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  • 1. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Hardwick, Philip
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Firm size and growth in Sweden's life insurance market between 1855 and 1947: A test of Gibrat's law2014In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 6, 956-974 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data for the period from 1855 to 1947 and the two sub-periods, 1855-1902 and 1903-47, the article examines whether the organic growth rates of 38 Swedish life insurance firms are independent of size, as predicted by Gibrat's (1931) Law of Proportionate Effects. Using panel unit root tests and panel Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) regression, the article finds a significant difference between the growth rates of small and large Swedish life insurance firms (with smaller firms tending to grow faster than larger firms), a result that clearly contradicts Gibrat's Law as a long-run tendency in the Swedish life insurance sector. significant influences were also found on firm growth from profitability, organisational form, reinsurance, the real rate of interest and the Swedish regulatory environment.

  • 2.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Social proximity and firm performance: the importance of family member ties in workplaces2016In: Regional Studies, Regional Science, ISSN 0080-0694, E-ISSN 2168-1376, Vol. 3, no 1, 304-320 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study empirically assesses the role of social proximity, defined as the concentration of family members (FM) in firms, on firm performance. Based on longitudinal micro-data for the period 1995–2010 connecting information on workers and their workplaces in the Swedish labour market, the effects of FM (parents, children, siblings and grandparents) on per capita productivity in 15,359 firms were analysed. The results indicate that FM positively affect firm performance. In particular, the results suggest that in specialized regions (mainly small regions) FM have a positive influence on performance and can thus compensate for relative shortage of regional agglomeration economies.

  • 3.
    Adjei Korang, Evans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Regional Income differences in Ghana: the importance of socio-demography and ethnicity2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Following the increased attention income differences/inequality has gained within the area of economic geography and among policy-planning; this study seeks to explore and analyze the factors affecting income differences in the regions of Ghana. From the use of regional (10 regions) panel data for 1960, 1970, 1984 and 2000; the results show a direct link between socio-demographic factors and regional income differences/inequality and also the impact of ethnic and religious composition on regional income differences. It was identified that ethnicity and religious compositions have different impacts on regional income differences. Christians have positive effect on regional income due to their fairly representation in almost all the regions likewise the Akans, but have negative effect on regional income. And also high population density in a region reduces the mean regional income, similarly high concentration of population aged 60years and over reduces the regional income. Evidence from the results empirically conclude that regions with high share of aged population, Akans, Muslims and high population density have low regional income compared with regions with high share of Christians. 

  • 4.
    Agdahl, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    THE INTEGRATION PROCESS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION FOR FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN SPATIAL PLANNING: DRAWING EXAMPLES FROM ÄLVSTADEN-GOTHENBURGBETWEEN 1999-20152017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to climate change and natural variations in the hydrological cycle, global mean sea levels are increasing, causing the mean sea levels in different regions of the world to increase. In Sweden, coastal cities are facing rising water levels which is increasing flooding. The coastal community of Gothenburg, Sweden was identified the 18th most vulnerable city in the country both to flooding induced by water level rise and other climate change related impacts. Its location, in proximity of Lake Vänern, and in the mouth of the Göta River and its tributaries: Säveån, Mölndalsån and Lärjeån is heightening flood risk and vulnerability in the area. This thesis aims to contribute in comprehending the integration process of natural hazard and climate change adaptation for flood management in Älvstaden- central Gothenburg between 1999 and 2015. With the main objectives being” how the municipality of Gothenburg has applied the urban land use planning theory for the integration of natural hazard and climate change adaptation, with regards to adaptation for flood management in Älvstaden between 1999 and 2015? “What climate change adaptation policies for flood management have been implemented in Gothenburg within this time frame, and how the policies have been revised to match the reality of flood issues?” And “What improvements would be made in the integration process to better address adaptation for flood management?” A desk-based research and one case study approach was adopted for this study. The findings indicate that although the city has systematically used the steps involved in the integration process of natural hazard and climate change adaptation for flood management, it does not link the policies and the measures applied to adaptation for flood management. Which is an issue as it has led to the exclusion of vital functions of the integration process. Suggestions on how the integration process could be improved are provided.

  • 5.
    Ahl, Steffen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Schwedenhäppchen: Ein Forschungseisebericht2001Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Ahlberg, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Planering av fritidshus: En studie om Stockholms skärgårds planaktörer och dilemmat fritidshus2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for this bachelor thesis is to identify how second homes are applied in planning strategies between different levels of planning. The planning levels are identified by municipality’s and part-regional levels. Furthermore, this thesis aims to analyze in which contexts second homes brings consequences in both positive and negative ways. To answer the purpose of this analyze a case study based on Stockholm archipelago was made. Two part-regional documents, seven documents for the municipalities in the archipelago and two semi-structured interviews with stakeholders was conducted to answer the aim.

    Second homes indicate the change of where a resident primarily lives depending on season. Which means that planning strategies should take into consideration for a phenomenon that doesn’t dwell on an all year basis. Due to this analyze, six themes were identified for the implementation of second homes in the planning strategies. Two main themes were identified. The first theme is in regards of the change that plays out when a second home becomes the primary dwelling and on the other hand when the primary dwelling becomes a second home. This in a combination with the second theme which indicates that the localization of the dwellings is of high priority for planning strategies in Stockholm archipelago. Remaining themes are identified in the planning strategies for the municipalities, which is the local level in this study. They indicate for example that second homes can provide profit for the local organizations and stakeholders, but some contexts also include the opposite implication as well. Furthermore, the themes apply to restrictions of use, constructions and the local conditions. 

