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  • 1.
    Henriksson, Peteris Timofejevs
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Europeanization of Foreign-Aid Policy in Central and East Europe: The Role of EU, External Incentives and Identification in Foreign-Aid Policy Adoption in Latvia and Slovenia 1998-20102015In: Journal of European Integration, ISSN 0703-6337, E-ISSN 1477-2280, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 433-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article enters in dialogue with the findings of the 'Europeanization East' literature that the Central and Eastern European countries adjusted to the European Union (EU) policies due to the overwhelming effect of the EU pre-accession conditionality. It is examined here whether this conclusion also applies to the foreign-aid policy adoption in two candidate states: Slovenia and Latvia. Also, the post-accession performance is studied to draw conclusions about what factors can account for the continuation of the policy evolution from 2004 to 2010. It is argued here that EU conditionality was present also in the foreign-aid policy area, but it was vague and not the only factor that mattered. Moreover, it is claimed here that identification and social influence can explain why the countries adopted foreign-aid policy in the pre-accession period and why they continued the policy even after accession.

  • 2.
    Timofejevs Henriksson, Peteris
    Södertörn University; Stockholm University.
    Latvia: impact of the European Union and the financial crisis2015In: Development cooperation of the "new" EU member states: beyond Europeanization / [ed] Ondře Horký-Hlucháň, Simon Lightfoot, Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 151-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter aims to analyse the evolution of Latvia’s development cooperation policy (here called development policy) in the first decade of the 21st century, focusing particularly on how Latvia adjusted to the so-called ‘Barcelona acquis’ in the field of financing for development.1 In order to understand the evolution deeper, the chapter covers the period 2000–2014, describing also the role of EU accession in the very formative stages of Latvia’s development policy (2000–2004).

  • 3.
    Timofejevs Henriksson, Peteris
    Södertörn university.
    The europeanisation of Latvia's public policy: the case of foreign aid policy, 2004-20102017In: Latvia - a work in progress?: 100 years of state- and nation-building / [ed] David J Smith, Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2017, p. 205-223Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Timofejevs Henriksson, Peteris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    "You Cannot Sell It": Initiation and Implementation of Latvian Development Co-operation Policy (2000-2010)2013In: Konowledge and Policy Change / [ed] Henriks Lindberg, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013, p. 201-2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Timofejevs Henriksson, Péteris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Europeanisation of Foreign Aid Policy: Slovenia and Latvia 1998-20102013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 2000s when several Central and East European countries (CEECs) negotiated their accession to the European Union (EU), they introduced foreign aid policy despite most of them being aid recipient countries at the time. This thesis seeks to explain the evolution of foreign aid policy in two Central and Eastern European countries that took divergent paths in adopting the policy, Slovenia and Latvia. While Slovenia evolved into a relatively active donor country among the CEECs, Latvia’s aid policy developed relatively slowly and aid allocations were smaller.

    The thesis approaches this subject from the perspective of the ‘Europeanisation East’ literature that seeks to explain policy adoption in the CEECs in terms of EU influence. The literature is divided on how to explain the policy adoption processes in the CEECs. Rationalists, on the one hand, stress the role played by external incentives, in particular the conditions the EU imposed on the CEECs for them to be admitted to the EU, known as EU conditionality. Rationalists also note the role of domestic veto players who can delay or even stop adoption of the policy if it incurs high adoption costs upon them. Constructivists, on the other hand, explain policy adoption in terms of identification and social influence, policy resonance, or the presence of influential norm entrepreneurs. In an important study, Schimmelfennig and Sedelmeier (2005) concluded that most of the policy adoption processes can be explained by the overwhelming influence of EU conditionality, thus downplaying constructivist explanations. This thesis examines whether their finding can be applied to the adoption of foreign aid policy in the preaccession period (1998-2004). It focuses on the role of EU as well as domestic factors in the policy adoption processes. It then explores what factors account for further developments in the policy adoption processes in the period after the CEECs acceded to the EU (2004-2010).

    The empirical basis of this study consists of a series of interviews with policy makers and civil society representatives in the two countries. The findings in these interviews have been checked against and triangulated with an encompassing examination of policy documents and archival material. The main findings about the pre-accession period indicate that EU conditionality indeed played an important role in foreign aid policy adoption, but so did identification and social influence. Hence policy adoption costs and the efforts of veto players could not delay policy adoption. In the post-accession period, it is argued here, the further policy adoption processes can largely be explained by identification and social influence. Nevertheless, veto players and adoption costs, as well as policy resonance, did emerge as constraining factors in the policy processes. All in all, the thesis argues that the policy adoption processes can be explained best by a combination of both Constructivist and Rationalist theories and that role of domestic factors should not be neglected in research into EU influence on the new member states.

  • 6.
    Timofejevs Henriksson, Péteris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The (Subtly) Questioned Love: A Love Exile in Sweden2011In: Signs (Chicago, Ill.), ISSN 0097-9740, E-ISSN 1545-6943, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 806-811Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, I reflect on my experiences of living as an openly gay man in two seemingly different cultures: Latvia and Sweden. Latvia is a heterocracy where the supremacy of heterosexual people is symbolically embodied in the constitution. It is an explicitly homophobic environment where members of the LGBT community, if they are open about their sexual orientation, can encounter physical violence. Sweden, on the other hand, is praised for being sexually progressive, and the marriage laws are, in contrast to Latvia, gender neutral. However, I argue that both societies are ruled by heteronormativity, requiring that LGBT persons adapt their lifestyles to the main tenets of the heterosexual normative model of cohabitation, and that the difference between the two is only in the degree of the adaptations required.

  • 7.
    Timofejevs Henriksson, Péteris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Underground otherness: Homosexuals in Soviet Latvia2013In: Journal of Baltic Studies, ISSN 0162-9778, E-ISSN 1751-7877, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 111-113Article, book review (Other academic)
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