet , 2013, 24-50 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Hedlund, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Repopulating and revitalising rural Sweden? Re-examining immigration as a solution to rural decline.2017Ingår i: Geographical Journal, ISSN 0016-7398, E-ISSN 1475-4959Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing international immigration is often portrayed as a potential solution to persistent economic and population decline in rural areas. Based on longitudinal register data, this study examines the extent to which international migration has contributed to demographic and labour market changes in rural Sweden between 1990 and 2010. Results show that the urbanisation rate of international migrants is very high while their employment rate in rural areas remains comparatively low. Small positive changes are noticeable in the rate of higher education, self-employment and employment in new service-related industries among particular groups of immigrants. Immigrants to rural areas are a highly heterogeneous group in terms of their demographic and labour market characteristics, which should be considered when estimating the contributions of immigration to socio-economic development in rural areas. This study shows that, while international migration may dampen population decline in rural areas to some extent, particularly in the working-age groups, its potential to stimulate socio-economic revitalisation in rural areas needs to be questioned and examined from a more nuanced and longitudinal perspective.

  • 5.
    Hedlund, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Restructuring of rural Sweden: employment transition and out-migration of three cohorts born 1945–19802015Ingår i: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 42, 123-132 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural restructuring has established itself in recent years as a popular area for research. However, the empirical findings are contested and criticism has been raised against its one-sided focus on agriculture and the British countryside. Drawing on Swedish longitudinal register data from three cohorts, we argue that there is empirical support for a restructuring process in rural areas. However, changes in agriculture are largely irrelevant considering the general picture – instead, it is the rise and fall of manufacturing and rural public sector employment, along with the recent growth of urban service sector employment, that comprise the contemporary economic restructuring of rural areas. We conclude that the contemporary restructuring in rural areas should be separated from a previous restructuring which went from agriculture to manufacturing.

  • 6.
    Hedlund, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Rural restructuring and gendered micro-dynamics of the agricultural labour market2017Ingår i: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, E-ISSN 1798-5617, Vol. 195, nr 1, 25-35 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a comparison of the employment trajectories of two cohorts of men and women in the agricultural sector in Sweden, this article gives an account of the past 50 years’ decline in employment in agriculture. The findings show that the decline of employment in agriculture was the result of fewer entries into the sector and more exits out of the sector. The findings also suggest that the restructuring of the agricultural sector has had greater effects on women than men, with women exiting the sector to a greater degree or never entering it to begin with.

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