  • 7. Ahmed, Bayes
    et al.
    Hasan, Rakibul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Maniruzzaman, K. M.
    Urban Morphological Change Analysis of Dhaka City, Bangladesh, Using Space Syntax2014In: ISPRS International journal of geo-information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 3, no 4, 1412-1444 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on a study of the morphological changes of Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh. The main objective of the research is to study the transformation of urban morphology in Dhaka City from 1947 to 2007. Three sample wards (18, 19 and 72) of Dhaka City Corporation are strategically selected as the study areas. Ward 72 has an indigenous type of organic settlement, whereas ward 19 is a planned area, and ward 18 represents a mixed (both planned and informal) type of settlement. In this research, the transformation of urban settlement pattern is examined through space syntax. The results show that the organic settlements (ward 72) are highly integrated both in terms of the local and global syntactic measures (lowest standard deviation for local and global integration, with the highest intelligibility values), and are more connectivity. The scenario is opposite in the case of planned settlements. The characteristics of mixed areas (ward 18) lie in between the organic and planned settlements. Therefore, in summary, it can be stated that the integration, connectivity and intelligibility measures of Dhaka City are found to be high, medium and low for the indigenous, mixed and planned settlement types; respectively.

  • 8.
    Akhmetzyanova, Leyla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Modeling Income-Based Residential Segregation in Moscow, Russian Federation2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates spatial patterns of income-based residential segregation at the neighborhood level in the Russian capital city Moscow within new administrative boundaries, which have received relatively little attention in prior studies. It is argued that Moscow faces high levels of income inequality exacerbated by growing levels of spatial segregation between the affluent and prestigious Center – South-West and poor industrial South – South-East. Applying a whole set of quantitative methods complemented with computer mapping techniques, based on the latest 2013 data by the City of Moscow Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics and 2010 Census data, this study provides new insights into spatial differentiation processes and elaborates policy solutions aimed at addressing economic disparities in the city. A key finding of this thesis is that income segregation in the study area has been driven to a larger extent by the isolation of very poor neighborhoods from middle- and upper-income areas.

  • 9.
    Alatalo, Marita
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Salmon angling as a resource in regional development in the Swedish counties Norrbotten and Västerbotten1998In: Recreational Fisheries: Social, Economic and Management Aspects / [ed] Phil Hickley and Helena Tompkins, Oxford: Fishing News Books Ltd , 1998, 142-149 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Around the world, sportfishing for salmon is a major industry. Rivers attracting salmon anglers can make a big contribution to the local economy. As a result of exploitation and environmental impacts most of the approximately 70 former salmon rivers in the Baltic basin have been damaged and lost their spawning capacity. There is, however, a big potential for salmon angling in the remaining salmon rivers entering the Baltic sea, especially in the Swedish counties of Norrbotten and Västerbotten in north Sweden. The chapter aims to describe the effects of a possible future situation with full scale sportfishing for salmon in northern Sweden. An assessment was made of the aggregate economic effects based on the hypothetical future scenario taking into account the potential amount of salmon returning to the rivers included in our study. The economic estimate is based on a catch amounting to 300 tonnes per year. This return may support an angling activity with approximately 300 000 days in the whole region. Transformed into economic terms this could lead to a total economic impact of about SEK200 million per annum, economic multipliers included.

  • 10.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Green consumption energy use and carbon dioxide emission2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the quantitative potential to reduce energy requirements and CO2 emissions through changed patterns of consumption, given unchanged levels of consumption expenditure.

    The thesis question is analysed using a systems analysis approach which in this case means that life cycle assessment data on energy requirements and CO2 emissions related to household consumption are combined with a financial and behavioural analysis to make sure that the budget constraint is kept and that both the first and second order effects of adopting a green consumption pattern are analysed. The budget constraints are kept using a general linear model. By using marginal propensities to spend to direct the reallocation of saved or deficit money calculated utility is maintained as far as possible. Further, investigations explore the impact of individual household demographic characteristics and geographic context on household consumption patterns, energy requirements and CO2 emissions.

    The key result of this thesis is that changed household behaviour, choosing “green“ products and energy efficient technology will not make a big difference. What can be achieved in the short time perspective by adopting an almost completely green consumption pattern and energy efficient technology is a reduction of energy requirements by around 8% and CO2 emissions by around 13%. With a longer time perspective and further technological change that provides additional possibilities to move consumption patterns in a greener direction, the effect on energy requirements and CO2 emissions is still fairly small. By 2020, the potential to reduce energy requirements is around 13% and CO2 emissions around 25%. In the most extreme scenario (2050), the scope for reducing energy requirements is 17% and for CO2 emissions 30%. All these reductions will be outpaced by growth in income almost as soon as they are implemented.

    Of policy relevance the results reveal that very limited impact can be expected by a policy relying on greener consumption patterns, whether adopted voluntarily or as a result of incentives such as tax changes. Such a policy cannot achieve more than a small and temporary reduction to growth in energy requirements and CO2 emissions. It is also shown that, prescribing specific consumption patterns as a means of reducing energy requirements and CO2 emissions has to be done with care. This is illustrated by one of the experiments in which adopting a partly green consumption pattern, a green diet, in fact increased total energy requirements and CO2 emissions. This, and the results of all the other experiments show the importance of applying a systems approach. It demonstrates that life cycle data alone are irrelevant for assessing the total effects of adopting green consumption patterns. Further research on the potential to reduce energy requirements and CO2 emissions thus primarily needs to better capture system wide effects rather than to improve on, and fine tune the measurement of the energy requirements and CO2 emissions related to individual products.

  • 11. Ali, A
    et al.
    Carson, D.B
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Information and communications technology (ICT) and the challenge of sustainable self-drive tourism2011In: Drive Tourism: Trends and Emerging Markets, Oxfordshire: Routledge , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Post-productivism in rural areas: A contested concept2013In: Natural resources and regional development theory / [ed] Linda Lundmark, Camilla Sandström, Umeå: Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet , 2013, 8-22 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Beyond Post-productivism: From Rural Policy Discource to Rural Diversity2014In: European Countryside, ISSN 1803-8417, E-ISSN 1803-8417, Vol. 6, no 4, 297-306 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a strong discourse in public policy aimed at transforming rural places from venues of primary production into truly diverse socioeconomic landscapes. Yet conceptualisations of the rural as envisioned in the policy and politics of the ‘new economy’ often prove to be elusive on the ground. However, post-productive activity in rural areas has become a major focus for rural studies scholars. This paper investigates the ideas of post-productivism in the existing literature, and argues for a holistic understanding of post-productivism as an idea and political ambition rather than an imperative and irreversible change of rural economic activity. The purpose of the study is to make clear the division between post-productivism and the related concepts of post-production and post-productive activities in order to better understand processes of rural change in relation to different geographical contexts. It is argued that post-productivism as a concept stands apart from de facto post-production and alternative concepts such as multifunctionality and should be regarded as part of broader regional development discourses. The paper outlines several important fields in which post-productivism is a necessary component for rural transformation and development. While it is not always easily captured in indicators or empirical studies in rural locations, post- productivism exists at the level of discourse and planning and thus has real effects on the ground. The paper concludes by offering suggestions on how to apply the concepts of post-productivism, post-production and multifunctionality in future studies. 

  • 14.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Public spending on rural tourism in Sweden2016In: Fennia, E-ISSN 1798-5617, Vol. 194, no 1, 18-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is an important part of rural policies in European countries. An increased demand for rural amenities is seen as creating a more diversified labour market and contributing to the restructuring of the economy, from primary sectors and manufacturing to a more service-oriented economy, which has been termed a "new rural economy". As a result, and as often presented in many policy documents, tourism is now seen as a universal tool for rural development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of public spending on tourism in rural areas in Sweden. It focuses on public spending on the main programme for rural development, the Swedish rural development programme, but also on the regional structural funds programmes, from 2000 to 2013. Another subject of interest is how policy makers understand rural tourism as presented in policy documents since these documents, to a great extent, direct programme spending in terms of projects and their content. This study is based on register data on programme spending, policy documents and programme evaluation reports. Results show that a relatively small amount of total public spending targets tourism – mainly going to accommodation, activities and marketing efforts – indicating that tourism is still not a prioritised area despite policy makers’ understanding of rural tourism as expressed in policy documents. Thus, although public efforts target adequate parts of the tourism industry, they cannot be expected to contribute significantly to the restructuring of the rural economy.

  • 15.
    Amukena Nyqvist, Benjamin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Företagskluster och närhet i Katutura, Namibia: En studie kring småföretag, närhet och klusterfördelar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Economic Geography, there has been a strong interest of how different forms of proximity impacts businesses. In addition, there is also a strong interest in business agglomeration, as a result businesses cluster together through physical proximity, networks and knowledge. In the development sector, there is a strong interest on how to best support the creations and growth of small enterprises.

    This essay emphasises on the business cluster formations in Katutura, a suburb to Windhoek the capital city of Namibia. It oversees the impacts of different types of cluster formations and their effects on the businesses. In addition, this essay will identify the main clusters in Katutura and state what makes them unique from each other and what is a common cluster feature. Furthermore, it will give answers to the questions that follows: How does these forms of clusters influence businesses in Katutura? How are businesses conducted in different clusters? What benefits will the businesses derive from these forms of proximity and clustering?

    The data presented in the essay was collect from different clusters of business with regard to utilities, knowledge and skills, finances, and other important indicators of business wellbeing. The data is used to compare the different clusters and their forms of proximity within them.

    It is then concluded in the essay that the most successful clusters are those that are located at the incubation centres in terms of turn over but not with profit margins. Also, it was observed that these clusters are specialized. Furthermore, it was also observed that businesses seem to invest more in clusters with the highest innovation and diversification. In addition to the concluded observation, it was also observed that there is evolutionary processes amongst the clusters in Katutura such as described in the literature. 

  • 16. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Technology use in Swedish reindeer husbandry through a social lens2017In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 40, no 1, 19-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationalizing production more effectively, technological developments and innovations also have effects on, for example, skills, knowledge and social relations, that connect the specific technique to large processes and rationalities. In the conflict between user rights and ownership rights in northern Sweden, the introduction of new techniques within reindeer husbandry is studied on a local and embodied level. Through observations and interviews, the tension between empowerment and control in their implementation is further explored by utilizing a labor process theoretical framework. The results illustrate a shift in the definition of skills and knowledge, in relation to the use of GPS and GIS, that reshape, reorganize, restructure and embody the labor process of reindeer husbandry and spatial, temporal and ecological relations. Through its production of subjective conditions and dependence, the disciplinary logic of these techniques contributes to shape and enact governable spaces and subjects within the context. Operating as technologies of government, the techniques emphasize the responsibilities of the reindeer herding community and shape their participation, by reinforcing the demand for certain kind of subjectivities and accountability – governmental rationales that contribute to a technologicalization and depoliticizing of policy and conflict managing.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Are You Staying?: A Study of In-movers to Northern Sweden and the Factors Influencing Migration and Duration of Stay2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of the population has multiple implications on regional development and planning. In-migration is frequently seen as the only possible solution in order to rejuvenate the population and stimulate regional development in sparsely populated regions. A population increase results in greater tax revenues, meaning that local authorities can plan for their inhabitants and expenditures in a more sufficient way. In addition, certain professionals are needed in order to support essential local services such as schools and hospitals. Place marketing with the intention of attracting in-movers has become increasingly popular, especially for rural, sparsely populated Swedish municipalities. Still, the outcome from place marketing efforts are dubious and in addition, migration has a temporal aspect and individual migration propensity usually fluctuates over time. This begs the question – how long do in-movers stay? Is there potential for long lasting development in sparsely populated regions connected to in-movers or is it temporary?

    This study focuses on the duration of time until an in-mover re-migrates from Region 8 in northern Sweden and which socioeconomic and demographic factors that influences the out- migration. This is studied by applying an event history method with discrete-time logistic regressions. The study follows individuals in working age that moved to any of nine specified municipalities in Västerbotten and Norrbotten County, sometime between 2000 and 2011. Questions posed for the study is: i) On average, how long did people who moved to Region 8 between the years 2000-2011 stay in the region? ii) What are the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence the out-migration from the region? iii) Do the influencing factors differ between women and men?

    The results show that the time perspective matters as the risk of moving out was highest in the initial years and that it declines with time. 30 % of the sampled in-movers had moved out again within the time of observation, and on average the in-movers stayed for nine years. The regression results indicated that the factors that had the greatest influence on the out- migration was unemployment, being between 20-26 years old, high education, having and unemployed partner, and having children below school age. Women had a slightly lower likelihood of moving out compared to men, and the most prominent influential factor to outmigration that varied between women and men was unemployment. 

  • 18.
    Andersson, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Att kommersialisera och sälja en plats: en analys av resereklam, representationer och geografiska föreställningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pictures are often used when marketing a tourist destination. Photographs of a place, a destination, are used to convince customers and stimulate daydreaming in order to turn a potential customer into a real customer. For some people the photographic representations of a place is the only one they experience. With this in mind, it is reasonable to question how representations of places and geographical imaginations are being (re)produced when marketing a destination by using photographs. This paper aims to study how representations of place and people are used when marketing a tourist destination via travel commercial. The study was conducted by analysing images used for marketing tourist destinations located outside Europe, with a focus on photographs portraying people. The pictures included in this study were found in five travel catalogues for the Swedish market. The sample was narrowed down and reduced to three pictures, which were analysed by using a semiotic image analysis. The study aim to answer the following questions: When marketing a tourist destination how are people in the tourism advertising being presented? In what way can the images that are being used for tourism advertising generate stereotypes about places/people?

    The study indicates that, according to the included sample, the people portrayed in tourism advertising are being presented in a stereotypical manner. 

  • 19.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Profits, dividends and industry restructuring: the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 19772016In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 64, no 3, 278-296 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role of profit distribution in the restructuring of the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 1977. In addressing this issue, we will draw on the life-cycle theory and market imperfection arguments to examine whether the less profitable firms shared more of their profits as dividends, or remained on the market longer by reinvesting the majority of the profits. Our study shows that an increasing share of the profits was distributed to owners over time, and thus less profit was reinvested in industrial renewal. We find that the observed general upward trend in dividends can be attributed to the decline in profit and firm legacy, as firms in the Swedish pulp and paper industry kept dividends up while reducing reinvestment as their profit margins decreased over time. Our study shows that the market imperfections related to capital taxation and investment funds increased rather than decreased dividends.

  • 20.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Hansen, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Var god tag plats - nu går sista bussen2011Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Anne, Ouma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    From Rural Gift to Urban Commodity: Traditional Medicinal Knowledge and Socio-spatial Transformation in the Eastern Lake Victoria Region2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As we celebrate all the dynamic and dramatic improvements in human health care in the 21st century, life in much of Africa begins with and is sustained with the support of traditional medicinal knowledge. Research on traditional medicinal knowledge (TMK) is extensive, but rather few studies have been written about Traditional Healers' (THs') own perceptions about TMK and practices in relation to changing societal dynamics.

    The aim of this thesis is to examine how THs perceive on going socio-spatial transformation, including contemporary processes of urbanization, migration, commercialization and commodification of TMK, as well as changing dynamics of learning and knowledge systems between generations and genders and how these affect their medicinal healing practices in time and space.

    The thesis consists of four main empirical chapters, which derive from different data sources including literature, documentation review and qualitative interview material. The findings in this thesis can be summarised as follows: First that TMK today exists side by side with modern health systems, in what are seen as complex patterns of medical pluralism that provide evidence of an evolving role the TH plays in primary health care, in the rural and urban space. Youthful migrating population dynamics that are linked to historical processes, have effectively carved an emerging cross-sectoral role of the TH in the formal space.

    Secondly the developing legislation on IPR and ABS in parallel with the representation of an earlier official formal governance around TMK in Tanzania; and the difference in the sectors where TMK is anchored in the two contexts, could have paved way to some earlier collaborative mechanisms, that today provide space to enable a more natural engagement between formal and informal organizations involved in the governance of TMK in Tanzania. Thirdly, the practical ways in which TMK learning processes, which are characterized by learning systems in place, being sent and visiting sacred places that are lived by an apprentice over a number of years, have increasingly come under pressure. Fourthly the thesis shows approaches by THs, encouraging the youth to access conventional medicinal education followed by, or in parallel with TMK learned through traditional pedagogies employed by the THs themselves. The youth’s keen interest in learning TMK is seen to increase when they view improved livelihood possibilities due to the commercialization of medicinal plants. The future of TMK learning processes may be limited unless incentives are put in place for the youth regarding their future livelihoods. Fifth, gendered and generational dimensions suggest that older and some younger female THs reemphasize the values of the gift and TMK in a climate of increased commodification and commercialization of TMK, where TMK increasingly meets neoliberal processes, engaging an alternative paradigm than the gift economy, where a predominance of male TH’s in the urban space and places, increasingly define the diversification of the TMK livelihoods. The gift provided by a higher power and which is embedded in a particular cosmological view, to be used as a social service to help the community, is increasingly evolving as an emerging tested force in a changing ideological climate, with an increasing awareness of commodification, commercialization, IPR and ABS issues surrounding TMK. It implies awareness in relation to the increased benefits of commoditized and commercialized medicinal plant knowledge (which THs hold) for other individuals and institutions.

    The TH profession and TMK is seen as entering a contested IPR/ABS arena at a time when increasingly socio-spatial transformations are modifying its role from that of a gift to an owned commodity. However while the practice of TMK has changed over time and space, presenting new challenges as well as opportunities, it is also seen as a threat that anyone today can sell and market TMK products.

  • 22.
    Antomarchi, Véronique
    et al.
    Cerlom-Inalco.
    de la Barre, Suzanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Tourisme et femmes2010In: Teoros, ISSN 1923-2705, Vol. 29, no 2, 87-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    Aujourd’hui, l’importance du genre dans les études portant sur le tourisme n’est plus un sujet nécessitant un débat. En effet, depuis les années 1990, une littérature conséquente montre l’importance du genre dans ce domaine. La relation entre genre et tourisme peut être pensée de différentes façons. Annette Pritchard et Nigel Morgan (2000) reprennent les propositions antérieures de Rao (1995) en affirmant que le lien le plus notable entre le genre et le tourisme provient du fait que le tourisme apparaît comme le produit d’une société «genrée». Le développement du tourisme reflète bien les relations entre les sexes ainsi que leurs variations dans le temps et dans l’espace. Moins d’une décennie plus tard, Pritchard et al. (2007 : 1), tout en montrant le rôle important joué par le féminisme sur la question du genre et du tourisme, se demandent désormais si, à l’ère du postmodernisme, féminisme et analyse de genre ne seraient pas dépassés, voire obsolètes

  • 23.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Case Vindel river area2014In: Through joy: Mapping sporty activities in Norway, Sweden and Finland with a view to enhancing regional attractiveness / [ed] Olli Rosenqvist, Kokkola: University of Jyväskylä, Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius , 2014, 46-64 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    En ny löparvåg i väntan på nästa Vindelälvslopp?2012In: Västerbottens Kuriren, ISSN 1104-0246Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Geografiska institutionen, Umeå universitet.
    Kanada en kontrapunkt på den nordamerikanska kontinenten: några iakttagelser rörande sociostrukturell karaktäristik och kriminalitet1993In: Den vet som vida färdas: reserapport från en kulturgeografisk exkursion i Kanada våren 1993 / [ed] Lars-Erik Borgegård, Umeå, 1993, 255-276 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Kriminalitet och bostadsbyten1995In: Invandrare & Minoriteter, ISSN 0346-6566, no 5, 24-28 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Löparvågen och dess västerbottniska exponent Vindelälvsloppet2010In: Idrott Historia & Samhälle, ISSN 0280-2775, 67-83 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Löpningens masstävlingar: en del av den växande sportturismen2011In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 69, no 2, 94-101 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Moldau - ett stycke musik och en flod mitt i Europa2010In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, no 1, 35-45 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    The spawning salmon as a resource by recreational use : the case of the wild Baltic salmon and conditions for angling in north Swedish rivers2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to analyse the preconditions for increasedsalmon angling in the remaining wild salmon rivers in Upper Norrland in northernSweden, as well as to evaluate the present and possible future impacts on the localeconomy. It includes the identification of the internal and external conditions, in what ishere called the Salmon Utilisation Landscape, that influence the present use as well asfuture development of the Baltic salmon as a resource in angling. The empirical materialsderive from two mail surveys, 1) a survey of anglers in the River Byske and 2) a jointNordic survey on the economic value of recreational fishing.Interest in recreational fishing is widespread in Sweden. About 35 % of adultSwedes fish for recreation. Recreational fishery and angling can be seen as one expressionof the urbanised society's need for contact with nature and outdoor recreation. Salmonangling is one part of recreational fishery. Salmon are considered by many to be the 'biggame' of angling. Salmon anglers are often the most devoted kind of anglers, investingconsiderable resources into this leisure activity. The subgroup of Swedish salmon anglingspecialists is estimated at 10-30,000 persons. The wider category of Active River anglersconsists of approximately 170,000 persons.Salmon fishing in the River Byske has turned out to be representative of salmonangling in Upper Norrland, comparable with other high-class Scandinavian salmon rivers.The growing proportion of remote anglers in the 1990s indicates that the Byske hasbecome a rather specialised angling water. The groups of Fishing tourists and Home fishersmake up two distinctive categories. Fishing tourists fish more intensively, have higher dailyexpenditures and show higher consumer surplus. They fish the river almost entirely forsalmon in. On the other hand, Home fishers to a large extent claim the right to fish fordecent prices and without any particular restrictions. During the 1990s, the average annualincome to the local economy of Byske river valley derived from salmon angling fishingtourism was about 850,000 SEK.Many river habitats have been depleted during the 20th century and many salmonstocks were exterminated by severe degeneration factors linked to industrialisation. To thisis added the over-fishing on wild stocks of salmon and the mortality syndrome, M74. Theavailable estimates of the potential production of wild salmon smolt in Upper Norrlandaggregates close to 1.2 million. This can be converted to an angling activity of some250,000 fishing days.On the basis of the prevailing cost level, the potential angling activity in UpperNorrland would amount to a direct annual turnover of 75 million SEK, however theimpact caused by fishing tourism is likely to remain within the interval of 10 - 30 millionSEK. The Active River anglers' average willingness to pay for annual access to a salmon andsea trout scenario was 1,100 SEK per capita. There is a widespread attitude among manyanglers that fishing should be accessible for all and prices should be kept low. In theNordic context such opinions are especially evident among Swedish anglers in general, butless frequent among devoted salmon anglers.

  • 31.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Vindelälvsloppets uppgång och fall : vad lagledarna tycker i efterhand, en webbaserad enkätstudie2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Alatalo, Marita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Wild Swedish salmon: A regional development resource through recreational use?1998In: Northern waters: Management issues and practice / [ed] David Symes, Oxford: Fishing News Books , 1998, 164-174 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Bengtsson, Bo
    National Board of Fisheries, Sweden.
    Weissglas, Gösta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Regional patterns in Swedish recreational fisheries2003In: Regional Experiences for Global Solutions / [ed] APM Coleman, Darwin, 2003, 39-42 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in Sweden, as in the other Nordic countries, for recreational fishing is widespread. About 35 % of adult Swedes fish for recreation. However, different regional patterns are evident concerning participation, attitudes towards the use of national resources and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for access to recreational fishing. One factor is to be found in the regional differences within Sweden: the population found in rural areas is generally more interested in fishing than people in urban areas. The recreational fishermen in the peripheral areas have, on the other hand, lower relative WTP for their fishing.

    Swedish recreational fisheries is based on roughly 10-20 % of the overall Swedish catch, while the yearly expenditure by recreational fishermen is about three times larger than the value derived from the commercial fisheries in Sweden. In a recent public survey, preservation and environmental issues concerning the overall fish stock was stressed, with the proposition of a general fishing fee in Sweden (long present in the other Nordic countries). The paper is based mainly on analysis of the Swedish component of a large Nordic survey. A comparison is also made with contemporary material from the official Swedish survey on recreational fisheries.

  • 34.
    Arango Nilsson, Emilio
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Kulturens betydelse och effekter som utvecklingsstrategi: En fallstudie om kulturhuvudstadsåret och kulturdriven tillväxt i Umeå2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify how cultural development and the European cultural capital event applies within the context of city development in Umeå. Furthermore, the study aims to examine how the European cultural capital event affects the local cultural actors. The analysis is a case study based upon how local and municipal cultural actors use culture to develop the municipality of Umeå and how the European cultural capital event has affected their work. To answer the aim of the thesis six semi-structured interviews was performed with cultural actors both within the municipality and private sector. This was to get wide-ranging information about cultural development in Umeå. The method to extract information was through thematic analysis of the preformed interviews, this allowed me as researcher to fully analyze the extracted material.

     

    The results of the study reveal that culture permeates city development in Umeå. Primarily the municipality makes great effort to make the city development rich with culture. Despite the effort culture is not a certainty in urban development and it is a constant political struggle to maintain and emphasize the importance of culture in city development. The study revealed that some actors feel that culture has become too commercialized in the municipality’s effort to generate urban growth, especially in the wake of the European capital event. All interviewed actors indicate that the European cultural capital event has had a great impact on their work and working methods. Primarily internal collaborations between the municipality and private cultural actors have been identified as meaningful, due to the many possibilities it brought, for all actors and the lack of collaboration in the post cultural capital Umeå is missed. There is an underlying understanding that all actors want to collaborate again but the lack of resources and common goals interferes. 

  • 35.
    Arbuthnott, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Regional cooperative and competitive forces driving industry cluster development and renewal2011In: Journal of Rural and Community Development, ISSN 1712-8277, E-ISSN 1712-8277, Vol. 6, no 1, 22-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research paper assembles regional industry clusters cooperative and competitive relations into a conceptual framework and reports upon an empirical case study that captured initial developments of a regional biorefinery industry cluster in a peripheral region of Sweden. Key findings from the research illustrate how forces of intra-regional cooperation and inter-regional competition drove the new biorefinery industry clusters development, which in turn aided the peripheral regions renewal efforts. For the development and renewal of regional industry, the role of not-for-profit collaborative organisations is evident. As a result, this single case-study provides new implications for research and practice in specific relation to regional renewal and industry cluster development within peripheral regions.

  • 36.
    Arbuthnott, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Who is a "real" competitor and who is not?: A study of competitive and co-operative dynamics within an emerging Swedish cluster2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to complement prior research on competitive and cooperative dynamics within regional clusters. Through a longitudinal investigation I observed the role cooperation and competition played when large and small firms, located in a traditionally strong but currently struggling region of Sweden, interacted during the establishment of a new industry cluster. Qualitative data, consisting of interviews and documents, were coded into first-order categories, second-order themes, and overarching dimensions. Literature on institutional entrepreneurship was used as an interpretative framework. Subsequently for small and large firms working together in regional cluster initiatives, in which cooperation is a natural component, this single case study suggests that localised and institutionalised competition play a key role in their successive regional clustering trajectories.

  • 37.
    Arbuthnott, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Hannibal, Martin
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Enacting industry cluster renewal through interregional university pipelines2010In: "Entrepreneurship beyond crisis – channelling changes to advantage": ICEIRD 2010, Novi Sad, Serbia: Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how interregional links to universities may renew industry cluster development in a peripheral region. The empirical setting is an automobile testing cluster that emerged, grew and maturing in a remote Swedish region. The findings exemplify that whilst maturing, renewal opportunities were sought through linkages with universities located farther field. It is found that due to an imbalance of motives, challenges in developing the links were experienced. Yet the challenges are found to resolve through what we term an ‘interregional sensemaking process’; resulting in pipelines opening up to renew business activities in the setting. Implications for regional development arise and new avenues for future research are suggested.

  • 38. Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Svanlund, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Mad women: gendered divisions in the Swedish advertising industry, 1930–20122017In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 59, no 2, 268-291 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article constitutes a first attempt to systematically map the presence of women in the greatly changing Swedish advertising industry since 1930. The overarching aim of the study is to analyse how the gendered divisions of labour and business changed in relation to both business structure and the overall labour market in Sweden. While we conclude that women constituted around 40–50% of the workforce over time, we see an increase in the shares of women in higher positions and in women who were self-employed and managers. This upturn, however, stabilised during the 1990s. We argue that the changes in gendered divisions of labour and business coincided with a fast-changing business structure. First, the old cartel broke down in the mid-1960s. Then, the number of firms increased quickly during the 1970s and 1980s, and the market share for the largest firms declined. This, in turn, meant new business opportunities for women at the same time as their overall labour market participation increased. The article stresses the importance of both acknowledging women’s presence in the industry development as well as the structures constituting gender divisions.

  • 39.
    Arnek, Magnus
    et al.
    Transport och Samhälle (ToS), Högskolan Dalarna.
    Eriksson, Per
    Vägverket Region Norr.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Transport och Samhälle (ToS), Högskolan Dalarna.
    Persson, Lars-Olof
    Centrum för forskning om drift och underhåll (CDU), Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Österberg, Richard
    Centrum för forskning om drift och underhåll (CDU), Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Upphandling av drift och vägunderhåll i norra Sveriges inland: Om marknadsförutsättningar och regionala effekter1999Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Asp, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Ett partis framväxt: Sverigedemokraterna, en GIS-analys2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka och förklara hur Sverigedemokraterna har växt i Sverige. Detta för att förstå hur ett nytt parti växer över rummet. Studien syftar även till att förstå vem det är som röstar på Sverigedemokraterna, vad som karaktäriserar deras väljare. 

     

    Studien har utformats som en fallstudie där fokus ligger på att undersöka valåren 2002, 2006 och 2010. Studien undersöker kluster i valresultatet samt vad som gör att väljare röstar på Sverigedemokraterna.

     

    Resultatet av studien visar att det finns en viss grannskapseffekt när partier etablerar sig. Den tidiga tillväxten sker i huvudsak på platsen där paritet uppstod. Även spridningen kan förklaras till viss del av grannskapseffekter. Resultatet visar även att det finns flera socioekonomiska faktorer som påverkar vilket parti som man väljer att rösta på. Den geografiska påverkan har visat sig i form av att befolkningstätheten och det faktum att väljarna bor på landsbygden har en negativ påverkan på valresultatet, medan kommuner som är av typen förortskommuner till större städer har en positiv påverkan på väljarstödet.   

  • 41. Auer, K
    et al.
    Carson, D.B
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    How can general practitioners establish 'place attachment' in Australia's Northern Territory? Adjustment trumps adaptation2010In: Rural and Remote Health, Vol. 10, no 1476, online- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Axelsson, Linn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Emerging topologies of transnational employment: ‘Posting’ Thai workers in Sweden’s wild berry industry beyond regulatory reach2018In: Vol. 89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a need to pay closer attention to the fact that employment is increasingly stretched across several regulatory regimes. This may help explain why governments, which rely on national legislative frameworks, struggle to protect the interests of transnationally mobile low-skilled workers. By adopting a topological approach to state regulation and authority, the paper demonstrates how powerful actors have reconfigured employment in Sweden’s wild berry industry in a spatial sense by engaging transnational subcontractors. It argues that transnational subcontracting inserts distance into employment relationships, thereby creating precarious migrant workers whose simultaneous absence and presence in several regulatory regimes places them partly beyond the regulatory reach of any one nation-state or nationally based trade union. The paper also argues that the Swedish government’s response to precarious working conditions in the wild berry industry can be understood as a series of attempts aimed at bringing transnational employment relationships within its regulatory reach. Drawing on topological spatial vocabulary, it shows how these attempts are less about the movement of state infrastructure into transnational space than about the stretching and folding of space itself, in an attempt to establish a powerful Swedish presence across distance. On the other hand, the paper concludes that transnational subcontracting opens up a space which enables wild berry actors to circumvent regulations and, as such, it remains very difficult for the Swedish government to reach into employment relationships in this industry.

  • 43.
    Azimzadeh, Sarah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    What is Umeå about in 2014?: A Study on Gaps between Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Umeå Brand Identity as a European Capital of Culture in 20142014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During centuries, places and cities have made efforts to make their land more attractive, efficient, democratic and secure. This aspire has accelerated due to globalization and other external factors. Today, there is fierce and global competition between cities and nationalities to create arenas for more investments, productive inhabitants and vibrant culture. The place brand has been a good tool and a key for success. Nevertheless, place branding is challenging; it includes the investment of all stakeholders – possessing different agendas and target markets – and at the same time their coordination and collaborations to ensure there would be no conflicting messages, misusing the place and harming the brand. Therefore, strong collaboration among stakeholders and consistent perceptions – about the city potentials – is substantially important.

    There are debates among scholars to choose the best initiative for involving all the groups, cultures, interests of a society into branding a city and exploit the potential of the city simultaneously. Place branding is a relatively new but growing field of research. The topic is multifaceted and therefore is considered advantageous to study place branding from a stakeholder perspective. In this current study, the stakeholders are viewed as the actors that are engaged in the act of presenting Umeå based on the cultural potential of the city during its hosting the European Capital of Culture event in 2014. Based on the purpose and research problems of this thesis, it is aimed to provide a framework to examine the gaps between the stakeholders’ perceptions about their city cultural potential during a cultural event.

    For this qualitative research, a single case study design is used and eight stakeholders – divided in two main groups – are identified for the data gathering by using in-depth interviews. The identity-reputation gap model is used as an analytical tool and gives guidance to the research.

    This study fills other research gaps by contributing with an understanding of the stakeholder’s role by studying place branding in the context of a mid-size city. With regard to the empirical contribution, this study offers a range of insights for Umeå – the image and the branded potential of the city – and findings can be regarded as a starting point for brand managers as well as cultural coordinators working to develop the place brand identity consistently in other contexts.

  • 44.
    Back, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. Umeå University.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Mapping an invisible population: the uneven geography of second-home tourism2017In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 19, no 4, 596-611 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second-home tourism is a very popular form of tourism in many countries, particularly in the Nordic countries. More than half of the Swedish population have access to second homes. Previous studies have revealed that there is great variation between different second homes. Examples range from rustic Australian shacks, lonely cabins in the Norwegian mountains, spacious Swedish archipelago villas and palatial Russian dachas. Still, second homes are often seen and analysed as a unitary category – a perspective that obscures the considerable heterogeneity within the category as well as spatial differences in the impact of second-home tourism. Using a second-home typology from previous research and data on about 660,000 second homes, we analyse the heterogeneity of second homes by mapping the composition of the Swedish second-home stock. Results show the uneven geography of second-home tourism, revealing significant and sometimes steep differences between peripheral areas and urban hinterlands, tourism hot-spots, and areas in decline. Based on these results, we assert that there is good cause to move away from using second homes as a unitary category. Instead, we argue for viewing second homes as an umbrella concept with dwelling use in focus. This enables a greater sensibility to place and more accurate analyses of the uneven impacts of second-home tourism. The results also give greater insights into the impact of the ‘invisible population’ of second-home owners from a public planning perspective.

  • 45.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nuclear power policy as a differential game2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines nuclear energy output in a differential game framework involving two countries. The countries differ regarding nuclear technology with one being relatively safe and the other less safe. Simulation of a numerical model gives the following results, (i) A cooperative agreement will imply less use of nuclear energy compared with both a noncooperative Nash equilibrium and an uncontrolled market solution, (ii) The country with relatively safe nuclear energy technology benefits most from a cooperative solution, (iii) Starting from an uncontrolled market economy, an agreement between the countries to introduce taxation of nuclear energy will be beneficial for both countries. However, by starting from the noncooperative Nash equilibrium, an agreement to slightly increase the nuclear energy taxes will be most beneficial for the country with less safe nuclear energy technology.

  • 46.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the role of green taxes in social accounting: a numerical analysis2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses social accounting numerically in a dynamic general equilibrium model. The main purposes are to study: (i) whether emission taxes based on static willingness to pay information can be used to improve the welfare level, and; (ii) whether these taxes provide close enough approximations of the correct Pigou-vian emission tax to be useful in the context of social accounting. The results indicate that, if environmental quality is relatively linear with respect to pollution, the approximation of the Pigouvian emission tax will bring the economy close to the socially optimal solution and, at the same time, provide a close approximation of the value of net investments in environmental capital.

  • 47.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Welfare measurement, externalities and Pigouvian taxation in dynamic economies2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of five papers.

    Paper [1] analyzes one possible way of replacing dynamic Pigouvian taxes by a static approximation of such taxes from the point of view of social accounting. The idea is to approximate a Pigouvian emission tax by using the instantaneous marginal willingness to pay to reduce the stock of pollution. If this approximation is close enough to the correct Pigouvian tax it will be useful for at least two reasons: (i) it brings the economy close to the socially optimal solution; and (ii) it provides information relevant for social accounting by closely approximating the value of additions to the stock of pollution.

    Paper [2] analyzes the welfare effects of an agreement between countries to slightly increase their emission taxes. The results indicate that such an agreement need not necessarily increase the global welfare level, even if each individual country has set its prereform emission tax to be lower than the marginal social cost of pollution.

    Paper [3] provides an economic framework for analyzing the global warming problem, emphasizing the use of forests as a means of carbon sequestration. We explore the difference between the decentralized economy and the socially optimal resource allocation, and discuss the appropriate tax system required to implement the first best optimum.

    Paper [4] incorporates the uncertainty involved in the production of nuclear energy into a dynamic general equilibrium growth model. We compare the resource allocation in the decentralized economy with the socially optimal resource allocation and design the dynamic Pigouvian taxes that make the decentralized economy reproduce the socially optimal resource allocation.

    Paper [5] treats externalities from nuclear power in a dynamic differential game framework involving two countries, which differ with regard to their nuclear technology. The model is solved numerically, where one country is considered relatively safe and the other relatively less safe.

  • 48.
    Backsell, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Kan lokal tillväxt och regionförstoring gå hand i hand?: En studie om  Motala kommuns strategier för ökad attraktivitet och lokala utveckling2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 49. Barakat, B
    et al.
    Carson, D.B
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Taylor, A
    Basu, R
    Wang, L
    Education, remoteness and population dynamics2011In: Demography at the Edge: Remote human populations in developed nations, Farnham, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing Ltd , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Batten, David F.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Grozev, George V.
    Managing energy futures and greenhouse gas emissions with the help of agent-based simulation2008In: Changing Stocks, Flows And Behaviors In Industrial Ecosystems / [ed] Matthias Ruth , Brynhildur Davidsdottir, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2008, 101-121 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
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